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Laboratory:
Genome & Populations, UPR9060 CNRS, University Montpellier II, Montpellier, France.
Contact person (name and e-mail):
Patrick Berrebi (berrebi@crit.univ-monp2.fr)
Persons working on brown trout population genetics:
Didier Aurelle, Patrick Berrebi, Anne Chenuil
General research topics of the laboratory:
Genetic population structure, conservation and management, phylogeography.
General description of research on brown trout population genetics:
In our laboratory, we analyse the natural structure of populations and their evolution, including their organisation in space and time, their genetic disequilibria due to natural or human causes. We concentrate on southern populations of France including Corsica, Mediterranean and Atlantic basins. However, as French rivers have nearly all been intensively stocked for at least half a century, the domestic form of brown trout is always present. The distinction between domestic and natural alleles is the most important requirement in order to be able to analyse the natural evolution. Moreover, the study of genetic interactions between these different forms presents a theoretical interest. On the other hand, analysing stocking impact gives an important by-product which permits collaboration with the rivers managers. Biogeography is also an important field of research to link local peculiarities to species evolution at a continental scale. Allozymes are the basic marker which was applied to all our samples and is used as a logical link among all the programs. Microsatellites and mtDNA markers are used when necessary: the first for local acute analyses of populations, the second for biogeography or for distinguishing between male/female participation in reproduction.

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List of projects (brown trout) for the past 3 years:

 

Study #1
Researcher: Dominique Beaudou (thesis student), Chantal Poteaux (thesis student), Patrick Berrebi (supervisor), Francois Bonhomme (co-supervisor)
Collaborators: Rene Guyomard
Source of project funding: EC program (1993-1996) and local grants.
Topic: Stocking effects and efficiency, introgression, gene diversity and gene flow, temporal variation.
Objective: It was the first analysis of natural Mediterranean populations with estimation of genetic structure along a small river (the Orb) near Montpellier, in terms of upstream/downstream, tributary/main river and time organisation. Stocking effect was one of the structuring parameter.
Design: Two tributaries and the main river, two periods of sampling (1991 and 1993), local fishfarm stocks analysed as reference, three molecular markers, most often analysed on the same individuals : the data permitted a good understanding of the populationnal mechanism and the stocking disturbance assessment.
Methodology: Allozymes, mtDNA RFLP, microsatellites.
Trout population: Hatchery stocks and resident populations.
Origin of samples: France, Mediterranean Basin.
Status: Started 1989 and completed in 1996.

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Study #2
Researcher: Patrick Berrebi
Collaborators: Alain Crivelli (Tour-du-Valat foundation, France), Jean Francois Rubin (Switzerland), Dusan Jesensek (Tolmin manager, Slovenia), Meta Povz (Ljubljana Institute of Fisheries, Slovenia)
Source of project funding: EC grant managed by A.C.
Topic: Stocking effects and introgression, genetic monitoring, gene diversity and gene flow, natural hybridisation, temporal variation.
Objective:

First phase: description of the genetic composition of trout of Soca River in Slovenia (Isonzo in Italy) which is composed of the autochtone marble trout populations (S. marmoratus), the natural (Danube tributaries capture) and stocked Mediterranean S. trutta and the stocked Atlantic S. trutta. This include the research of pure marble trout populations.

Second phase: re-introduction of the marble trout to reduce the foreign alleles proportion and try to restore natural wild populations. Experimentations with genetic controls.

Design: Based on allozymes (phase 1), 7 pure populations of marble trout have been found which is now the basis of a fish farm train to be used for rehabilitation.
Methodology: Allozymes, microsatellites.
Trout population: Hatchery stocks, resident populations.
Origin of samples: Adriatic Sea Basin (Slovenia).
Status: Project started in 1993, phase 1 completed in 1996, phase 2 to be completed in 2005.

