Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 173

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Investigative Apparatus


1. Production Practicalities: checked against ms

i. Pressmark / Name of Book: Bodl. MS Rawlinson B.173 ii. Matheson no. 30. iii. Date: 2/4 C15, ca. 1420-30 iv. Type of book: ME Prose Brut Chronicle. v. Manuscript or print?: MS vi. Writing support: parchment with 2 paper flyleaves at front of ms and 3 at end. vii. Watermark? N/A viii. Collation: a. No of leaves: 230 fols. b. Quires: i10; ii-viii12; ix2; x-xiii12; xv11 (wants 1); xvi-xvii10; xviii14 xix12; xx10; xxi9 c. Foliation: modern pencil top right hand corner, every 5 fols (e.g 5, 10, 15 etc; fols. 227-230 foliated separately in modern pencil). d. Booklets?: N/A e. Catchwords? (on which fols?): (poss. 31v); 34v; 46v; 58v; 70v; 82v; 94v; 96v; 108v [‘how the hugh’ not picked up on following fol., unless it refers to a running title which has been trimmed away]; 120v; 132v; 154v; 165v; 175v; 185v; 199v; 211v ; 221v. f. Quire signatures? (where?): 5r, A; 11r - 16r, b-b vj; 24r- 28r c ij-cvj 35r- 40r, d-d vj; 47r-52r e j-e vj; 59r- 63r f j-f v [64r damaged]; 71r-76r, g j-g vj; 83r-88r ,h j- h vj; 95r, k j; 97r-102r , l j- l vj; 109r-114r , m j- m vj; 121r-126r n j- n vj [niij faint or erased]; 133r-135r o j-o iij [136-37 bottom margin completely cut away; 138r too faint to make out quire sig., should be o vj]; 146r-148r , p iiij-v j; 156r-159r q iij-q vj; 167r- 171r, r ij-r vj; 176r-180r s j-s v [181 bottom margin completely cut away]; 186r-192r t j- t vij [t ij obscured by marginalia]; any further quire sigs. removed by trimming, or not employed by new scribe. Quires also numbered in black ink in Arabic numerals (by C16 or later hand). g. Damage?: top margins trimmed; Fol. 64 bottom right hand corner torn away; 136-37 bottom margin completely cut away; 166, bottom margin completely cut away; 175, bottom right hand corner torn away; 181, bottom margin completely cut away. First and last leaves stained.

ix. No of items: 7 x. Page layout: a. ruling: drypoint; from fol. 189r-196v lines ruled in ink. b. columns: 1 c. lines: 27 (scribes A+B); chaotic after this. xi. Ink: black; brown. Blue and red used for rubrication. xii. Size, binding: front board: 172 x 255 mm; fol.: 160 x 248 mm; writing space: 113 x 183 mm; binding: brown leather over cardboard, spine tooled in gold floral pattern, embossed ‘H:515’ and labelled ‘Rawlinson’, prob. C17-18. xiii. Decoration? none xiv. No. of Scribes: 2 main; Scribe A: fols. 1- 185v; Scribe B: fols. 186r-227v (picks up catchword from previous scribal stint). After this, various hands: Scribe C (prob. William Spynke), fols. 227v-228v (poss. also 229r lines 16-23); Scribe D, fol. 229r; Scribe E, fols. 229v-230r; Scribe F, fol. 230v? xv. Hand date; style; version; holograph, autograph? Scribe A, C15 Anglicana with some Secretary forms; Scribe B, C15 Anglicana with some Secretary forms; Scribe C, late C15 Anglicana with some Secretary forms; Scribe D, C15 Anglicana; Scribe E, C15 Anglicana with Secretary forms; Scribe F, C15 Secretary with Anglicana forms. xvi. Rubrication, sigla: Fols. 1r-221v, chapter headings in red; two-line caps in blue; chapter headings not numbered until fol. 58v; chapter headings missing after fol. 71r, but spaces left by scribe; alternate red and blue paraphs throughout the Brut and London Chronicle. xvii. Contents: 1: Brut chronicle, fols. 1-221v; 2: London Chronicle continuation to 1431 fols. 222-227v; 3: medical recipes on fols. 227v, 229r, 230r-v; 4: note, Oxen due on certain lands in the hundred of Ewyas Lacy, Herefordshire, fol. 228r; 5: note concerning the foundation of the monastery of Dore and of its founders, fol. 228r; 6: charms against sickness, fols 228v, 229r; 7: Lists of knight’s fees (see heading 2. xi below) fol. 229-230r.

