nursing and midwifery - text

Module 3- Choices and risks for conception

Learning outcomes

After completing this module you will have a better understanding of:

  • Pregnancy as a normal desire and achievable goal when either partner is HIV positive 
  • Pregnancy as normalising within the context of HIV 
  • Choices and risks involved in reproductive decision making
  • Treatment as prevention



  • The introduction of effective treatment in the mid 1990s has changed HIV from a terminal illness to a manageable chronic illness in developed countries. Therefore, more men and women affected by HIV are deciding to become parents 
  • People living with HIV have the same human rights to decide whether and when to conceive as those without HIV
  • With access to optimal management, becoming pregnant and giving birth to a healthy, HIV negative baby is possible for the vast majority of women of childbearing age 
  • The role of the health professional is to ensure that couples fully understand the risks and benefits associated with different choices for conception to enable fully informed reproductive decision making