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Laboratory:
Laboratoire de génétique des poissons, Département d’Hydrobiologie et Faune Sauvage, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique.
Contact person (name and e-mail):
Guyomard René, guyomard@jouy.inra.fr
Persons working on brown trout population genetics:
R. Guyomard, F. Krieg, X. Rognon, A. Estoup, B. Angers. Also involved in brown trout: K. Gharbi and M. Andriamanga (Gene Mapping), B. Chevassus (Quantitative Genetics).
General research topics of the laboratory:
Phylogeography, conservation and management, genetic population structure, reproduction biology, quantitative genetics and gene mapping.
General description of research on brown trout population genetics:
The laboratory of fish genetics comprises 19 permanent researchers, technicians and administratives. It has been involved for 20 years in population and evolutionary genetics, quantitative genetics, experimental cytogenetics and gene transfert.

Species of interest are primarly salmonids, but also tilapias, catfish and marine fish. Our research activity has applied objectives: (1) conservation and management of natural populations (2) monitoring of genetic variation and selective breeding in domesticated stocks. Most of the population genetics work has been devoted to brown trout.

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List of projects (brown trout) for the past 3 years:

 

Study #1
Researcher: Pablo Presa-Martinez (Ph D student), Arnaud Estoup and René Guyomard
Source of project funding: European Communities, Bureau des Ressources Génétiques.
Topic: Phylogeography, gene diversity and gene flow.
Objective: To study macrogeographic variation of microsatellites loci in brown trout across its native range.
Design: Samples from many remote localities have been analysed with ten microsatellite loci. Different computations have done to evaluate the sampling strategy. This work is related to a similar work done with isozymes and mtDNA.
Methodology: Microsatellites.
Trout population: Hatchery stocks, resident and anadromous populations.
Origin of samples: Atlantic Basin, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Aral and Euphrate.
Status: Almost completed.

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Study #2
Researcher: Carlo R. Largiadèr
Collaborators: René Guyomard and Arnaud Estoup, Laboratoire de Génétique des Poissons, INRA, F- 78352 Jouy-en-Josas (France). Alexis Champignuelle; Station d'Hydrobiologie Lacustre, INRA, F-74203 Thonon-les-Bains (France).
Source of project funding: Bureau National des Ressources Génétiques (France), Swiss National Science Foundation & in house.
Topic: Reproduction biology.
Objective: To study polyandry, intraspecific redd superimposition and assortative mating between native and introduced trout.
Design: Polyandrous redds were detected and analysed based on the genotype composition of egg samples and on the corresponding maternal genotype. Redd superimposition and assortative mating between native and introduced trout were assessed by analysing the distribution of egg-genotypes within and among a large number of redds, respectively.
Methodology: Microsatellites, mtDNA RFLP.
Trout population: Resident populations.
Origin of samples: France, Mediterranean Sea Basin.
Status: Started in 1995 during C.R.L.'s postdoctoral stay at the Laboratoire de Génétique des Poissons (INRA) in Jouy-en-Josas (France).

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Study #3
Researcher: Carlo R. Largiadèr.
Collaborators: René Guyomard and Arnaud Estoup, Laboratoire de Génétique des Poissons, INRA, F- 78352 Jouy-en-Josas (France). Alexis Champigneulle; Station d'Hydrobiologie Lacustre, INRA, F-74203, Thonon-les-Bains (France).
Source of project funding: Swiss National Science Foundation & in house (INRA and University of Bern).
Topic: Stocking effects and introgression.
Objective: To study cytonuclear introgression patterns on a microgeographic scale in a stocked population.
Design: A small creek (2.5km) was divided into 14 sectors of about equal length and trout samples from each sector and three reference samples from the main river were genetically analysed and compared.
Methodology: Microsatellites, mtDNA RFLP.
Trout population: Resident population.
Origin of samples: France, Mediterranean Sea Basin.
Status: Started in 1995 during C.R.L.s postdoctoral stay at the Laboratoire de Génétique des Poissons (INRA) in Jouy-en-Josas (France) and will be completed in 1998.

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Study #4
Researcher: Arnaud Estoup, René Guyomard
Collaborators: Carlo Largiader (University of Berne), Jean-Marie Cornuet (INRA)
Source of project funding: Bureau des Ressources Génétiques.
Topic: Stocking effects and efficiency.
Objective: To develop and validate molecular markers to assess accurately introgression between domesticated and native populations.
Design: Development of specific microsatellite markers; experimal and theoretical validation.
Methodology: Microsatellites.
Trout population: Hatchery stocks and resident populations.
Origin of samples: France, Mediterranean Sea Basin.
Status: Almost completed.

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Study #5
Researcher: Karim Gharbi (Ph D student), René Guyomard
Collaborators: Borjn Hoyheim (Norvegian College of Veterinary Medecine), Lars-Erik Holm (Danish Institute of Animal Sciences), Richard Powell (University of Galway), John Taggart (University of Stirling), Roy Danzman (University of Guelph)
Source of project funding: European Communities (FAIR Programme).
Topic: Quantitative genetics and gene mapping.
Objective: Development of low density genetic maps and Comparative mapping between three salmonid species (Atlantic salmon, Rainbow trout and Brown trout).
Design: Isolation and characterisation of microsatellite markers, generation of segregation data in reference families and linkage analysis.
Methodology: Microsatellites.
Trout population: Hatchery and resident populations.
Origin of samples: Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea Basins.
Status: Ongoing.

