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Van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross
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Lincoln Cathedral MS 91 (The Thornton MS)

Described by: Ryan Perry from facsimile.
Revision Date: June 1st, 2010


Large miscellaneous production of Robert Thornton, c. 1430-1450

Condition of the MS


Number of Items

65 items.

Title(s) of Pseudo-Bonaventuran Text(s)

The Privity of the Passion



In Nomine Patris et Filii et Speritus Sancti: Amen:

Here begynnes the Previte off the Passioune of owre lorde Ihesu

Who so desyres to ffynd comforthe and gostely gladnes in þe Passione and in þe croysse of owre lorde Ihesu, hym nedis with a besy thoghte ffor to duell in it and all oþer besynes forgette and sett at noghte", fol. 179r.



Secundo Folio

"yeire concell so to do me to dede", fol. 180r.


"ffor þe appostell sais if we be felawes of Cristes passione haueuyng pete & compassione of his pyne and disese yat he sufferde here for vs than one ye same manere sall we be felawes of gostely comforthe and Endles Ioye the wilke he has ordeyned to all þo þat here hertly luffes hym with all yeire myghte. Ye whilke Ioye & comforthe he graunt vs yat with his precious blode boghte vs, Ihc xpc Amen Amen Amen pur Charite.

Explicit Bonauenture de mysteriis Passionis Ihesu Christi

Of all thynge it is the best
Ihesu in herte fast to fest} And lufe hym ower all thynge

(Fol. 189r; the concluding verse beneath the explicit is IMEV 2616). .

Languages of the MS

Mixed English and Latin items; many Latin items have English incipits and vice versa.

Detailed Description of Contents


  • 1. The Prose Life of Alexander, fols .1-49, begins imperfectly, IPMEP 158.

  • 2. Prognostications of weather, fol. .50r-v (penned in a later less careful hand than Thornton's?- see J.J. Thompson, Robert Thornton, 3 n. 13 and 60 n. 18); fol. .51 is blank.

  • 3. 'Lamentacio Peccatoris', described by Furnivall as the prologue to Adulterous Falmouth Squire (because of a collocation in Ashmole MS 61), but is more probably to be understood as a religious lyric in its on right (click link for TEAMS edition with introduction by Susanna Fein), IMEV 172, (penned in a later less careful hand than Thornton's- see J.J. Thompson, Robert Thornton, 3 n. 13 and 60 n. 18), fols 51r-52r.

  • 4. Morte Arthure, IMEV 2322, fols 53-98v.

  • 5. Octavian, IMEV 1918, fols 98r-109r.

  • 6. 'Sir Ysambrace', IMEV 1184 1184, 109r-1l4v.

  • 7. The Earl of Toulouse ('The Romance of Dioclicyane'), IMEV 1681, fols 1l4v-122.

  • 8. Life of St. Christopher, IMEV 1990, fols 122v-129v.

  • 9. 'Sir Degreuant', IMEV 1953, fols 130r-138v.

  • 10. 'Sir Eglamour', IMEV 1725, fols 138v-147r.

  • 11. 'De Miraculo Beate Marie', IMEV 1722, fols 147r-148r.

  • 12. 'Lyarde', IMEV 2026, fols 148r-149r.

  • 13. 'Thomas of Erceldoune', IMEV 365, fols149v-153v.

  • 14. 'The Awentyrs of Arthure at the Terne Wathelyne', IMEV 1566, fols 154-161.

  • 15. Sir Perceval, IMEV 1853, fols 161r-176.

  • 16. Three charms for toothache, fol. 176r-v.
    'A charme for 'e tethe werke. Say 'e charme thris to it be seyd ix ty and ay thris at a charemynge'.', (see Horstmann, Yorkshire Writers, vol. 1, 375-6).

  • 17. 'Epistola Sancti Salvatoris', (Latin item), only the title and opening three lines of the text have been copied, and no space has been left by Thornton to copy the remainder of the item (see Horstmann, Yorkshire Writers, vol. 1, 376), fol 176v.

  • 18. Prayer to the Holy Cross, '[O] crux Christ', (Latin prayer, see Horstmann, Yorkshire Writers, vol. 1, 376), fol. 176v.

  • 19. A Latin prayer with an English preface, beginning 'He yt deuotely sayse ys oryson dayly', (see Horstmann, Yorkshire Writers, vol. 1, 376), fols 176v-77r.

  • 20. 'A Preyere off the fyve loyes of owre Lady in Inglys and of the fyve sorowes', IMEV 2099 (see Horstmann, Yorkshire Writers, vol. 1, 377-9), fols177v-178r.