2. Production Culture:

i. Compiler? N/A ii. Named scribes? Scribe C is probably William Spynke. iii. Biobibliographical information: marginalia, glosses, signatures, compiler/ scribe / owner / authorial identification a. Flyleaf (fol ir?): book plate of Ric[hard] Rawlinson b. Flyleaf (fol. iv?): ‘Brutes chronicle ms Tho: Pope Blount eq. owner.’, C17, ink. c. Fol. 1r: scribal?: ‘Jhesu Maria … Agnes’; ‘1’. d. Fol. 2r: gloss C16? Ink e. Fol. 10r: gloss (see fol. 2r) C16? Ink; see fol. 2r. f. Fol. 11r: marginalia crossed out, illegible under UV; ‘2’ ink. g. Fol. 13r: ‘nota’, pale brown ink, next to chapter heading of Reynold son of Conadage (See Brie, p. 21). h. Fol. 14r: underlined text: But thes Cloten schuld haue had all the londe bi reson. for ther wes no man that wyst of so rightfull eyre as he wes’ (See Brie, p. 23; TCD MS 505, P. 95). i. Fol. 14v: ‘ys my nam’. C16-17? j. Fol. 16r: ‘of the countye of … Thomas Lewis of Syntonn in :h go’ C16. k. Fol. 17r: ‘nota …’ at chapter heading ‘How Kyng Cornybatrus [etc]’ (See Brie, 27). l. Fol. 19r ‘nota de regnie regnm’ at chapter heading ‘Howe xxiij kynggys[etc]’ (see Brie, p. 30). m. Fol. 21r: ‘Ima(??)nain ?Domini’; ‘de nativita cristi cr…’ [trimmed], next to chapter heading ‘of Kymbalyn [etc] Natalie Domini’ (See Brie, p. 33). Same hand as 19r. n. 23r: ‘thare mylle?’; C16? ‘Elizabeth’; Elizab, C16-17?, see fol. 121r; ‘3’; faint text. o. Fol. 23v: ‘nota’ (margin trimmed and loops of other letters visible) next to chapter heading ‘how kyng Lucie regned aftir Coyle [etc]’ (See Brie, p. 37); ‘…(b?)oam exin(er?) Romann(i?) …?po stoln no … a(p?)ernd … ?part ?ci’ C16, ink; ‘…fyde grist gynta gan y (?)vla(??)iaid’ Welsh,[Christ will be first with the ?’], C16-17, ink. p. Fol 24r: latin gloss: ‘fact x christ of ?censura’ C15? see 23v. q. Fol. 27v: ‘nota’ next to chapter heading ‘how Vrsula and xj thowsand madens [etc]’ (see Brie, p. 43). r. 28v: ‘nota’ and text underlined at heading: ‘Alban called the first martyr of Englond’; ‘Saint Alban’ rubricated in red ink. See Brie, p. 44, not a heading in Brie). s. 32r: ‘per…?’ t. Fol. 33r: ‘wyll ?appare [will ap harri?] of newcry(ll?)’ C15-16, ink, faint, poss. erased. ‘not’. Modern ink. u. 33v: ‘my dywte be monid …’ C 16. v. Fol. 35r: English gloss: ‘this was …’ [trimmed] C18?, Ink; ‘4’. w. Fol. 35v: ‘Bason’ (baron?) C16; Welsh gloss C18? (comp. previous fol.); ‘…fr & an’, ?Bl(?), next to underlined text: ‘ her knife and sle a Briton and so thei kylled xxxti. thousand & lxj of gooded knights & wt mekle sorrow mo[ny of hem escapede]’ (see Brie, p. 54). x. Fol. 36v: ‘Amen wel be wie wey tet be me dore (eoþe?)’ C16. y. Fol. 37v: ‘nota’; ‘nota’ next to chapter heading ‘Off the answere of Merlyn [etc]’ (See Brie, p. 57), and next to following text. z. Fol. 38r: ‘dyght e… herof’ C16. aa. 38v: ‘nota’ bb. Fol. 39r: ‘to James’; ‘nota’ next to chapter heading ‘off kyng Aurilambros [etc]’ (see Brie, p. 59). cc. Fol. 40r ‘nota’ at textual error, heading ‘off Vter pendragon [etc]’ (see Brie, p. 65) on fol. 39r too early in text, followed by heading (in black ink) ‘how the kynge Aurilambros [etc]’ (see Brie, p. 60), this should be text, and should follow the heading ‘How Aurilambros dede redresse [etc]’ (see Brie, p. 60): wrong chapter heading copied by scribe. dd. Fol. 41r ‘nota’ next to text (see Brie, p. 64). ee. Fol. 43r: ‘nota’ next to text (see Brie, p. 