Chapel Hill, Heyneman MS.

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Manuscript Identity

Here may a man heren how Engeland was first called Albyon and thorough whom it hadde the name.

Matheson Number:
58, 202 (Lehigh University [3 fragments])

Matheson Version:
CV-1419 [r&g] B (b)

Matheson discusses the MS on pages:

Proposed date of MS production:
Scribes A + B, prob. 2nd quarter of 15th C.; according to Kathleen Scott, Scribe C's stint was copied c. 1460-80.

LALME reference (where provided):
No entry in LALME

Dialects evident in the MS:
Not identified.

Possible locations for the MS production/ reception:
Poss. produced in London area according to Scott's analysis of the illustrations. Quoted sections below are drawn from Scott's provenance for the manuscript; 15th?-16th C.,manuscript may have been in Scotland judging from names and dialectal features of graffiti; a poss. 17th-18th C. Spanish title on spine may suggest that the book was held in Spain; 'front paste-down, bookplate with arms and motto 'vigueur du dessus' of "The Right Honourable The Earl of Inchiquin"', O'Brien family, Irish peers of Co. Clare; 'Major E.W. MacDonald of Dedham, Essex' (see Sotheby's 1932 Catalogue, lot 8); 'front paste-down, ex libris of Julius Wangenheim (d.1942), of San Diego, California, who acquired it from Myers in 1934; bequeathed to daughter Alice W. Heyneman (d. 1974); to son Robert G. Heyneman and one leaf to daughter M.H. Kittredge'. (Scott, Gothic, II, 225) Prob. in 1934 3 fragments (containing 6 leaves) were removed from the manuscript and are now preserved in the Lehigh University Library.

Items in the MS:

Contents of the MS:
Brut Chronicle.

Languages used in the MS
Latin annotation, prob. scribal occurs throughout Scribe A's stint (fols 1r-142r).

Evidence of Exemplar?
Probably three exemplars were employed in the production of this manuscript. Scribe A employed a CV-1377 f.c. stage 1 as exemplar, scribe B's continuation was prob. taken from a CV-1419 (r&g); The last quire must have been lost and scribe C copied this section of text, unlike scribe B, utilising a CV-1419 (men).

Institutional Associations?
(E.g., household, religious house, library, private collection, etc.)
Collection of the Earl of Inchiquin, (O'Brien family of Co. Clare, Ireland), poss. 18th-19th C.; Lehigh University Library, fragments obtained ca. 1934.

Suspected Association?

Related Manuscripts
(biobibliographically, textually, stemmatically and so on)
The manuscript has been linked through the main illustrator by Scott to B.L. MS. Royal 2.B.X, a Psalter, 'probably made in London'; the illustrator may also have worked on B.L. MS. Harley Charters 51.H.6; Scott also argues that the Heyneman miniatures are stylistically comprable to illustrations in Bodleian Library MS. Douce 18, (c. 1433), 'and to the initial of Richard II (f. 248) in London, Guildhall Records Office, "Statuta Antiqua Angliae", c. 1430'; Scott notes there are similarities between the style of the 'questionable' second Heyneman illustrator and figures in the "Statuta Antiqua Angliae", possibly suggesting the two limners had cooperated on projects other than the Heyneman MS. See Scott, Gothic, II, 224-5.

Manuscript Construction

Number of Scribes:


Unable to collate Scribe A's stint from microfilm, other than to point out that the first quire was an 8. Scribe B: i-ii8; iii8 -2 (wants 4-5); Scribe C: one quire, poss. 4 -1 (wants 4).

Any blank leaves?
Fol. 142v; 168r+v.

Modern, every folio, top right hand corner in pencil; modern foliation extends to fol. 168.

It is generally accepted that Scribe B's continuation (fols 143-165v) was planned and produced in conjunction with Scribe A's stint, however it is possible that scribe B's stint was a slightly later continuation, and not part of the original plan for the production; if this is the case, it would seem that the owner of the ms. either commissioned the original producers of the manuscript to render the continuation or requested that the decorative features of the manuscript be emulated by the new production team; both possibilities are suggested by the similarity in initials and miniatures. Scribe C supplies a section of text to replace a quire which was prob. lost.