  • 21. 'Psalmus Voce mea ad Dominum clamaui. Say bis psalrne . . . With this colect folowande yt es Full merytorye' Domine Ihesu Christe quicunque sanctissimi corporis'' (in Horstmann, Yorkshire Writers, vol. 1, 379), fol. 178r.

  • 22. 'Here Bygynnys fyve prayers to the fyve wondys of oure lorde Ihesu Cryste', (see Horstmann, Yorkshire Writers, vol. 1, 379-80), fol. 178r-v

  • 23. The Privity of the Passion, (in Horstmann, vol. 1, 198-218), fols 179r-189r. UMDS online edition .

  • 24. 'Tractatus Willelmi Nassyngton'de Trinitate et Vnitate', (in Peny, Religious Pieces, 60-72; Horstmann, vol. 2, 334-9) fols 189-191v.

  • 25. Four Christological poems, IMEV 1954, 246, 1950.5, 1757, (in Horstmann, vol. 1, 363-4), fols 191v-192r.

  • 26. 'Of the vertys of the haly name of Ihesu' (Horstmann, vol. 1, 186-91; G. G. Perry, English Prose Treatises of Richard Rolle de Hampole, EETS, o.s., 20 (1866; rev. ed. 1921), pp.1-5), fols 192-193v.

  • 27. 'Narracio. A tale 'at Richerde hermet', (Horstmann, vol. 1, 192; Perry, English Prose Treatises, 5-6), fol. 193v.

  • 28. 'A prayere 'at 'e same Richerd hermet made yt es beried at Hampulle', Latin prayer, (Horstmann, vol. 1, 191), fol. 193v.

  • 29. 'Ympnus quem composuit Sanctus Ambrosyus et est ualcle bonus', (Cheval? 9582), fols 193v-194r.

  • 30. 'De inperfecta contricione' (Horstmann, vol. 1, 192-3; Perry, English Prose Treatises 6-7), fol. 194r.

  • 31. Richard Rolle, The Bee and the Stork, IPMEP 657, (ed. H. E. Allen, English Writings of Richard Rolle, 54-56, fol. 194r-v.

  • 32. 'De uita cuiusdam puelle incluse propiter Amorem Christi', Latin (Horstmann, vol. 1, 194; Perry, English Prose Treatises 9), fols. 194v-195r. UMDS online edition .

  • 33. 'Richardus herymyta' Latin prayer, (Horstmann, vol. 1, 194 n. 7) fol. 195r.

  • 34. 'Item inferius idem Richardus', Latin, (Horstmann, vol. 1, 194-195 n.7) fol. 195r.

  • 35. 'A notabill Tretys off the ten Comandementys Drawen by Richerde the hermyte off Hampull', (Horstmann, vol. 1, 195-6; Perry, English Prose Treatises 10-12), fols 195v-196r .

  • 36. 'Item idem de septem donis Spiritus Sancti. [and with another heading subsequently added by Thornton] Also of the gyftes of the HaIy Gaste' (Horstmann, vol. 1, 196-197; Perry 13), fol. 196v.

  • 37. Richard Rolle, Desire and Delight, IPMEP 863, (Allen 57- 58), fol. 196v.

  • 38.The Mirror of St. Edmund, IMEV 202 (Horstmann, vol. 1, 219-240; Perry, Religious Pieces 15-48), fols 197r-209v. A 13 line space is left between this and the subsequent item.

  • 39. 'Tractatus de dominica oradones', (Horstmann, vol. 1, 261-4), fols 209v-211r.

  • 40. Hymn to Jesus, 'Ihesu criste saynte marye sonne', IMEV 1692 (Horstmann, vol. 1,364-365; Perry, Religious Pieces 73-75), fol. 211r-v.

  • 41. Hymn to the Trinity, the Virgin and Jesus, 'Fader and sone and haly gaste', IMEV 775, (Horstmann, vol. 1, 365-6; Perry, Religious Pieces 76-79), fol. 211v-212r.

  • 42. 'Ihesu criste goddess sonne of hevenne, English Prayer, IMEV1674 (Horstmann, vol. 1, 367), fol. 212r.

  • 43. 'A Meditacione of ye fyve woundes of oure Lorde Ihesu Criste Wt a prayere in ye same', Latin meditation/prayer, (Horstmann, vol. 1, 381-2), fol.212rv.

