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References and Further Reading

British HIV Association (BHIVA) and the Expert Advisory Group on AIDS (EAGA) (2013) Position statement on the use of antiretroviral therapy to reduce HIV transmission. 

British HIV Association, BASHH and FSRH (2008) Guidelines for the management of the sexual and reproductive health of people living with HIV infection.

Bury M. (1982) Chronic illness as biographical disruption. Sociology of Health and Illness 4 (2), 167-182

Goffman E. (1963) Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall Inc.

Children’s HIV Association (CHIVA) (2010) The CHIVA Standards of Care for Children with HIV.

Department of Health (2006) Immunisation against infectious disease

Disability discrimination Act (2005). Available at:

Equality Act (2010). Available at:

Human Rights Act (1998). Article 8. Available at :

Hunter B., Berg M., Lundgren I., Olaffsdottir A., Kirkham M. (2008) Relationships: The hidden threads in the tapestry of maternity care. Midwifery 24, 132-137.

Kelly C., Alderdice F., Lohan M., Spence D. (2013) ‘Every pregnant woman needs a midwife’ – the experiences of HIV affected women in Northern Ireland. Midwifery 29, 132-138 (

Kelly C., Alderdice F., Lohan M., Spence D. (2012) Creating continuity out of the disruption of a diagnosis of HIV during pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Nursing 21 (11-12), 1554-1562. (

Kelly C., Lohan M., Alderdice F., Spence D. (2011) Negotiation of risk in sexual relationships and reproductive decision-making amongst HIV sero-different couples Culture, Health and Sexuality 13 (7), 815-827 (

National AIDS Trust (2009) Confidentiality in Healthcare for People Living with HIV . Available at:

National Health Service (2012) Infectious diseases in pregnancy screening programme. Handbook for laboratories. Available at:

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2013) Guideline 156: Fertility. Assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems. NICE, London. Available at:

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2011) Clinical guideline 132: Caesarean section. NICE, London. Available at:

Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2008). The code: Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives. Available at :

Sherr L., Croome N. (2012) Involving fathers in prevention of mother to child transmission initiatives – what the evidence suggests. Journal of the international AIDS Society, 15 (Suppl 2), 17378.

Sherr L. (2010) Fathers and HIV: considerations for families. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 13 (suppl 2): S4

Vernazza P., Hirschel B., Bernasconi E., Flepp M. (2008) Les personnes seropositives ne souffrant d’aucune autre MST et suivant un traitmant antiretroviral efficace ne transmettent pas le VIH par voix sexuelle. Bulletin des Medecins Suisses 89 (5), 165-169. (English version of Swiss statement available at: