McCabe, S., Smith, B. J. and Warke, P. A. 2010. A legacy of mistreatment: conceptualising the decay of medieval sandstones in NE Ireland. In: Prikryl, R. & Torok, A. (eds.), Natural Stone Resources for Historical Monuments, Geological Society, London, Special Publications 333: 87 - 100.
Cutler, N. and Viles, H. 2010 Eukaryotic microorganisms and stone biodeterioration. Geomicrobiology Journal 27: 6, 630 - 646.
Smith, B. J., Srinivasan, S., McCabe, S., McAllister, D., Cutler, N., M. Basheer, P.A.M. and Viles, H. A. 2011. Climate change and the investigation of complex moisture regimes in heritage stone: preliminary observations on possible strategies. Materials Evaluation: January 2011, 48 - 58.
Smith, B. J., McCabe, S., McAllister, D., Adamson, C., Viles, H. A. and Curran, J. M. 2011 A commentary on climate change, stone decay dynamics and the 'greening' of natural stone buildings: new perspectives on 'deep wetting'. Environmental Earth Sciences 63: 1691 - 1700.
McCabe, S., Smith, B. J., Adamson, C. S., Mullan, D. & McAllister, D. 2011. The ‘greening’ of natural stone buildings: quartz sandstone performance as a secondary indicator of climate change in the British Isles? Atmospheric and Climate Sciences 4: 165 - 171.
Viles, HA & Culter, N. 2012. Global environmental change and the biology of heritage sturctures. Global Change Biology 18: 2406 - 2418.
Adamson, C., McCabe, S., Warke, P. A, McAllister, D. & Smith, B. J. 2012. The influence of aspect on the biological colonisation of stone in Northern Ireland. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation.
Cutler, N. A., Viles, H. A., Ahmad, S., McCabe, S. & Smith, B. J. 2013. Algal 'greening' and the conservation of stone heritage structures. Science of the Total Environment 442: 152 - 164.
McAllister, D., McCabe, S., Smith, B. J. & Warke, P.A. 2013. Low temperatures in building sandstone: the role of extreme events in temperate environments. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 17(2):99-112.
McCabe, S., Smith, B. J., McAlister, J. J., Gomez-Heras, M., McAllister, D., Warke, P. A., Curran, J. M. & Basheer, P. A. M. In Press. Changing climate, changing process: implications for salt transportation and weathering within building sandstones in the UK. Environmental Earth Sciences.
McCabe, S., Brimblecombe, P., Smith, B. J., McAllister, D., Srinivasan, S. & Basheer, P. A. M. In Press. The use and meanings of 'time of wetness' in understanding building stone decay. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology.
McCabe, S., Smith, B. J., McAlister, J. J., Viles, H. A., Curran, J. M. & Crawford, T. 2010. Climate change and wet winters: testing the diffusion of soluble salts in building stone under saturated conditions. XIX Congress of the Carpathian Balkan Geological Association Thessaloniki, Greece, Vol. 100: 399 - 405.
Adamson, C. S., McCabe, S., McAllister, D., Smith, B. J. & Warke, P. A. 2010. "Mapping the spatial distribution of precipitation, biological soiling, and decay on monuments in Northern Ireland: towards understanding long-term stone response to moisture." XIX Congress of the Carpathian Balkan Geological Association Thessaloniki, Greece, Vol. 99: 183 - 109.
McCabe, S., Smith, B. J., McAlister, J. J., McAllister, D., Srinivasan, S., Basheer, P. A. M. & Curran, J. M. 2011. Linking climate change, moisture dynamics and salt movement within natural building sandstones: implications for salt transport by diffusion. In: Salt Weathering on Buildings and Stone Sculptures 2011, Cyprus: 63 - 70.
McAllister, D., McCabe, S., Srinivasan, S., Smith, B. J. & Warke, P. A. 2011. Moisture dynamics in building sandstone: monitoring strategies and implications for transport and accumulation of salts. In: Salt Weathering on Buildings and Stone Sculptures 2011, Cyprus: 39 - 46.
Adamson, C, Smith, B. J., McCabe, S. & Warke, P. A. 2011. The inventorying of building stone performance-in-use to assess susceptibility to decay. Salt Weathering on Buildings and Stone Sculptures 2011, Cyprus: 145 - 152.
Videos (from Pathways to Impacts awards)
Future climate change: the nature and scale of impact upon masonry (McAllister, D. McCabe, S., Betts, N. & Smith, B. J.)
‘Green Walls’: Simulating algal growth on sandstone heritage (Khawaja, S.)
Climate change and wet winters: testing the diffusion of soluble salt in building sandstones under saturated conditions (McCabe, S., Smith, B. J., McAlister, J. J., Viles, H. A., Curran, J. M. & Crawford, T.)
Project workshop (April 2012)
Knowledge Transfer Secondments
KTS project with Historic Scotland
Dr Julie Eklund has been seconded to Historic Scotland as part of a KTS project linked to the Climate change and greening of masonry project. The main objectives of the KTS project are to increase awareness and practical uptake of the new techniques developed and results obtained during our research, both in the host organisation and in the wider building conservation community. Historic Scotland, with whom we have already developed links via the project Advisory Panel, is the ideal institution to help us realise this objective. HS is the executive agency of the Scottish Government charged with safeguarding Scotland’s historic environment; as such, they are directly involved in the conservation of a broad portfolio of heritage structures and are acutely aware of the challenges facing conservation practitioners. They also have a well-developed infrastructure for the dissemination of data through their website, regular technical seminars for conservation and building professionals, and published guides. Outputs of the KTS post include a technical seminar on non-destructive testing methods for investigating deterioration of masonry (programme and talks available at http://conservation.historic-scotland.gov.uk/home/future-events/past-events.htm) and Inform Guides on ‘Biological growth on masonry: Identification and understanding’ and ‘Growing old gracefully: appreciating the appearance of historic masonry buildings’ (currently in press).
KTS project with S McConnell & Sons Ltd.
This six-month project consisted of a series of field and laboratory experiments testing a pore-filling treatment, it’s combination with a consolidant, and a series of three commonly used biocides (in conjunction with S McConnell and Sons Ltd., leading stone masons). Results showed that the pore-filling treatment did slow the uptake of water into Peakmoor, Dukes and Cove sandstones, that it was vapour permeable (though less so than untreated stones) and considerably reduced the permeability of all tested stone types. The treatment did not appear to be effective on denser/less porous stone types - for example, tests on Cascais Limestone found no reduction in water intake and the treatment formed a skin on the stone surface that appeared to encourage fungal growth. There appeared to be no benefit to adding consolidant treatment after the pore-filler. Six-months was not a suitable length of time to determine biocide effectiveness (the trial is ongoing), colorimetry testing pre- and post- treatments showed that all biocides caused a darkening of the stone surface, with some reddening and yellowing compared to controls. In summary, the pore-filling treatment appears to be effective on porous sandstones at delaying water uptake, therefore potentially reducing the decay rate of the stone and the rate of biological colonization, providing the treatment is used effectively - on appropriate porous stone types and possibly with regular (1-2 year) reapplication.