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Selected Publications

Vanbergen, A.J. and the Insect Pollinators Initiative (Baude, M., Biesmeijer, J.C., Britton, N.F., Brown, M.J.F., Brown, M., Bryden, J., Budge, G.E., Bull, J.C., Carvell, C. Challinor, A.J., Connolly, C.N., Evans, D.J., Feil, E.J., Garratt, M.P., Greco, M.K., Heard, M.S., Jansen, V.A.A., Keeling, M.J., Kunin, W.E., Marris, G.C., Memmott, J., Murray, J.T., Nicolson, S.W., Osborne, J.L., Paxton, R.J., Pirk, C.W.W., Polce, C., Potts, S.G., Priest, N.K., Raine, N.E., Roberts, S., Ryabov, E.V., Shafir, S., Shirley, M.D.F., Simpson, S.J., Stevenson, P.C., Stone, G.N., Termansen M. & Wright, G.A.) (2013). Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11: 251-259.  DOI:10.1890/120126.

Williams, G.R., Alaux, C., Costa, C., Csáki, T., Doublet, V., Eisenhardt, D., Fries, I., Kuhn, R., McMahon, D.P., Medrzycki, P., Murray, T.E., Natsopoulou, M.E., Neumann, P., Oliver, R., Paxton, R.J., Pernal, S.F., Shutler, D., Tanner, G., Van der Steen, J.J.M., Brodschneider, R. (2013). Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions.  Journal of Apicultural Research, 52(1):  DOI:

Fries, I., Chauzat, M.-P., Chen, Y.-P., Doublet, V., Genersch, E., Gisder, S., Higes, M., McMahon, D.P., Martín-Hernández, R., Natsopoulou, M., Paxton, R.J., Tanner, G., Webster, T.C. & Williams, G.R. (2013). Standard methods for Nosema research.  Journal of Apicultural Research, 52:

Moritz, R.F.A., Kraus, F.B., Huth-Schwarz, A., Wolf, S., Carrillo, C.A.C., Paxton, R.J. & Vandame, R. (2013). Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico.  Apidologie, 44: 113-120.  

Field, J., Paxton, R.J., Soro, A., Craze, P. & Bridge, C. (2012). Body size, demography and foraging in a socially plastic sweat bee: a common garden experiment.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 66: 743-756.

Dicks, L.V., Abrahams, A., Atkinson, J., Biesmeijer, J., Bourn, N., Brown, C., Brown, M., Carvell, C., Connolly, C., Cresswell, J., Croft, P., Darvill, B., de Zylva, P., Effingham, P., Fountain, M., Goggin, A., Harding, D., Harding, T., Hartfield, C., Heard, M.S., Heathcote, R., Heaver, D., Holland, J., Howe, M., Hughes, B., Huxley, T., Kunin, W.E., Little, J., Mason, C., Memmott, J., Osborne, J., Pankhurst, T., Paxton, R.J., Pocock, M., Potts, S.G., Power, E., Raine, N., Ranelagh, E., Roberts, S., Saunders, R., Smith, K., Smith, R.M., Sutton, P., Tilley, L., Tinsley, A., Tonhasca, A., Vanbergen, A.J., Webster, S., Wilson, A. & Sutherland, W.J. (2012). Identifying key knowledge needs for evidence-based conservation of wild insect pollinators: a collaborative cross-sectoral exercise.  Insect Conservation and Diversity, 6: 339-353.  DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.(2012).00221.x.

Quezada-Euán, J.J.G., May-Itzá, W.d.J., Rincón, M., De La Rúa, P. & Paxton, R.J. (2012). Genetic and phenotypic differentiation in endemic Scaptotrigona hellwegeri (Apidae: Meliponini): implications for the conservation of stingless bee populations in contrasting environments.  Insect Conservation and Diversity, 5: 433-443.  

Pech-May, F.G., Medina-Medina, L., May-Itzá, W. de J., Paxton, R.J. & Quezada-Euán, J.J.G. (2012). Colony pollen reserves affect body size, sperm production and sexual development in males of the stingless bee Melipona beecheii.  Insectes Sociaux, 59: 417-424.

Pérez-Balam, J., Quezada-Euán, J.J.G., Alfaro-Bates, R., Medina, S., McKendrick, L., Soro, A. & Paxton, R.J. (2012). The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana) pollination in southern Mexico.  Journal of Pollination Ecology, 8: 42-47.

Murray, T.E., Fitzpatrick, ú., Byrne, A., Fealy, R., Brown, M.J.F. & Paxton, R.J. (2012). Local-scale factors structure wild bee communities in protected areas.  Journal of Applied Ecology, 49: 998-1008.