  • 44. 'A medytacion of the Crosse of Criste wt a prayere', Latin extract from Bonaventure, Arbor Vitae Christi (Opera Omnia, XII, 67; Horstmann, vol. 1, 382-3) fols 212v-213r.

  • 45. 'When Adam dalfe and Eue spane', IMEV 3921, fol.213r-v.

  • 46. 'Ihesu Criste have mercy one me', 6-line devotional verse, IMEV 1674, (Horstmann, vol. 1, 368), fol. 213v.

  • 47. Lay Folks' Catechism, (Perry, Religious Pieces, 1- 14; N. Blake, Middle English Religious Prose 73-87) fols 213v-218v.

  • 48. 'Ihesu thi swetnes', English devotional verse, IMEV 1781 (Horstmann, vol. 1, 368-370; Perry, Religious Pieces, 84-87), fol. 219r-v.

  • 49. Waltyer Hilton?, Of Angels' Song, 'Dere frende wit yu wele yat ye ende and ye soueraynte'' (Horstmann, vol. 1, 175-182; Perry, Prose Treatises, 15-20.

  • 50. Richard Rolle?, '&Thorn;i Ioy be ilk a dele to serue thi Godde to paye...', IMEV 3730, (Horstmann, vol. 1, 370-372; cf. Allen, English Writings, pp.49-50, 52-43, with the text divided into two separate parts), fol. 222r-v

  • 51. Walter Hilton, Epistle on Mixed Life, begins imperfectly, 'mene yat ware in prelacye and oyer', first fol. of text is missing (Horstmann, vol. 1, 270-292; Perry, Prose Treatises, 27:29-43), fols 223r-229r. 8-9 lines are left empty at the bottom of 229r.

  • 52. An Epistle of Salvation, 'Wit thou wele dere frende yat yof you had neuer done syne' (Horstmann, vol. 1, 293-295; Perry, Prose Treatises 44-7), fols 229v-230v. Leaves approx. 9 lines empty beneath the end of the text.

  • 53. 'Of Sayne [sic] Iohn ye Evangelist', IMEV 2608 (Horstmann, Altengliscbe Legenden,467-471; Perry, Religious Pieces 88-95), fols. 231r-233v.

  • 54. A Treatise on Prayer, '[P]rayng es a gracyous gyfte of owre lorde godd'',ends imperfectly, 'bot lyttill owtwarde myrthe' (Horstmann, vol. 1, 295-300), fols 233v-236v. A capital 7-line S has been entered instead of a 'P' (a 'P' has been penned in the margin).

  • 55. 'e Holy Boke Gratia Dei, Jolliffe I. 29 (a); begins imperfectly 'mercy habydes &sythen for all yat myst has qwikk & dede' (Horstmann, vol. 1, 295-321 and M.L. Arntz (Salzburg, 1981), fols 237-250v. The text here appears to have beeen treated as several separate treatises, possibly because of some disordering in Thornton's exemplar; fols 240r-250v have the introduction, part 1 and the opening of the second section, fols 237r-240r contain a fragmentary of part 2. See H. E. Allen, Writings ascribed to Richard Rolle (New York 1927) 286-87 and G. R. Keiser, ''e Holy Boke Gratia Dei,' Viator 12 (1981) 289-317.

  • 56. 'Hic Incipit quedam reuelacio. A Reuelacyone Schewed to ane holy womane now one late tyme'Explicit Tractatus visione' (Horstmann, vol. 1, 383-392), fols 250v-258r.

  • 57. 'Miserere mei deus secundum magnam misericordiam tuam' Psalm 50 (Latin), and 'Veni creator Spiritus mentes tuorum visita, imple superna gratia,quae tu creasti pectora' Latin Pentecostal Hymn, fols 258r-v.

  • 58. Abridged Psalter with Office, 'Here Bygynnys Sayne Jerome Spaltyre' (Incipit entered in the middle of 6-line space between items) fols 258v-264r; the item consists of penitential psalms with prayers, followed by a Litany of Saints in 3 columns beginning, 'Kyrieleison. Christieleyson. Kyrieleison
    Pater de celis deus
    Miserere nobis.
    Ffili redemptor mundi
    deus Miserere nobis
    Spiritus sancte deus Miserere nobis
    Sancta trinitas unus deus
    miserere nobis
    Sancta maria ora pro nobis
    Sancta dei genitrix ora
    Sancta virgo virginum ora
    Sancta regina celorum ora
    Sancte michael ora
    Sancte gabriel ora
    Sancte raphael ora
    Omnes sancti angeli et archangeli dei orate pro nobis''; the Litany includes the apostle Martial; the martyr Edmund; confessors- Dunstan, Vedast, Cuthbert, Sampson, Bede, Maur, Brice; virgins- Barbara and Brigid, fols 264r-v; 8 Latin prayers, fol. 265r; 13? Latin prayers, the first beginning, 'Domine Ihesu Criste qui in hunc mundum propter nos peccatores de summi Patris aduenisti'', 265v-70v (all sub-items in Horstmann, vol. 1, 392-408), fols 258v-270v. Between the bottom of fol. 269r-v about 19 lines have been left blank (evenly split between sides); someone, perhaps Thornton has subsequently penned two lines below the main text on 269r, 'Super omnis te exero/Super omnis humilier'

