nursing and midwifery - text

Module 3- Choices and risks for conception

Learning outcomes

After completing this module you will have a better understanding of:

  • Pregnancy as a normal desire and achievable goal when either partner is HIV positive 
  • Pregnancy as normalising within the context of HIV 
  • Choices and risks involved in reproductive decision making
  • Treatment as prevention



  • The introduction of effective treatment in the mid 1990s has changed HIV from a terminal illness to a manageable chronic illness in developed countries. Therefore, more men and women affected by HIV are deciding to become parents 
  • People living with HIV have the same human rights to decide whether and when to conceive as those without HIV
  • With access to optimal management, becoming pregnant and giving birth to a healthy, HIV negative baby is possible for the vast majority of women of childbearing age 
  • The role of the health professional is to ensure that couples fully understand the risks and benefits associated with different choices for conception to enable fully informed reproductive decision making

Here, Dr Say Quah outlines the key developments in HIV care since this resource was first developed in 2014. Again, the Undectable = Uninfectious message is key to issues of conception and pregnancy care.