Fols 8, 158, 165.

Quire Signatures:
Fol. 151: 'b'; fol. 152: 'b2'; fol. 153: 'b3'; fol. 154: 'b4'; fol. 159: 'c1'; fol. 160: 'c2'; fol. 161: 'c3'.

Generally in good condition, however, the ms. is missing many leaves, some of which have been removed since the modern foliation was added, prob. due to their miniatures. Removed folios are numbered 11 (the Kittredge fragment), 15, 16, 18, 22 (Lehigh University fragment A), 25 (Lehigh University fragment B), 57 (Lehigh University fragment C) [Scott must be wrong in her assessment that fragment C includes a leaf numbered 162, as this leaf remains in the manuscript]. There are evidently also some leaves which were removed or lost before the addition of modern foliation; there was once a single leaf between fols 141-142, and two leaves between fols 161-162.

2 columns of 36 lines throughout, frames and lines ruled throughout, 'ruling in rose ink' (Scott, Gothic,II, 224), some signs of pricking in Scribe A's stint.

Page Dimension and Materials:
Approx. 300mm x 205mm

Writing Space:
Approx. 210mm x 130mm


No image on microfilm; according to De Ricci description, 'original wooden boards and rough sheepskin' (II, 2243)

Decoration and Rubrication

Full bar-frame border in gold and 'bright' colours, scrolling extends along the right hand vertical bar; roundels at corners with twisted acanthus leaves. Lower and right hand margins have a large central aroid flower with sprays of buds, flowers, leaves and balls with a single squiggle; comparatively restricted room in the upper and left margin means less elaborate spraywork which consists of kidney/trumpet shaped flower terminals, bud feathering and balls with a single squiggle. For an image see Scott, Gothic, I, no. 301 and description, II, 224.

This manuscript contains many historiated initials, which are discussed as 'miniatures'. Scribe A, fols 1-142r: Chapter headings utilise 1-line initials, gold or blue with red or brown penwork flourishing; chapters begin with generally 3-line gold initials, with sprays of feathering buds with gold balls, usually terminating in a trefoil vine leaf (gold or with gold ornament); Scribe B, fols 143-165v: initials are typically of similar design to those initials in scribe A's stint although do not appear to be the work of the same limner, and are generally 4-line rather than 3-line. Scribe C, fols 166r-168v: only one initial in this stint, an 'I' which is of similar design to others in the manuscript (cf. fol. 12rb), although the sprays are somewhat denser and the gold balls have been embellished to become daisys; for an example of this trait see Scott, Datable, 62-3.

Fol. 105v: Small s-chain design with initials(?), poss. attempted monogram, similar design on fol. 168v; fol. 168v: a badly drawn merchants' mark and several monograms including one with the letters 'I N'.

This manuscript contains large numbers of historiated initials (catalogued as containing 73 in 1933, although it is possible that several leaves were already missing), normally 7-line, with some smaller, often due to the position of the initial at bottom of column, and a few such as Arthur (8-line) slightly larger; majuscule formed in gold, flourished with sprays of green feathering and gold terminal vine leaves/buds; historiations usually depict the incumbent king at the beginning of the textual treatment of that reign, usually alone and in a variety of poses, although there are occasional departures from this rule, including a portrayal the baptisim of Athelbright by St. Austin and Morwith's depiction with the beast who killed him. Scott argues due to 'variation in rendering', of the historiations that there may have been two artists, with one (senior?) artist responsible for the majority of images. Scott does not discuss possible differences in the rendering of the portraits in scribe B's stint; it is interesting to note that of the three historiated initials in this section of the manuscript only the depiction of Richard II (fol. 143r) conforms to the usual 7-line portrait size; Henry IV has much the smallest portrait in the manuscript, a mere 3-lines, whilst Henry V has the largest portrait at 10 lines. Scott writes of this anomaly: 'The increased height of the line of Henry V's picture...together with the abnormal number of illustrations, may indicate that the book was made for him or at least that he was the reigning monarch (d. 1422); but as a period before the death of Henry is early for the type of illustration and decoration, the larger picture may simply have been a commemorative gesture.' (Gothic, II, 225). Whilst this is plausible, the lack of uniformity in portrait size in scribe B's section of the manuscript begs further investigation and may suggest that the continuation is later and is emulating the style of the earlier portion, rather than having being produced conncurrently with fols 1-142.

