Browse the brown trout reference database (contributions and corrections are welcome)
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  • La Voie, W. J. I. and W. A. Hubert (1997). Late summer and fall use of stream margins by young-of year brown trout in a high-elevation stream. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 12 (2): 291-302.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H. (1988). Otolith shape discriminates between juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. J Fish Biol 33 (6): 899-904.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H. (1991). Variation within and between rivers in adult size and sea age at maturity of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48 (6): 1015-1021.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H. (1994). Effects of smolt age, sex and environmental conditions on sea age at first maturity of anadromous brown trout, Salmo trutta, in Norway. Aquaculture. 121 (1-3): 65-71.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H. (1994). Habitat use and feeding of sympatric brown trout and Arctic charr. Fauna (Oslo) 47 (1): 75-80.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H., P. Aass and H. Saegrov (1994). Prey orientation in piscivorous brown trout. Journal of Fish Biology. 45 (A): 249.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H., P. Aass and H. Saegrov (1996). Prey orientation in piscivorous brown trout. Journal of Fish Biology 48 (5): 871-877.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H. and T. G. Heggberget (1995). Density of juvenile brown trout and Atlantic salmon in natural and man-made riverine habitats. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 4 (3): 138-140.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H. and K. Hindar (1990). Interpopulation variation in reproductive traits of anadromous female brown trout, Salmo trutta L. Journal of Fish Biology 37: 755-763.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H. and A. J. Jensen (1993). Otoliths as natural tags in the systematics of salmonids. Environ Biol Fishes 36 (4): 389-393.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H., A. J. Jensen and B. O. Johnsen (1990). Interpopulation variation in male parr maturation of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta in Norway. Can J Zool 68 (9): 1983-1987.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H., B. Jonsson, A. J. Jensen, L. M. Saettem, T. G. Heggberget, B. O. Johnsen and T. F. Naesje (1989). Latitudinal variation in life-history characteristics of sea-run migrant brown trout Salmo trutta. J Anim Ecol 58 (2): 525-542.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H. and A. Langeland (1995). Recaptures and resource use of native and non-native brown trout, Salmo trutta L., released in a Norwegian lake. Fisheries Management and Ecology 2 (2): 135-145.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H., A. Langeland and H. Saegrov (1992). Piscivory by brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus L. in Norwegian Lakes. J Fish Biol 41 (1): 91-101.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H. and H. Saegrov (1991). Resource use growth and effects of stocking in alpine brown trout Salmo trutta L. Aquacult Fish Manage 22 (4): 519-526.
  • L'Abee-Lund, J. H., H. Saegrov and H. Lura (1992). Resource partitioning and spatial segregation in native and stocked brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus L. in a hydroelectric reservoir. Aquacult Fish Manage 23 (5): 623-632.
  • Lahnsteiner, F., R. A. Patzner and T. Weismann (1996). Semen cryopreservation of salmonid fishes: Influence of handling parameters on the postthaw fertilization rate. Aquaculture Research 27 (9): 659-671.
  • Lahnsteiner, F., T. Weismann and R. A. Patzner (1995). Composition of the ovarian fluid in 4 salmonid species: Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta f. lacustris, Salvelinus alpinus and Hucho hucho. Reproduction Nutrition Development 35 (5): 465-474.
  • Lahnsteiner, F., T. Weismann and R. A. Patzner (1995). A uniform method for cryopreservation of semen of the salmonid fishes Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), Salmo trutta f. fario L., Salmo trutta f. lacustris L., Coregonus sp. Aquaculture Research 26 (11): 801-807.
  • Lahnsteiner, F., T. Weismann and R. A. Patzner (1997). Methanol as cryoprotectant and the suitability of 1.2 ml and 5 ml straws for cryopreservation of semen from salmonid fishes. Aquaculture Research 28 (6): 471-479.
  • Laikre, L., P. E. Jorde and N. Ryman (1998). Temporal change of mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies and female effective size in a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population. Evolution 52 (3): 910-915.