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Study #3
Researcher: Didier Aurelle, Patrick Berrebi
Collaborators: Philippe Baran and Jean Marc Lascaux (ENSAT ecologists, Toulouse-France), Daniel Chessel (statistician, Lyon-France), Sovan Lek (statistician, Toulouse)
Source of project funding: Local and national rivers managers in the Pyrenees and EC grants.
Topic: Stocking effects and efficiency, introgression, gene diversity and gene flow.
Objective: The Pyrenees are a very important area for the study of trout evolution: at the limit between the modern and ancestral Atlantic forms, joining the Mediterranean form and the Atlantic two forms. The objective is to describe the populations distribution (micro-biogeography), the natural and artificial introgressions because the domestic trout can be considered as the fourth taxon involved.
Design: The main difficulty to solve was the calibration of the microsatellite marker. To take into account the homoplasy, statistical methods as multidimensional analyses and neural networks.
Methodology: Microsatellites, allozymes, mtDNA RFLP.
Trout population: Hatchery stocks, resident and anadromous populations.
Origin of samples: Atlantic Basin, France.
Status: Ancient collaboration (1991-1995), it correspond now to the thesis of D. Aurelle (1995-1999).

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Study #4
Researcher: Marion Jacolin (training stage 1998), Didier Aurelle, Patrick Berrebi
Collaborators: Louis Bernatchez
Source of project funding: Local river managers grants and EC
Topic: Phylogeography, stocking efficiency.
Objective: We prepare a geographic map of the genetic composition of a lot of southern France populations from the Pyrenees to the Alps mountains. Foreign populations are used as outgroups. Phylogenetic trees are reconstructed.
Design: The allozymic data are yet available due to the project 5 by-products. Four main groups are found: modern Atlantic (north), ancestral Atlantic (south), Mediterranean and Corsican. The marble trout, used as outgroup, is in fact close to the Mediterranean. The mtDNA geographic map and phylogrammes are in project.
Methodology: Allozymes, mtDNA sequencing (D-loop).
Trout population: Hatchery stocks, resident populations.
Origin of samples: Mainly France: North Sea Basin and Mediterranean Sea Basin and Slovenia/Italy, Adriatic Sea Basin.
Status: Began with the project 5 in 1989, the second phase (mtDNA) is beginning with the training stage of Marion Jacolin.

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Study #5
Researcher: Patrick Berrebi
Source of project funding: Commercial commands
Topic: Stocking effects and efficiency.
Objective: Answer to managers questions as research of pure wild populations and assessment of stocking efficiency.
Design: Stocking is generally inefficient and genetic analyses often designate the populations wild enough for an effort of preservation. Nevertheless, locally, some stations are strongly introgressed and some are pure domestic populations in nature. The numerous analyses are used for the study 4.
Methodology: Allozymes, mtDNA RFLP.
Trout population: Hatchery stocks, resident populations.
Origin of samples: Atlantic Basin and Mediterranean Sea Basin (France).
Status: The analyses for management purposes started from 1990 up to now and will continue...

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Publications (brown trout genetics)

Journal papers:

  • Aurelle, D., and P. Berrebi. (1998). Microsatellite markers and management of brown trout Salmo trutta fario populations in south-western France. Gén.Sél. Evol. in press.
  • Beaudou, D., G. Cattanéo-Berrebi, and P. Berrebi (1994). Impacts génétiques des repeuplements en truites communes (Salmo trutta L.) sur les populations en place : cas du bassin de l'Orb (Hérault). Bulletin Français de Pêche et de Pisciculture 332, 83-92.
  • Berrebi, P. (1997). Génétique et pêche de loisir. T.O.S. 181, 6-11.
  • Berrebi, P. (1997). Introduction d'espèces dans les milieux aquatiques d'eau douce: les impacts génétiques. Bulletin Français de Peche et Pisciculture 344/345, 471-487.
  • Berrebi, P. (1997). Les souches locales de truites fario - Le point sur la question. T.O.S. 182: 4-8.
  • Berrebi, P., and D. Beaudou. (1991). Le génétique des populations appliquée à la truite fario. Pages 5-19. Journée technique internationale "Truite commune pyrénéenne". Génétique et repeuplement. Communauté de Travail des Pyrénées, Oronoz (Navarre, Espagne).
  • Poteaux, C., D. Beaudou, and P. Berrebi. (1998). Temporal variations of genetic introgression in stocked brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations. J. Fish Biol. in press.
  • Poteaux, C., and P. Berrebi (1997). Intégrité génomique et repeuplements chez la truite commune du versant méditerranéen. Bulletin Français de Peche et Pisciculture 344/345, 309-322.
  • Poteaux, C., F. Bonhomme, and P. Berrebi (1998). Differences between nuclear and mitochondrial introgressions of brown trout populations from a restocked main river and its unrestocked tributary. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, in press