  • 59. The Abbey of the Holy Ghost, Incipit- 'Religio Sancti Spiritus/ Religio munda' (Horstmann, vol.1, 321-337; Perry, Religious Pieces 49-59; cf. Blake, Middle Englisb Religious Prose 88-102), fols 271r-276v.

  • 60. Short modified extract from the Prick of Conscience, parallel to Bk 5, 438-551, 'The begynnyng es of thre ffull mekill''(Horstmann, vol. 1, 372-373), fols 276v-277r.

  • 61. Oracio de VII Gaudia, begins,'Ista oracio que sequitur est de vij gaudia beate Marie uirginis per sanctum Thomam et martirem Cantuariensem archiepiscopum edita', (cf. Cheval 6809) and followed by versicle and prayer beginning, 'Domine Ihesu Christe Fili Dei uiui qui beatissimam genitricem tuam Mariam''(Horstmann, vol. 1, 408-409), fols 277v.

  • 62. 'Anoyer salutacion till oure lady of hir five ioyes', Latin prayer (cf. Cheval. 7017)', followed by versicle and prayer beginning,'[D]eus qui beatam uirginem Mariam in conceptu et partu'' (Horstmann, vol. 1, 409), fols 277v-278r.

  • 63. Latin Prayers and anthems, some with English prefaces, eg., 'Ane antyme to ye fadir of heuen wt a collet'; 'A noyer antyme of ye passyoune of Criste Ihesu'; 'A colecte of grete perdone un to Crist Ihesu'; 'A preyere to ye wounde in Crystis syde Ihesus Marie filius sit mihi demens et propitius' (Horstmann, vol. 1, 409-411), fols. fols 278r-279r.

  • 64. Earth to Earth (B version), with incipit, 'Memento homo quod cinis es et in cinerem reuerteris' IMEV 704 (H.M.R. Murray, The Middle English Poem Erthe Upon Erthe, EETS, os 141 (1911), 6) fols 279r-v. (Click text for link to Middle English Compendium, HyperBibliography entry.

  • 65. 'Liber de diversis medicinis' (M.S.Ogden, The Liber de diversis medicinis in the Thornton Manuscript, EETS, os 207 [1938]), fols 280-321v.

Estimated Date of Production

c. 1430-50

Writing Support



322 fols, originally the MS contained at least 340 leaves; the book is foliated in a C19 hand.

Dimensions of Page and Writing Space

  • Leaf size: 290 x 210 mm approx.
  • Writing Space: (Privity) 225 x 125 mm; see Catalogue for a more comprehensive list of the varying proportions of text frames in the book


Based on Brewer's collation: 1 (a)24 -5 (wants 1-4, 23), 2 (b)24-1 (wants 1), 3 (c)18 -8 (11-18 cancelled), 4 (d)16, 5 (e)18, 6 (f)16, 7 (g)22 -2 (wants 1, 22) , 8 (h)22 (12 is a stub), 9 (i)22 (wants 5, 18), 10 (k)16 (wants 16), 11 (l)20, 12 (m)24, 13 (n)18 -4 (wants 1, 16-18) , 14 (o)18 -1 (wants 1), 15 (p)30 -4 (wants 1, 10-12 cancelled), 16 (q)36 (wants 36; it is possible that this quire contained 40 leaves, see Brewer, XV); 17 (r)?7 + ?? (fragments of seven leaves that may have been part of a much larger quire).


1 column, 48-52 lines approx, frames are ruled in ink.