  • Laikre, L., P. A. Prodohl, P. E. Jorde and N. Ryman (1995). Genetic variability at minisatellite and allozyme loci in brown trout (Salmo trutta) - A comparison. Hereditas 123 (2): 191-195.
  • Laine, A. (1990). The effects of a fishway model hydraulics on the ascent of vendace whitefish and brown trout in Inari Northern Finland. Aqua Fenn 20 (2): 191-198.
  • Laine, A., R. Kamula and J. Hooli (1998). Fish and lamprey passage in a combined Denil and vertical slot fishway. Fisheries Management and Ecology 5 (1): 31-44.
  • Laitinen, M., R. Siddall and E. T. Valtonen (1996). Bioelectronic monitoring of parasite-induced stress in brown trout and roach. Journal of Fish Biology 48 (2): 228-241.
  • Laitinen, M. and T. Valtonen (1994). Cardiovascular, Ventilatory and Total Activity Responses of Brown Trout to Handling Stress. Journal of Fish Biology 45 (6): 933-942.
  • Laitinen, M. and T. Valtonen (1995). Cardiovascular, ventilatory and hematological responses of brown trout (Salmo trutta L), to the combined effects of acidity and aluminum in humic water at winter temperatures. Aquatic Toxicology 31 (2): 99-112.
  • Lambert, T. R. and D. F. Hanson (1989). Development of habitat suitability criteria for trout in small streams. Regul Rivers Res Manage 3 (1-4): 291-304.
  • Lamon, E. C., III, S. R. Carpenter and C. A. Stow (1998). Forecasting PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan salmonids: A dynamic linear model approach. Ecological Applications 8 (3): 659-668.
  • Lancaster, J., A. G. Hildrew and C. R. Townsend (1988). Competition for space by predators in streams field experiments on a net-spinning caddisfly. Freshwater Biology 20 (2): 185-194.
  • Lancaster, J., M. Real, S. Juggins, D. T. Monteith, R. J. Flower and W. R. C. Beaumont (1996). Monitoring temporal changes in the biology of acid waters. Freshwater Biology 36 (1): 179-201.
  • Landergren, P. and L. Vallin (1998). Spawning of sea trout, Salmo trutta L., in brackish waters: Lost effort or successful strategy? Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) 35 (3): 229-236.
  • Langeland, A., J. H. Abeelund, B. Jonsson and N. Jonsson (1991). Resource partitioning and niche shift in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout Salmo trutta. Journal of Animal Ecology 60 (3): 895-912.
  • Langeland, A. and J. H. L'Abee-Lund (1996). Habitat use, size and age structure in sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) stocks: Resistance of populations to change following harvest. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 5 (2): 49-58.
  • Langhorne, P. (1986). Somatostatin stimulates Acth release in brown trout (Salmo trutta L). General and Comparative Endocrinology 61 (1): 71-75.
  • Lapatra, S. E., K. A. Lauda, G. R. Jones, W. D. Shewmaker, J. M. Groff and D. Routledge (1996). Susceptibility and humoral response of brown trout X lake trout hybrids to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus: A model for examining disease resistance mechanisms. Aquaculture 146 (3-4): 179-188.
  • Lappalainen, A., O. Mahonen, J. Erkinaro, M. Rask and E. Niemela (1995). Acid deposition from the Russian Kola Peninsula: Are sensitive fish populations in north-eastern Finnish Lapland affected? Water Air and Soil Pollution 85 (2): 439-444.
  • Lappalainen, J. and H. Lehtonen (1997). Temperature habitats for freshwater fishes in a warming climate. Boreal Environment Research 2 (1): 69-84.
  • Largiadèr, C. R., R. Guyomard and P. Roche (1996). Mise en évidence de la reproduction naturelle du saumon atlantique (Salmo Salar L.) dans un affluent français du rhin par analyse génétique d'oeufs prélevés dans des frayères. Bulletin français de pêche et de pisciculture 343: 13-188.
  • Largiadèr, C. R. and A. Scholl (1994). Untersuchungen zur genetischen Variabilität bei einheimischen Forellen. Mitteilungen zur Fischerei 52: 35-45.