Technical Reports:

  • Belaud, A., and P. Berrebi. 1992. Etude des truites sauvages des Pyrénées, Toulouse.
  • Berrebi, P. 1995. Analyse génétique de 29 truites du lac d'Annecy. Pages 5p. Université Montpellier II.
  • Berrebi, P. 1995. Analyse génétique des truites de Slovénie. Rapport final. Pages 13. Université Montpellier II, Montpellier.
  • Berrebi, P. 1995. Analyse génétique des truites fario des rivières méditerranéennes des Pyrénées françaises; marqueurs enzymatiques. Rapport de synthèse 1995. Pages 17. Université Montpellier II, Montpellier.
  • Berrebi, P. 1995. Etude génétique des truites de Corse. Rapport final 1995. Pages 36. Université Montpellier II.
  • Berrebi, P. 1995. Etude génétique des truites des affluents du Haut Hérault : Vis, Brèze, Laurounet, Lergue et Soulondre. Rapport technique. Pages 7. Université Montpellier II.
  • Berrebi, P. 1995. Etude génétique des truites fario de la Sorgue. Rapport final. Pages 8. Université Montpellier II, Montpellier.
  • Berrebi, P. 1995. Nouveaux marqueurs génétiques et gestion de la truite fario. Rapport 1994. Pages 32p. Université Montpellier II.
  • Berrebi, P. 1996. Analyses allozymiques des truites corses dans le cadre du protocole n°1165 du CSP (8° délégation) : Etude de deux cours d'eau corses dévastés par les crues : la Solenzara et l'Ortolo. Suivi de la recolonisation par les populations de truite. Rapport décembre 1996. Université Montpellier II.
  • Berrebi, P. 1996. Nouveaux marqueurs génétiques et gestion de la truite fario. Raport final 1996. Pages 17p. Université Montpellier II.
  • Berrebi, P. 1997. Analyse enzymatique des truites du bassin de l'Aude. Université Montpellier II, Montpellier.
  • Berrebi, P. 1997. Application des marqueurs microsatellitaires aux populations de truites des Pyrénées - Rapport de l'année 1996. Université Montpellier II.
  • Berrebi, P. 1997. Biodiversité génétique des truites fario des bassins de l'Adour, la nivelle et l'Untxin - Marqueurs allozymiques - Rapport de janvier 1997. Université Montpellier II.
  • Berrebi, P. 1997. Truite fario pyrénéenne - Cartographie génétique de la biodiversité naturelle - Analyse allozymique et microsatellitaire des peuplements des Pyrénées Atlantiques - Rapport final 1995-1996. Université Montpellier II.
  • Berrebi, P., D. Aurelle, and M. Weber. 1998. Application des marqueurs microsatellitaires aux populations de truites des Pyrénées - Rapport de janvier 1998. Université Montpellier II.
  • Povz, M., D. Jesensek, P. Berrebi, and A. J. Crivelli. 1996. The Marble trout, Salmo trutta marmoratus, Cuvier 1817 in the Soca River basin, Slovenia. Tour du Valat Publication.

Theses (eg, PhD and MSc theses):

  • Aurelle, D. 1996. Différenciation génétique chez la truite commune (Salmo trutta fario L.) des Pyrénées-Atlantiques. Apport des microsatellites. Pages 50. DEA thesis Montpellier II.
  • Beaudou, D., 1993. Impact des déversements de truites domestiques dans les populations naturelles de truites communes (Salmo trutta fario). Etude dynamique et génétique. Cas du bassin de l’Orb (Hérault).
  • Poteaux, C. 1992. Devenir des alevins de truite commune (Salmo trutta fario L.) déversés expérimentalement dans la tes (affluent de l'Orb). Etude dynamique et génétique. DEA Thesis Université de Montpellier II, Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc.
  • Poteaux, C. 1995. Interactions génétiques entre formes sauvages et formes domestiques chez la truite commune (Salmo trutta fario L.). Pages 110p. thesis Université Montpellier II, Montpellier.

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