Chapter headings prob. in red, on several occasions there are oversights by the rubricator who has failed to insert a title, eg. fols 28va; 37va; 133va; 139vb; subdivisions marked by paraphs (gold and blue) with brown or red flourishing, and small sprays if the paraph coincides with a margin. General consistency between Scribe A and B as regards rubrication, however, the scribal annotation, usually marked by a paraph (wrought as above) and underscored only occurs during scribe A's stint.

Marginalia and Annotation

Scribal annotation in Latin throughout scribe A's stint, usually marked with a paraph and underscored; the annotation marks a mixture of matters including battles: eg. fol. 76v: 'Bellum de lewys', (Brie, 175:10ff); locations, eg. fol. 17r 'Gloucestre', (Brie, 35:27-8) and points of general interest, fol. 89v: 'Destruccio Templarione', (Brie, 206:24ff); 129ra+b: 2 x 'nota', ref. to Black Death, (Brie, 303:6-24). Later annotation: a later hand, poss. 16th C. has written dates adjacent to the text on fols 89r, 117v, 122v, 124r, taking the dates from the text, even where wrong, eg. fol. 122: '1322' instead of '1332',(Brie, 283:15); Fol. 17v: 'Coyll. Westmers' sone' (Brie, 37), poss. 17th C.

Evidence of erasures:
No obvious signs of censorship.

No underlining other than that applied to the scribal annotation.

Graffiti (pen trials etc):
Fol. 105v: poss. draft of monogram; fol. 168r: 'In my defenc god me defenc(?)', poss. 16th C.; in a later and impossibly difficult hand are seven lines of writing that seems to make sveral references to 'lord of __(?)' and also makes mention of a 'buk', and possibly 'brut'; the spelling 'buk' may suggest a Scottish hand; fol. 168v: several pentrials, possibly Scottish names, monograms and a merchants' mark; 'king hary', poss. 16th C.; 'and in [th]at same tyme [th]air wes ane greit', poss. 15th C. Scots(?); 'this bouk', poss. 16th C. Scots(?); 'I am [th]e wofullist wycht/ that er(?) cryst(?) wrocht', poss. 16th C. Scots(?)

References, Acknowledgements and Credits

Secondary references
Brie,The Brut

L. Matheson, PB

_ _ _, 'The Middle English Prose Brut: A Location List of the Manuscripts and Early printed Editions,' Analytical and Enumerative Bibliography, III, 1979, 258.

J.C. Hirsh, Western Manuscripts of the Twelfth Through the Sixteenth Centuries in Lehigh University Libraries, Bethlehem, Penn.: Lehigh University, 1970, no. 7.

K.L. Scott, Later Gothic Manuscripts, 1390-1490, 2 vols, London: Harvey Miller, 1996.

_ _ _, Dated and Datable English Manuscript Borders, 1395-1499, London: The Bibliographical Society and The British Library, 2002.

Sotheby and Co., Catalogue of Valuable Books, Autograph Letters and Historical Documents, 18 April 1932, lot 8.

Myers and Co., An Illustrated Catalogue of Very Rare Books, Choice Illuminated Manuscripts, Important Autograph Letters (Old and Modern), Etc., Catalogue 291, March 1933, no. 299.

De Ricci, Census, II, 2243-4.

Associated MSS according to Matheson
CV-1419 (rule and governance) Bb [58-60]:
Chapel Hill, Heyneman MS.
London, British Library MS. Harley 1568
Washington, Folger Shakespeare Library MS. V.b.106.

Thanks to Lister Matheson for dialectal input on the Scots graffiti at the rear of the manuscript.

Described by:
Ryan Perry

Date of description:

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