67); ‘hiotres’ [trimmed] C16-17. ff. 47r: ‘5’; ‘h’. gg. Fol. 48r: ‘averill his (?)fooen’ [trimmed] C16. hh. Fol. 49r: ‘nota’ next to chapter heading ‘ off the bolde answere that Arthir [etc]’ (see Brie, p. 82). ii. Fol. 50r: pentrials. jj. Fol. 51r: ‘nota’ next to text [etc]’ (see Brie, p. 85). kk. Fol. 53r: ‘… de …’ C16?; ‘nota de falsita’ next to text, ‘When Arthur the kynge [etc]’ (see Brie, p. 88); correction in red ink with scribal gloss in margin. ll. Fol. 54v: ‘nota’ next to text (See Brie, p. 92); pen trials. mm. Fol. 55r: ‘fabian saith that this contrive is the same whome other writers call caxeticus: and so by the order of succession it shold seeme’ C17-18, reddish-brown ink. nn. Fol. 56r: ‘nota’ next to text and text underlined in reddish-brown ink: ‘and whiles [the batayle] ’ (see Brie, p. 94, also fol. 55r note, 14r underlining). oo. Fol. 51v: text underlined in reddish-brown ink: ‘The first kingdom was kent And the seconde southsex And the thryde westsex And the iiij Estsex. And the .v. Northumberlond And the .vj. Estangle that is to sey Northfolk and Southefolk And the .vij. is the merche northe.’ (see Brie, p. 95). pp. Fol. 57r: ‘?chaylyam t[he] ffayrst son by Eng(st?), C16? qq. 57v: ‘Satys? Ky…’ C16, ink. Trimmed. rr. 58r: ‘Hiw?’; ‘nota’ next to chapter heading ‘how seint Austin went in to Wales’ (see Brie, p. 98). ss. 58v: ‘Saynt’; inverted: ‘Jenkinne de Ruthin town’ tt. 59r: ‘6’. uu. 61r: text underlined in reddish-brown ink: ‘led offa that wes seynte oswaldes brother’ (See Brie, p. 102, also fols. 55r note, 56r, 14r underlining). vv. 62v: ‘odych seith [p]ennod …chilyno= ..on hyn; acha(w)s …ot yndh= … ynt bith(v?)u … didu(g)ion …nodadvy.’ C17-18, paleish black ink. Comp. fol. 55? ww. 63v: ‘sir’ xx. 66r: ‘william c[onqueror]’ yy. 66v: ‘L panawdri?’ modern, brown ink; ‘Sanderiny lai?y Bry’ C16. zz. 71r: ‘7’; ‘James ha(r)ris’ C16-17, ink. aaa. 71v: ‘Steven’;‘After this king henry’ C16. bbb. 73v: ‘henrye ij’ same hand as 71v. ccc. 75 r-v: ‘Seynt Thomas’ erased. ddd. 76v: pen trials, smudged and erased text. eee. 77r: ‘‘Richard j’ (see 71v); ‘(h?)e (?)end…’ same C16 hand. fff. 77v: ‘the ?soad of [text erased]; ‘the crondriocies of’ C16-17? ggg. 78v: ‘pope’ erased and rewritten; ‘John fyrste’ looks like 2 different scripts, a: flourished C16; b: more scrappy C16. hhh. 83r: ‘8’. iii. 84r: ‘Symond goZ’ C15-16, ink. jjj. 84v: trimmed: ‘Thomas boel focle’, ‘John Peynter’ C15-16; ‘pope’ erased and rewritten. kkk. 85r: trimmed: ‘rechere(?r ?d) Thomes John Pe Nicoles ffelep’ C15-16 (see fol. 84v). lll. 85v: ‘whan that … honde’ gloss of first line (see fol. 84v, 85r); ‘jyd euel Thomas Chy3th and wel beth wel (shel?) be la(?u ?n)cre’ C16. mmm. 86v: ‘John ?Games’ C16. nnn. 87v: ‘demed’ ooo. 89v: ‘Elynor vaughan’, brown ink, C16-17 ppp. 92v: trimmed marginalia at bottom. qqq. 95r: ‘Edward the fyrst’ (see 71v); ‘9’. rrr. 97r: ‘10’. sss. 98v: pen trials: ‘all’ ‘all’ ‘’g’ ‘gchilrimall’ C16. ttt. 99r: pen trials and scribbles; ‘for me meder ne for inq ne for to haue of’ C16-17. uuu. 99v: ‘[erased] this bill made the xx daye of ?may’ C16 vvv. 100r: inverted: ‘in the xix ?men of the [trimmed] of … sorurinye g…n Elizabeth bythe grace of god queen of Englond ?rannd ? edr Seynt defender of the feyth & ?lenni of Robart Broune Of the oh lay of ?bredmon ?Diuyie … the co… of …one thesond p…y / am John ?perfer of Bredwardiny [Bredwardine?]’ C16. www. 102r: Gloss on text: ‘Edward of Karnarvan’ [trimmed] C16-17? (comp. to fol. 89v). xxx. 103v: ‘Edward the second’ (See fol. 71v). yyy. 105r: ‘ John Games’; ‘John’ C16. zzz. 105v: ‘…y’ partially erased. aaaa. 106v: ‘remember that thy ?leuinge ?is bute ?son ?smale when he is gone’; ‘harri’, same C16 hand. bbbb. 107r: couplet: ‘he that in youth no virtue will vse [/] J age all honore shalle hym refuse’ C16 (comp. 106v, same ink). cccc. 108r: ‘david?’ dddd. 108v: ‘he that in youthe no vertu will vse [/] in age al honor will hime refuse [/] trew it is’ (comp. 107r). eeee. 109r: pen trials; ‘11’. ffff. 110r: pen trials, ‘Mathewe?’ child’s hand?. gggg. 111r: C15 inverted: ‘in the xix y rd of the sorueranye Lady Elizabeth bye the grace of god quane of Englond frenn… grand? per …enid…’ (see fol. 100r) script partly erased. C16. hhhh. 112r: ‘… [trimmed] wife son kyll the dane oft dethis’ C16; ‘This book pertainis to ane honororable man callit Sir John Games and the (?et) (thief?) ?stellis this book frome hime. Y wold he were hengid ere and laid inn(?)r shame amen for us amen for all (?)’ C16 (see fol 105r, same ink). iiii. 113v: pen trials jjjj. 116v: inverted: ‘Lorde diwke of Clarence ?quenes This shanlle (shalbe?) in the … / math (master?) mane to wylle and ?require yow in the …’ C16. kkkk. 118v: erased text: ‘…Elizabeth by the…’ llll. 119r: erased text ‘…castell of breddw [bredwardine?]’ mmmm. 119v: ‘This is Elizabethes boke he shal stelleth is shall be sthell? on a hoke’ C16. nnnn. 121r: signature partially erased: ‘Elizabeth’; C16-17? ‘12’. oooo. 121v: erased text. pppp. 122r: ‘he that in …’ C16 comp. 107r. qqqq. 126r: ‘tf’; erased, smudged and trimmed text rrrr. 127r: ‘Latin gloss’ C16. ssss. 129v: gloss ‘he was so feble’; erased text: ‘bremid’ C16. tttt. 130v: erased text: ‘this indent … the …’ C16. uuuu. 132v: trimmed text. vvvv. 133r: ‘DG’ 1581’; ‘13’ wwww. 134v: trimmed text; ‘Edward j (see fol. 71v). xxxx. 135r: ‘… synyc…’ [trimmed]’; erased (faint?) text: ‘Robert Barenne of the parisshe of barn…’ (comp. 116v; poss. Robert Brown of Bredwardine? See fols. 100r and 111r) C16. yyyy. 135v: ‘ch’ pen trials. zzzz. 136r: ‘nota’ next to text: ‘Sir Thomas of Berkele and to Sir john Mautravers… [etc]’ (see Brie, p. 249). aaaaa. 143v erased text, not visible under UV. bbbbb. 144r: inverted: ‘Sorvreny lady Elizabeth … ?by … will (all?) ?bura’ partially erased C16; ‘14’. ccccc. 145v: inverted: ‘o god of lond that a bond that enoufe of myn’ C16-17, poss. Elizabeth, same ink, comp. fol. 121r. ddddd. 146r: ‘thyt y’ C16-17? eeeee. 151v: ‘englond’, ‘mort(imer)’, C17?; erased text, illegible even under UV fffff. 153r: ‘xxxio; xijio’ C16. ggggg. 155r: ‘nota’ next to text: ‘And so they come and mett the baylioll … [etc]’ (See Brie, p. 178); ‘15’; ‘…f amorye t…’ C16. see next fol. hhhhh. 155v: ‘amory t…of M 7’ C16 see preceding fol. iiiii. 156r: inverted: ‘Robert Browne’ C16. jjjjj. 157v: inverted: ‘?Scriplorey’ comp. fol. 144r. kkkkk. 158r: ‘Roger Vaughan’ C16-17, same hand as fol. 157v. lllll. 159r: text underlined: ‘deo Gracias’ (see Brie, p. 286). mmmmm. 160r: ‘nota’ next to text: ‘A goode fatt ox for. Vj.v. and viij d. and .v. goode dove briddes for a peny…[etc]’, (See Brie, p. 292). nnnnn. 161v: ‘in the yere of oure lorde god M cccc xix’ C15 ooooo. 