  • Largiadèr, C. R. and A. Scholl (1996). Cellulose acetate electrophoresis for screening transferrin polymorphism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations. Advances in Life Sciences: Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe. A. Kirchhofer and D. Hefti. Basel, Birkhäuser Verlag.: 199-202.
  • Largiadèr, C. R. and A. Scholl (1996). Effects of stocking on the genetic diversity of brown trout populations of the Adriatic and Danubian drainages in Switzerland. Journal of Fish Biology 47 (A): 209-225.
  • Largiadèr, C. R. and A. Scholl (1996). Genetic introgression between native and introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in The Rhône River Basin. Molecular Ecology 5: 417-426.
  • Largiadèr, C. R., A. Scholl and R. Guyomard (1996). The role of natural and artificial propagation on the genetic diversity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) of the upper Rhône drainage. Advances in Life Sciences: Endangered freshwater fish in Europe. A. Kirchhofer and D. Heefti. Basel, Birkhäuser Verlag: 199-202.
  • Laroche, M., C. Bauvineau, B. Fauconneau, L. Campello and J. L. Vallet (1993). Compared Characteristics of Raw and Heated Fillets From Sea Bred Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). Sciences Des Aliments 13 (2): 213-219.
  • Larscheid, J. G. and W. A. Hubert (1992). Factors influencing the size structure of brook trout and brown trout in Southeastern Wyoming mountain streams. N Am J Fish Manage 12 (1): 109-117.
  • Larsen, B. M. and T. Hesthagen (1995). The effects of liming on juvenile stocks of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Norwegian river. Water Air and Soil Pollution 85 (2): 991-996.
  • Laurila, A., N. Peuhkuri, T. Seppa, J. Piironen, H. Hirvonen and E. Ranta (1998). Differentially directed startle response in alevins of three salmonid species. Annales Zoologici Fennici 35 (1): 17-19.
  • Lavoie, W. J. and W. A. Hubert (1994). Use of drifting invertebrates by young-of-year brown trout in stream- margin habitat. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 9 (1): 37-43.
  • LaVoie, W. J. and W. A. Hubert (1996). Use of three types of stream-margin habitat by age-0 brown trout late in the growing season. Hydrobiologia 317 (2): 89-95.
  • LaVoie, W. J. and W. A. Hubert (1997). Late summer and fall use of stream margins by young-of-year brown trout in a high-elevation stream. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 12 (2): 291-302.
  • Leary, R. F., F. W. Allendorf and K. L. Knudsen (1985). Developmental instability and high meristic counts in interspecific hybrids of salmonid fishes. Evolution 39: 1318-1326.
  • Lebel, J. M. and J. Leloup (1992). Triiodothyronine is required for the acclimation to seawater of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comptes Rendus De L Academie Des Sciences Serie Iii-Sciences De La Vie-Life Sciences 314 (10): 461-468.
  • Lecommandeur, D., P. Haffray and L. Philippe (1994). Rapid flow cytometry method for ploidy determination in salmonid eggs. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 25 (3): 345-350.
  • Lehmann, J., M. Schenk, F. Stuerenberg and A. Schreiber (1995). Natural reproduction of recolonizing Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the Rhenanian drainage system (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany). Naturwissenschaften 82 (2): 92-93.
  • Leiner, S. (1996). The habitat quality index applied to New Mexico streams. Hydrobiologia 319 (3): 237-249.
  • Lejolivet, C. and E. Maison (1985). Study of the influence of ionic equilibrium on the growth of Salmo Gairdneri and Salmo trutta fario. Cybium 9 (2): 145-155.
  • Lek, S., M. Delacoste, P. Baran, I. Dimopoulos, J. Lauga and S. Aulagnier (1996). Application of neural networks to modelling nonlinear relationships in ecology. Ecological Modelling 90 (1): 39-52.
  • Leloup, J. and J. M. Lebel (1993). Triiodothyronine Is necessary for the action of growth-hormone in acclimation to seawater of brown (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 11 (1-6): 165-173.
  • Leonko, A. A. and A. G. Chernitskii (1986). Comparative analysis of the migration of the smolts of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and sea trout Salmo trutta L. Vopr Ikhtiol 26 (5): 1987).
  • Leveque, C. (1997). Introductions of exotic fish species in tropical freshwaters: Purposes and consequences. Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de la Pisciculture 344-345: 79-91.
  • Lewis, T. W. and J. C. Makarewicz (1985). Effect of smoking on mirex levels in brown trout from Lake Ontario USA Canada. N Y Fish Game J 32 (1): 1986).
  • Libois, R. M., C. Hallet-Libois and L. Lafontaine (1987). The diet of the river otter in Central Brittany France. Rev Ecol Terre Vie 42 (2): 135-144.
  • Libosvarsky, J. (1989). Fish communities in Moravian Czechoslovakia Streams in 1960 to 1975. Prirodoved Pr Ustavu Cesk Akad Ved Brne 23 (12): 1-41.
  • Lien, L. (1978). The energy budget of the brown trout population of Øvre Heimdaisvatn. Holarctic Ecology 1: 279-300.
  • Lien, L. (1981). Biology of the minnow Phoxinus phoxinus and its interactions with brown trout Salmo truttain Ovre-Heimdalsvatn, Norway. Holarctic Ecology 4 (3): 191-200.
  • Lien, L. (1994). Brown trout exposed to acid-treated and nontreated humic water from Lake Skjervatjern. Environment International 20 (3): 349-352.
  • Lien, L., G. G. Raddum, A. Fjellheim and A. Henriksen (1996). A critical limit for acid neutralizing capacity in Norwegian surface waters, based on new analyses of fish and invertebrate responses. Science of the Total Environment 177 (1-3): 173-193.
  • Lim, P., G. Segura, A. Belaud and C. Sabaton (1993). Study of the habitat of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) - Role of artificial and natural covers on trout populations. Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de La Pisciculture 331: 373-396.
  • Linde, A. R., P. Arribas, S. Sanchez-Galan and E. Garcia-Vazquez (1996). Eel (Anguilla anguilla) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) target species to assess the biological impact of trace metal pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 31 (3): 297-302.
  • Linde, A. R., S. Sanchez-Galan, J. I. Izquierdo, P. Arribas, E. Maranon and E. Garcia-Vazquez (1998). Brown trout as biomonitor of heavy metal pollution: Effect of age on the reliability of the assessment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 40 (1-2): 120-125.
  • Linlokken, A. (1988). Vertical distribution of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) in an acidified lake. Water Air and Soil Pollution 40 (1-2): 203-213.
  • Linlokken, A. (1993). Efficiency of fishways and impact of dams on the migration of grayling and brown trout in the Glomma River System, South-Eastern Norway. Regulated Rivers-Research & Management 8 (1-2): 145-153.
  • Linlokken, A. (1995). Angling pressure, yield and catch per effort of grayling, Thymallus thymallus (L)., and brown trout, Salmo trutta L., on the rivers Glomma and Rena, southeastern Norway. Fisheries Management and Ecology 2 (4): 249-262.
  • Linlokken, A. (1998). Effects of instream habitat enhancement on fish populations of a small Norwegian stream. Nordic Journal of Freshwater Research 73: 50-59.
  • Linnenbach, M., R. Marthaler and H. Gebhardt (1987). Effects of acid water on gills and epidermis in brown trout (Salmo trutta L) and in tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria L). Annales De La Societe Royale Zoologique De Belgique 117 (S1): 365-374.
  • Linnik, V. D., L. K. Malinin, M. Wozniewski, R. Sych and P. Dembowski (1998). Movements of adult sea trout Salmo trutta L. in the tailrace of a low-head dam at Wloclawek hydroelectric station on the Vistula River, Poland. Hydrobiologia: 335-337.
  • Liu, F. G. and E. Quillet (1989). Preliminary results on triploidy induced by heat shocks in the brown trout Salmo trutta. J Fish Soc Taiwan 16 (2): 91-96.