Rubrication/ Ordinatio

    Privity only:
    • Initials: Opens with 5-line initial, generally plain red 4-line initials without further flourishes; letters beginning sections and names are touched with red.
    • Titles, Headings, Rubrics: There is one use of a marginal paraph/nota mark, of the type that sometimes indicates major subdivisions within a chapter in a prose text, or of the kind that might indicate stanza divisions within verse texts (this marks the final scribal annotation); Thornton also uses Virgula suspensiva against a colon widely in this item to indicate pauses, with a colon alone indicating a lesser pause. A dotted form of paragraphus is placed between the end of a chapter and the next chapter heading, and also at points within the text- particularly at significant moments in the narrative. Incipits/explicits are penned in a thicker duct. Notae are sometimes red? and sometimes in standard ink with a red C-shaped paraph.
    • Other: quire and leaf sigs are sometimes visible.


  • Item 1 has spaces for miniatures, and on fols 7r and 26r he has added instructions relating to the proposed illustrations ('rex equitans' and 'Regina regalibus cum duabus astantibus') See J.J. Thompson, Robert Thornton, 59-63.
  • Fol. 52v (opposite the beginning of the Morte Arthure: the page is adorned with amateur sketches of knights and a Charger in ink. One of the knights carries a mace and bears a heraldic charge of 3 leopards' faces; another sword wielding figure has 3 crowns on his shield, and is thus perhaps intended to represent king Arthur, although the crowns are ducal coronets rather than royal crowns; the ink used is apparently a similar shade to the items on fols 50-52, raising the possibility that this is a later addition.

Number of Scribal Hands

1 main hand, although fols 50-2 have been filled by a later hand (see items 2 and 3).

Style of Hands

The hand of Robert Thornton, a workaday Anglicana script that sometimes varies in size and duct, but is usually consistent and always legible.

Estimated Date of Hands

c. 1430-1450.

Scribal Annotation

Privity only:

There are a number of marginal 'nota bene' sometimes with a simple C-shaped paraph mark, and sometimes in red ink- they all appear to be scribal, but it is possible that this is a layering of notae, applied at different times, as opposed to a marginal apparatus copied from an exemplar.
  • "It was likynge to ȝow, ffadire, for to sende me in to þis werlde, þat I sulde make asethe for mans trespas þat he did to vs: and as sone as þou said thus, I said ,I go', and as it es wretyne in þe spalme of me þat I sulde full-fill thy will, my gode, so wold I" (Horstmann, vol. 1, 219) fol. 180v.

  • "Rightewyse fadire, sen þou owtterly ordeyned þat I sall suffire ded one þe crosse for mans saule, thy will be done. Bot I recomand to ȝowe my dere modir, & my disciples" (200) fol. 180r.
  • "and ofte-tyme þey smote hyme with þe septure one þe heuede fore scorne & dispite; and beholde his blyssede face all rynnande with rede blode." (204) fol. 182r.

  • "And whene cho sawe hir childe þus chargede with þis hevy birdene, & he runne al ouere with blode, cho fell in swunynge and nerehand was dede for sorowe" (205) fol. 182v.

  • "Thane they nakynde hym agayne be-for all þe pepill and rafe of bustously his clothes þat were drye & bakene to his blessid body all-abowte hyme in his blyssede blode, and so they drew ofe þe flesche & þe skyne with-owttyne any pete" (205) fol. 182v.

  • "ffor oure lady hange one þe Rode with hire dere childe in soule, and rathere couett to dye with hym pene to lyfe" (206) 183r.

  • "He called hire not modir bot womane, þat cho sulde nott for tendirnes of lufe haue more sorowe ne dissese" (206) 183r.

  • "And þofe-all þese wordes be noghte pleynly contenede in þe gosepell, neuer-þe-lesse þe gosepell beris witnesse þat oure lorde Ihesu dyd many thynges þat þe Euangelisteȝ wrote noghte" (213) fol. 186r.

  • "Come, my lorde Ihesu. Come, þou onely my hope. Come to me, my dere childe. And whylles scho prayed thus with louely teres: sodeynly come oure lord Ihesu in clothes whyte as any snawe" (213) fol. 186v.

  • 'Marie M' has been penned beside the opening to the chapter beginning, " MHow Maudeleyne & hir systers com to þe sepulcre" (214) fol. 186v; a nota bene occurs on the other side of the text in the right hand side of the text block.

  • "He stode homly among þeme, schewyng þe wondes of his handes & fete & side; þene he Opynde þeire gostely wittys þat þay myghte vndirstande holy writt & knowe þe prevetes of his passione & his resurreccione" (217) fol. 188v; it is possible that the title of the text in the Thornton MS may be derived from this moment in the text.
  • "Be-holde also oure lady þere, fore all þe disciples were gadirde to hire for socoure & comforthe" (218) fol. 188v.