162v inverted: ‘[trimmed]… Brother Vaughan thys is to lete you vnderstand that my lord of hath fared at well at hes matrs hand and father of our holande wife ar waxen haued no more to you at this time but god. haue this I bid you farwell from London ?the xth daye of marce By your loving frend Nicles ?Mabe(it?) ?Wabe(it?) (Wavlit?)’ C16-17. ppppp. 165r: ‘Md the’ C16; ‘nota’ next to text: ‘And the thris day after the batayle…[etc]’ (see Brie, p. 299) (ms omits earl of Northampton). qqqqq. 167r: ‘Im the noble lande of sarre In the noble lande of sarre’ C16; ‘16’ [would expect this on fol. 166 after catchword, but bottom of fol. trimmed away, therefore probable that quire numbering occurred after trimming]. rrrrr. 167v: ‘lord deleuer me from all’ C16-17 hand of Elizabeth? comp. fol. 119v sssss. 170r: ‘williame Winstone, C16? ttttt. 172v: pen trials. ‘this in for…’ v. faint C16. uuuuu. 173 design pricked out. vvvvv. 176r: ‘17’; wwwww. 177r: trimmed text. xxxxx. 179r: ‘Fine Robertus Brown’[trimmed]’ C16. yyyyy. 186r: ‘18’. zzzzz. 186v: faint pen trials. aaaaaa. 187r: ‘Walter Be it knowen vnto all men by this present th th I Robert Browne of parreshe of breatra… in the county of herf… (here[fordshire]?) Sole (sold?) ane only ii vnto John lak [trimmed] of the’ C16. bbbbbb. 189v: ‘who lossyth thir youth | shall rue it in age | who hateth the truthe | in sorow shal paye } L N’ C16? cccccc. 190r: text erased or smudged: ‘who lossyth…’ see fol. 189v. dddddd. 191r: ‘Richard ij’ (see fol. 71v). eeeeee. 196v: ‘were here hedes smettyn of … [trimmed]’ C15. ffffff. 199r: inverted, erased and smudged text: ‘Robert … Robert bredwarding? … he’ C16. gggggg. 200r: ‘19’; ‘… engraffed in will he …Be me Thomas Sandy? yv(e?)’ (comp. fol. 144r). hhhhhh. 202v: ‘myle ap?ry on whas saule amn’ C16? iiiiii. 210v: ‘de tomas (?)irs ynorwas ers erch agwayd | orgell pe ga…[erased or faint text] …ch|medd [erased or faint text] ?ynod ?annerch | ?yng thua gyuyd or fain ac serch | rys ab dafydd y vr wf I ?doniaf’ C15-16. jjjjjj. 211v: ‘Henrye iiij’ see fol. 71v. kkkkkk. 212r: ‘20’. llllll. 214v: ‘nota’ next to text: ‘’the whiche sterre was named and called by clerke Stella Comata [etc]’, (see Brie, p. 363). mmmmmm. 215v: ‘Elynor Vaughan’; ‘Elynor vaughan’; ‘y’ ‘nor’ in differing scripts (appears to be the signatory trying different styles), first sig. looks like the hand of 99r. nnnnnn. 216v: pen trials: ‘shal it’. oooooo. 217r: crossed out note: ‘the it’ pppppp. 207v: ‘tothe …’ faint qqqqqq. 220r: faint text: ‘harry’ [x 3] ?Winsarton (inverted text) rrrrrr. 222r: ‘that yere…’ same hand as glosses of kings throughout ms. ssssss. 227r: ‘1430’ modern pencil; ‘that y est…’ C16; ‘21’. tttttt. 225r: ‘…?regia’, C16-17? uuuuuu. 227v: ‘Wylliam Spynke, grocer at the Bull in Bucklersbury’ C15? vvvvvv. 228r: see separate file for transcription of names and lands. wwwwww. 230r: ‘y dyn mwyn darawn y modd’ C16-17? Pen trials; ‘here ryte P (?)yr and wenllyan man(od?) Richard ap harry and William | (?) and ?richard [pen trials] William [pen trials] bishop | Richard ap harry and william (?) and Richard ap harry[pen trials] |harry ?mirle I(n?) hemla(r?) (humber?)ase & in hales ys (?)oh(?) ?Ventnor | held of the bishop of Hereford by ?bryZton (knighton? Right of?) ?faire Richard ap|[pen trials] Richard [pen trials] RihZt ne(?)[pen trials]’. It would appear that the signatory Richard ap Harry has been partially copying from the text at the top of the folio (lists of knight’s fees).