Davis, E.S., Reid, N. & Paxton, R.J. (2012). Quantifying forage specialisation in polyphagic insects: the polylectic and rare solitary bee, Colletes floralis (Hymenoptera: Colletidae).  Insect Conservation and Diversity, 5: 289-297.

Yañez, O., Jaffé, R., Jarosch, A., Fries, I., Moritz, R.F.A., Paxton, R.J. & de Miranda, J.R. (2012). Deformed wing virus and drone mating in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): implications for sexual transmission of a major honey bee virus.  Apidologie, 43: 17-30.

Carolan, J. C., Murray, T.E., Fitzpatrick, Ú., Crossley, J., Schmidt, H., Cederberg, B., McNally, L., Paxton, R.J., Williams, P.H. & Brown, M.J.F. (2012). Colour patterns do not diagnose species: quantitative evaluation of a DNA barcoded cryptic bumblebee complex.  PLoS ONE, 7: e29251.

Vásquez, A., Forsgren, E., Fries, I., Paxton, R.J., Flaberg, E., Szekely, L. & Olofsson, T.C. (2012). Symbionts as major modulators of insect health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and honeybees.  PLoS ONE, 7: e33188.

Soro, A., Ayasse, M., Zobel, M.U. & Paxton, R.J. (2011). Kin discriminators in the eusocial sweat bee Lasioglossum malachurum: the reliability of cuticular and Dufour's gland odours.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65: 641-653.

Quezada-Euán, J.J.G., López-Velasco, A., Pérez-Balam, J., Moo-Valle, H., Velazquez-Madrazo, A. & Paxton, R.J. (2011). Body size differs in workers produced across time and is associated with variation in the quantity and composition of larval food in Nannotrigona perilampoides (Hymenoptera, Meliponini).  Insectes Sociaux, 58: 31-38.

Conrad, T., Paxton, R.J., Barth, F.G., Francke, W. & Ayasse, M. (2010). Female choice in the red mason bee, Osmia rufa (L.) (Megachilidae).  Journal of Experimental Biology, 213: 4065-4073.

Field, J., Paxton, R.J., Soro, A. & Bridge, C. (2010). Cryptic plasticity underlies a major evolutionary transition.  Current Biology, 20: 2028-2031.

Davis, E.S., Murray, T.E., Fitzpatrick, Ú., Brown, M.J.F. & Paxton, R.J. (2010). Landscape effects on extremely fragmented populations of a rare solitary bee, Colletes floralis.  Molecular Ecology, 19: 4922-4935.

Souza, R.O., Del Lama, M.A., Cervini, M., Mortari, N., Eltz, T., Zimmermann, Y., Bach, C., Brosi, B.J., Suni, S., Quezada-Euán, J.J.G. & Paxton, R.J. (2010). Conservation genetics of Neotropical pollinators revisited: microsatellite analysis demonstrates that diploid males are rare in orchid bees.  Evolution, 64: 3318-3326.

Moritz, R.F.A., de Miranda, J.R., Fries, I., Le Conte, Y. & Paxton, R.J. (2010). Research strategies to improve honeybee health in Europe.  Apidologie, 41: 227-242.

Soro, A., Field, J., Bridge, C., Cardinal, S.C. & Paxton, R.J. (2010). Genetic differentiation across the social transition in a facultatively social sweat bee, Halictus rubicundus.  Molecular Ecology, 19: 3351-3363.

Jaffé, R., Dietemann, V., Allsopp, M.H., Costa, C., Crewe, R.M., Dall'Olio, R., De la Rúa, P., El-Niweiri, M.A.A., Fries, I., Kenzic, N., Meusel, M.S., Paxton, R.J., Shaibi, T., Stolle, E. & Moritz, R.F.A. (2010). Estimating the density of honeybee colonies across their natural range to fill the gap in pollinator decline censuses.  Conservation Biology, 24: 583-593.

Paxton, R.J. (2010). Does infection by Nosema ceranae cause "Colony Collapse Disorder" in honey bees (Apis mellifera)?  Journal of Apicultural Research, 49: 80-84.

Murray, T.E., Davis, E.S. & Paxton, R.J. (2009). Microsatellite loci for a rare solitary bee, Colletes floralis (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and their variability in other colletid bees.  Molecular Ecology Resources, 9: 1460-1466.

Zimmermann, Y., Roubik, D.W., Quezada-Euan, J.J.G., Paxton, R.J. & Eltz, T. (2009). Single mating in orchid bees (Euglossa, Apinae): implications for mate choice and social evolution.  Insectes Sociaux, 56: 241-249.

