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Detailed Analysis of Video One

Below is a completed taxonomic grid for the entire 51 minutes of the teaching session from which Video One is extracted. The three minutes which make up Video One (minutes 7-9) are highlighted.

Complete grid for video 1

Detailed analysis of the session from which Video One is an excerpt

Interpretation

An X placed in a particular cell of the grid indicates that the specific behaviour was evidenced within transactions during the course of that minute of the session.  Thus, for example, in minute 1 the interactions were at the Participation level in categories 2.2 Expanding data base (interactions concerned with generating data, reading, viewing, listening, discussion, or ‘why’ questions or evaluative questions bringing added data) and 2.4 Tactile activities (interactions relating to hands-on activities, use of media, or how to use materials etc).

The 51 minute interaction coded above is strongly characterised by behaviours reflecting transactions at the Exposure, Participation and Identification levels.  Exposure activity is most strongly evidenced in the first half of the session where the teacher/tutor as motivator is providing facts and illustrating new concepts, as exemplified in the extract below from Minute 18:

‘So the steroids are the big group that we’re thinking of and there’s a special one that is given in this sort of situation which is called dexamethadrone or cycadrone.  The two effects they’re trying to get rid of are the swelling and the inflammation and or to remove manually if there’s a haemotomin.  Ok, but these patients will normally be incubated and are incubated so that all their body functions can be controlled and they can control the amount of oxygen getting to the brain.  All of those things keep their breathing regular, keep their heart stable and, you know, it’s much easier to deal with damage like that if the patient is well managed and well controlled, and it also takes away the stress factor to a large extent’

Transactions at the Participation level prevail throughout the session.  The teacher has assumed the role of catalyst in trying to speed up the process of change towards planned objectives and brings a spectrum of resources that challenge the learners and form a bridge between initial awareness and actual identification with the task in hand.  This is encouraged by engaging in dialogue/activities and the use of a variety of questioning techniques and information-giving strategies.

Identification, the level where the learner makes an emotional and intellectual commitment to the learning experience, occurs throughout the taxonomic grid and of particular note is the recurrence of Discussing/Conferencing (sub-category 3.3). This category denotes the exchange of views and reflects interaction between teachers and learners, and between learners, questioning and clarifying information.  At this level the role of the teacher is to moderate questions, provide options to explore, arbitrate decisions, suggest different modes of operation, and help to keep the learner focused and moving toward the next level. 

The next (fourth) and final level represented on the grid is Internalisation where the learner begins to act on data presented and examined and on prior interaction with the experience.  Each learner brings their own past experiences to the learning process.  When new behaviours or interpretations begin to emerge, the teacher’s role is to sustain and support the construction of meaning and/or the modified behaviours.  These developments are the results of the individual learner’s response to the motivational environment, participation in the experience and identification with it. In the teaching-learning session Internalisation is evidenced in only 8 of the session’s 51 minutes and more specifically, within the 4.1 category (Skill reinforcement – planning opportunities for repeating acquired skills in variety of contexts and ways).No transactions were identified at the Dissemination level. 

Discussion

The prevalence of interaction in the Exposure, Participation and Identification levels is both typical of the data collected in the Learner-Teacher Interactions (LTI) research project from which this workshop is derived and interesting in what it suggests about the development of higher-order thinking skills.  There are few occasions where higher-order levels of process are in evidence: Internalisation occurs in only 8 of the session’s 51 minutes and Dissemination does not occur at all.  This suggests that the teaching learning process in focus is constrained to a substantive extent.  It is important to note that this was a feedback session on a simulated role-play experience in a small-group setting.  Both of these factors might promise advantageous conditions for activity at the highest-order levels of the learning process as envisaged by the Experiential Taxonomy.  While it is conceivable that constrained or under-developed teaching-learning sessions such as this may occur, a problem clearly arises if such were to be repeated or became the norm.  What inevitably follows from the failure to progress substantively through Internalisation and on to Dissemination is that both teachers and learners are prevented from or restricted in assuming the roles that are potentially available as shown in the Experiential Teaching and Learning Diagram.

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