  • Lobon-Cervia, J. (1996). Response of a stream fish assemblage to a severe spate in Northern Spain. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125 (6): 913-919.
  • Lobon-Cervia, J., A. De Sostoa and C. Montanes (1986). Fish production and its relationship to community structure in an aquifer-fed stream of Old Castile Spain. Second Symposium On the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes, Lodz, Poland, September 3-6, 1985. Pol Arch Hydrobiol 33 (3-4): 333-344.
  • Lobon-Cervia, J. and P. Fitzmaurice (1988). Stock assessment production rates and food consumption in four contrasting Irish populations of brown trout Salmo trutta L. Symposium On Trouts in Streams and Lakes, Madrid, Spain, September 1987. Pol Arch Hydrobiol 35 (3-4): 497-514.
  • Loboncervia, J., C. Montanes and A. Desostoa (1986). Reproductive ecology and growth of a population of brown trout (Salmo trutta L) in an aquifer-fed stream of Old Castile (Spain). Hydrobiologia 135 (1-2): 81-94.
  • LobonCervia, J. and P. A. Rincon (1998). Field assessment of the influence of temperature on growth rate in a brown trout population. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127 (5): 718-728.
  • Lobon-Cervia, J. and C. G. Utrilla (1993). A simple model to determine stream trout Salmo trutta L. densities based on one removal with electrofishing. Fish Research (Amst) 15 (4): 369-378.
  • Lobon-Cervia, J., C. G. Utrilla, P. A. Rincon and F. Amezcua (1997). Environmentally induced spatio-temporal variations in the fecundity of brown trout Salmo trutta L.: Tradeoffs between egg size and number. Freshwater Biology 38 (2): 277-288.
  • Lojkasek, B. (1989). The growth of the brown trout Salmo trutta fario osteichthyes salmonidae in the valley water reservoir Moravka Czechoslovakia. Vestn Cesk Spol Zool 53 (2): 81-88.
  • Lorenzoni, M., M. Mearelli, A. Carosi, G. Giovinazzo, M. L. Petesse, A. Santucci and F. Bazzurro (1994). Study of the upper tract of the Tiber River watershed (Central Italy): Fish communities. Rivista di Idrobiologia 33 (1-3): 229-275.
  • Lovullo, T. J. and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. (1993). The retail bait-fish industry in Pennsylvania - Source of introduced species. Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 67 (1): 13-15.
  • Luberda, Z., J. Strzezek, M. Luczynski and T. F. Naesje (1994). Catalytic properties of hatching enzyme of several salmonid species. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie 131 (4): 503-511.
  • Lucas, M. C. (1993). Food interrelationships between brown trout Salmo trutta L. and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum in a small put-and-take stillwater fishery. Aquacult Fish Manage 24 (3): 355-364.
  • Ludwig, M., H. Marthaler and H. Neugebauer (1988). Contribution to the fauna of the Holderbach Creek in the Southern Odenwald West Germany. Carolinea 46: 43-48.
  • Lund, R. A. and L. P. Hansen (1992). Exploitation pattern and migration of the anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. from the River Gjengedal Western Norway. Fauna Norv Ser A 13: 29-34.
  • Lura, H. and H. Saegrov (1993). Timing of spawning in cultured and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the River Vosso, Norway. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2 (4): 167-172.
  • Lusk, S. (1993). Fish communities and their management in the Frysavka Stream. Folia Zoologica 42 (2): 183-192.
  • Lusk, S. (1995). Influence of valley dams on the changes in fish communities inhabiting streams in the Dyje River drainage area. Folia Zoologica 44 (1): 45-56.
  • Luton, J. R. (1985). The first introductions of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in the United- States. Fisheries 10 (1): 10-13.
  • Lyse, A. A., S. O. Stefansson and A. Ferno (1998). Behaviour and diet of sea trout-post-smolts in a Norwegian fjord system. Journal of Fish Biology 52 (5): 923-936.

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