Project Design

This project addresses the central question: How can power-sharing arrangements be best implemented to account for the exclusion amid inclusion (EAI) problem? We identify three kinds of non-dominant groups who were neglected in the original design of power-sharing institutions and remain on the sidelines of post-conflict politics: 

First, non-ethnic minorities, who do not identify with any of the principal ethnic groups in society and seek to participate in politics on a non-ethnic basis; 

Second, re-aligned minorities, that define gender, sexuality and/or able-bodiedness as core identities that impact on their opportunities for engagement in the power-sharing institutions; 

Third, micro-minorities, ethnic or national groups that make up a small proportion of the overall population. 

The research design is three-fold, entailing: 

  • macro-political analysis of power-sharing institutions; 
  • structured, focussed comparison of four case studies where power-sharing has been implemented (Northern Ireland, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Lebanon and Macedonia); 
  • semi-structured interviews with relevant political elites, community activists and representatives of international organisations engaged in post-conflict democratisation

Assessing the experiences of states engaged in power-sharing, we develop a series of policy proposals for modifying the institutional framework to accommodate identity groups that have either been marginalised under the initial institutional design, or who have emerged during the period of peace.