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Study #6
Researcher: Agostinho Antunes (PhD. Student), Paulo Alexandrino (supervisor)
Collaborators: René Guyomard (co-supervisor)
Source of project funding: MCT, Portugal, INRA.
Topic: Phylogeography.
Objective: Study of the phylogeny and genetic structure of Portuguese populations; comparison of phylogenies obtained with allozyme and microsatellite loci; confirmation of actual hypothesis about postglacial colonization’s; studies about the genealogy of some particular genes.
Design: A common battery of protein and microsatellite loci will be used to analyze several brown trout populations covering the all range of distribution of this species in Portugal. The inclusion of other European populations, both from Atlantic and Mediterranean group, will allow a deeper knowledge of the phylogeny of Iberian Atlantic populations. The study of highly polymorphic loci, such as microsatellites and some protein loci analysed by IEF separation techniques, will permit a more correct evaluation of genetic population structure at a microgeographic scale. If possible, ancestrally of alleles from more important protein loci in brown trout studies (e.g. TF), will be determined by sequencing and determination of mutations involved in allelic variants.
Methodology: Allozymes (inclusion of IEF techniques), microsatellites, nDNA sequencing (TF gene).
Trout population: Resident populations.
Origin of samples: Atlantic Basin (north-west Iberian Peninsula), North Sea Basin, Mediterranean Basin.
Status: Started in 1997, planning to finish in 2001.

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Publications (brown trout genetics)

Journal papers:

  • Bernatchez, L., Guyomard, R., Bonhomme, F. (1992) DNA sequence variation of the mithochondrial control region among geographically and morphologically remote European brown trout (Salmo trutta, L.) populations. Mol. Ecol., 1, 161-173.
  • Estoup, A., Presa-Martinez, P., Krieg, F., Vaiman, D., Guyomard, R. (1993). (CT)n and (GT)n microsatellites : a new class of genetic markers for Salmo trutta L.(brown trout). Heredity, 71, 488-496.
  • Giuffra, E., Bernatchez, L., Guyomard, R. (1994). Mitochondrial control region and protein coding genes sequence variation among phenotypic forms of brown trout, Salmo trutta L., from Northern Italy. Mol. Ecol. 3, 161-171.
  • Presa-Martinez, P., Krieg, F., Estoup, A., Guyomard, R. (1994) Diversité et gestion génétique de la truite commune : apport de l'étude du polymorphisme des locus protéiques et microsatellites. Génét. Sel. Evol. 26 suppl. 1, 183-202.
  • Giuffra, E., Guyomard, R., Forneris, G. (1996). Phylogenetic relationships and introgression pattern between incipient parapatric species of Italian brown trout (Salmo trutta L. complex). Mol.Ecol., 5, 207-220.
  • Largiader, C. R., Scholl, A., Guyomard, R. (1996). The role of natural and artificial propagation on the genetic diversity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) of the upper Rhône drainage. In: Advances in Life Sciences: Endangered freshwater fish in Europe (eds Kirchhofer A, Heefti D.). Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel. 5: 181-197.
  • Presa, P., Guyomard, R. (1996). Conservation of microsatellites in three species of salmonids. J. Fish Biol., 49, 1326-1329.
  • Largiader, C. R., Guyomard, R., Roche, P. (1996). Mise en évidence de la reproduction naturelle du saumon atlantique (Salmo Salar L.) dans un affluent français du rhin par analyse génétique d’oeufs prélevés dans des frayères. Bulletin français de pêche et de pisciculture, 343, 13-188.
  • Estoup, A., Rousset, F., Michalakis, Y., Cornuet, J.M., Andriamanga, M., Guyomard, R. (1998). Comparative analysis of microsatellite and allozyme markers: a case study investigating microgeographic differentiation in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Mol. Ecol., 7, 339-353.
  • Chevassus, B., Krieg, F., Guyomard, R., Blanc, J. M., Quillet, E. (1992). The genetics of the brown trout : twenty years of French research. Workshop on Aquaculture of Artic Char and Brown Trout, 1991, Fludir, Iceland. Buvisindi Icel. Agr. Sci., 6, 109-124.
  • Guyomard, R. (1993). Methods to describe fish stocks. Symposium on Genetic Conservation of Salmonid Fishes, Moscow/Pullman (USA), J. G.Cloud and G.H. Thorgaard eds, Plenum Press.
  • Guyomard, R. (1997). Consequences of fish introduction in absence of reproductive isolation: interests and limits of the experimental aproach (in French). Séminaire sur les introductions d’espèces dans les mileux aquatiques continentaux en métropole, Paris, february 96. Bulletin français de pêche et de pisciculture, 344/345, 301-308.
  • Guyomard, R. (1994). Description et gestion des ressources génétiques des poissons dulcaquicoles: l’exemple de la truite commune. Atti del 5° convegno nazionale. Associazione italiana ittiologi acque dolci, Montecchio Maggiore, October 94, pp3-16.

Theses (eg, PhD and MSc theses):

  • Estoup, A. (1992). Cloning and sequencing of specific microsatellite loci for studying genetic variation in Brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). DEA. In French.
  • Giuffra, E. (1993). Genetic identification and phylogeny of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations of the Pô Basin. Ph D thesis. In Italian.
  • Presa, P. (1995). Genetic determinism and polymorphism of microsatellite sequences of Salmo trutta and related salmonid species:. Comparison with protein loci. Ph D thesis. In French.
  • Gharbi, K. (1997). Conservation of microsatellite sequences in Salmonids. Application to comparative genetic mapping. DEA. In French.
  • Lecerf, F. (1997). Evidence of polyandry in Brown trout using microsatellite markers. In French.

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