iv. Hand, rubrication in other MSS? v. Decoration: vi. Scribal and authorial identification: Scribe C is prob. William Spynke vii. Immediate Ownership(s) / Patronage: unknown viii. Language(s); translation activities: MS in English; marginalia in Engliah, Welsh and Latin. ix. Dialect: Herefordshire. x. LALME vol., page, LP, grid no.: Vol I, p. 150; Vol III, p. 172; LP 7481; grid 332 247. xi. Affiliations: (geo-)political, institutional etc: West Herefordshire, knight’s fees include: Weobley, Snowdell, Brecknor, Clifford, Kington, Caldicot; possibly religious (note on foundation of monastery); do administrative notes on knight’s fees indicate secularity?); rural.

3. Reception Cultures / communities:

i. Owner(s): poss. Wylliam Spynke; Vaughan family; Sir John Games a. Gender(s): male; male and female; male b. Occupation(s): grocer; ?; gentry? ii. Locality: region; household (secular/religious): MS in West Herefordshire; poss. Hergest, Vaughan family home in Kington (Kington in Ewyas Lacy, is mentioned in item 7; see also fol. 230r. For the Vaughans of Hergest, see DWB, pp. 996-997). iii. Languages: Marginalia in English, Welsh and Latin. iv. Decoration:

4. Intertextual relations:

i. Textual descent: Matheson ‘common version’, group CV-1419 [men]:A(b). Closely related to BL MS Egerton 650, they agree in the section of text printed as Brie’s Appendix C (392-93) See Matheson, PB, pp. 101-102, 104. Both MSS also contain London Chronicle continuations after the Brut text, see McLaren, 123. ii. Evidence of exemplar: Poss. copied from the same exemplar used for BL MS. Egerton 650 iii. Intra-textual relations to texts in same MS: iv. Extra-textual to other books, texts, traditions: BL MS Egerton 650 also contains a London chronicle (similar text, see PB, p 311-14). The PSL MS V-3A continuation (1419 to 1422) is based on the London Chronicle material of Egerton 650 and Rawl. B173.

5. Credits and acknowledgments:

The description of this MS is from manuscript and microfilm work by JO’R, and partly based on CCM, Textual descent based on Matheson, PB.

6. Select Bibliography for this MS



London BL MS Egerton 650

Oxford Bodl. MS Rawlinson B.166


Pennsylvania PSL MS V-3A PSL MS Vault-Merlin [quire n of PSL MS V-3A]

Secondary Texts:

DWB, pp. 996-997.

McLaren, Mary-Rose, ‘The Textual Transmission of the London Chroni¬cles’, in English Manuscript Studies 1100-1700, ed. by Peter Beal and Jeremy Griffiths, Vol. III (London: The British Library; Toronto: Uni¬versity of Toronto Press, 1992), 38-72, pp. 60-61.

_____, The London Chronicles of the Fifteenth Century: a Revolution in English Writing (Cambridge: Brewer, 2002), 123.

PB, pp. 101-2, 311-14.

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