  • Just before the closing section of the text, a passage is marked as being especially significant, with notae on either side of the text block and a marginal stanza/paragraph sign* used to indicate the beginning of the passage (the only time this type of mark occurs in the Privity): " I trow sothefastly þat if þou couthe pete & compassione of his passione, and had þi herte and þi mynd gedirde to-gedire & nott distracte abowte in þe werlde abowte oþer thynges & oþer fantassies, þat þou sulde fele in euerylkone of þes apperynges a newe feste gostely and a new pasche. And euery sononday suldes þou hafe so, If þou wolde one ffryday before with hole mynde & feruent deuocyone hafe sorowe and pete of Cristes passione" (218) fol. 189r.

  • *See Thompson 56 n. 4.

Notable Dialect Features

LALME, I: 98.

The Privity is one of the texts that is not copied in Thornton's own Yorkshire dialect, but instead in a dialect with prominent SW Lincolnshire features. See also Angus McIntosh, 'The Textual Transmission of the Alliterative Morte Arthure', English and Medieval Studies Presented to J.R.R. Tolkein (London, 1962) 231-40, where the argument is made that the Privity and Morte Arthure where both derived from a single Lincolnshire exemplar.

Localisable on Google Earth
(click markers to view sample dialect forms)


Annotation and Marginalia

  • A small '+' beside, "for þe fals Iewes lefte nott so mekill one hyme as his preue clothes: and þerfore his sorowefull modire wente in gret haste to hir sone & halses hyme and hilles hym with the vaile of hire heuede" (205) 182v; it is possible but uncertain whether this is scribal.
  • A barely discernable '+' in the gutter area, beside, "Than scho lifte vp hir eghne to þe heuene-warde & prayede to þe fadir, sayande: Endles ffadire, I recomende to ȝowe my dere sone Ihesu, & myne aghene soule, þe wilke I lefe here with hym" (212) fol. 185v.


  • Fol. 217r: 'Prayse the lorde O ye children pr[ay?]'; 'Pater Noster'; both written in the margins to the Lay Folks' Catechism in a contemporary hand.
  • Fol. 277r: alphabetic pen-trials using
  • Names recorded, signatures, ex libris marks

  • Fol. 49r:pen-trials, including 'Isto die natus fuit Robertus Thomton in Ridayll anno Domini m. cccc. liij' and 'Wylliam thomton admiger this Boke'.
  • Fol. 93: In a v-shaped scroll cartouche held in a bird's claws (beside an initial), 'Robert Thomton'.
  • Fol. 98v: 'Here endes Morte Arthure writen by Robert of Thornton' and 'R. Thornton dictus qui scripsit sit benedictus. Amen', also ocurs on fol. 213r.
  • Fol. 194r: 'edward thornton' the same hand has copied a small section of text on fol. 193v '
  • Fol. 265r: 'Dorythy Thornton' and 'Roger blande', poss. in same C16? hand.
  • Fol. 278v (beside item 63): 'Thornton miseratur mei dei/ miserere mei deus', C15, hand of Robert Thornton.
  • Notes


    References and Other Resources

    The Thornton MS is the subject of a huge number of publications; the books recorded below provide thorough bibliographies:

    R.M.Thomson, The Catalogue of the Manuscripts of Lincoln Cathedral Chapter Library, (Boydell & Brewer, 1989) 65-9.

    D. S. Brewer and A. E. B. Owen, ed. The Thornton Manuscript (Lincoln Cathedral MS. 91) (London: Scolar Press, 1975).

    J. .J. Thompson, Robert Thornton and the London Thornton Manuscript (Woodbridge, 1987).

    _ _ _, "The Compiler in Action: Robert Thornton and the "Thomton Romances" in Lincoln Cathedral MS 91', D. Pearsall ed., Manuscripts and Readers in Fifteenth-Century England (Woodbridge, 1983), pp. 113-124

    G.R.Keiser, 'The Nineteenth-Century Discovery of the Thomton Manuscript (Lincoln Cathedral Library MS. 91)', Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, 77 (1983) 167-190,

    *For an interesting discussion of the Thornton's treatment of the Lay Folk's Catechism that encompasses two other MSS in the corpus (BL Harley MS 1022 and TCC MS B.10.12) see David A. Lawton, 'Gaytryge's Sermon, "Dictamen," and Middle English Alliterative Verse', Modern Philology, vol. 76, No. 4 (May, 1979), pp. 329-343.