Brown, M.J.F. & Paxton, R.J. (2009). The conservation of bees: a global perspective.  Apidologie, 40: 410-416.

Paxton, R.J., Zobel, M.U., Steiner, J. & Zillikens, A. (2009). Microsatellite loci for Euglossa annectans (Hyemnoptera: Apidae) and their variability in other orchid bees.  Molecular Ecology Resources, 9: 1221-1223.

Soro, A., Ayasse, M., Zobel, M.U. & Paxton, R.J. (2008). Complex sociogenetic organization and the origin of unrelated workers in a eusocial sweat bee, Lasioglossum malachurum.  Insectes Sociaux, DOI 10.1007/s00040-008-1037-y.

Murray, T.E., Fitzpatrick, Ú., Brown, M.J.F. & Paxton, R.J. (2008). Cryptic species diversity in a widespread bumble bee complex revealed using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs.  Conservation Genetics, 9: 653-666.

Paxton, R.J., Klee, J., Korpela, S. & Fries, I. (2007). Nosema ceranae has infected Apis mellifera in Europe since at least 1998 and may be more virulent than Nosema apis.  Apidologie, 38: 558-565.

Fitzpatrick, Ú., Murray, T.E., Paxton, R.J. & Brown, M.J.F. (2007). Building on IUCN regional red lists to produce lists of species of conservation priority: a model with Irish bees.  Conservation Biology, 21: 1324-1332.

O'Mahony, E., Tay, W.T. & Paxton, R.J. (2007). Multiple rRNA variants in a single spore of the Microsporidian Nosema bombi.  Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 54: 103-109.

Fitzpatrick, Ú., Murray, T.E., Paxton, R.J., Breen, J., Cotton, D., Santorum, V. & Brown, M.J.F. (2007). Rarity and decline in bumblebees - a test of causes and correlates in the Irish fauna.  Biological Conservation, 136: 185-194.

Quezada-Euan, J.J.G, Paxton, R.J., Palmer, K.A., May-Itza, W.J., Tay, W.T. & Oldroyd, B.P. (2007). Morphological and molecular characters reveal differentiation in a Neotropical social bee, Melipona beecheii B. (Apidae: Meliponini).  Apidologie, 38: 247-258.

Klee, J., Besana, A.M., Genersch, E., Gisder, S., Nanetti, A., Tam, D.Q., Chinh, T.X., Puerta, F., Ruz, J.M., Kryger, P., Message, D., Hatjina, F., Korpela, S., Fries, I. & Paxton, R.J. (2007). Widespread dispersal of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 96: 1-10.

Zobel, M. & Paxton, R.J. (2007). Is big the best? Queen size, usurpation and nest closure in a primitively eusocial sweat bee (Lasioglossum malachurum).  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 61: 435-447.

Makert, G.R.M., Hartfelder, K. & Paxton, R.J. (2006). An optimized method for the generation of AFLP markers in a stingless bee (Melipona quadrifasciata) reveals a high degree of genetic polymorphism.  Apidologie, 37: 687-698.

Makert, G.R.M., Hartfelder, K. & Paxton, R.J. (2006). Ovariole number - a predictor of differential reproductive success amongst worker subfamilies in queenless honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 60: 815-825.

Klee, J., Tay, W.T. & Paxton, R.J. (2006). Specific and sensitive detection of Nosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) in bumble bees (Bombus spp.; Hymenoptera: Apidae) by PCR of partial rRNA gene sequences.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 91: 98-104.

Richards, M.H., French, D. & Paxton, R.J. (2005). It's good to be queen: microsatellites reveal classically eusocial colony structure and low worker fitness in an obligately eusocial sweat bee.  Molecular Ecology, 14: 4123-4133.

Tay, W.T., O'Mahony, E. & Paxton, R.J. (2005). Complete rRNA gene sequences reveal that the Microsporidium Nosema bombi infects diverse bumble bee (Bombus spp.) hosts, yet contains multiple polymorphic sites.  Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 52: 505-513.

Polidori, C., Scanni, B., Scamoni, E., Giovanetti, M., Andrietti, F. & Paxton, R.J. (2005). Satellite flies (Leucophora personata, Diptera: Anthomyiidae) and other dipteran parasites of the communal bee Andrena agilissima (Hyemoptera: Andrenidae) on the island of Elba, Italy.  Journal of Natural History, 39: 2745-2758.

Paxton, R.J. (2005). Male mating behaviour and mating systems of bees: an overview.  Apidologie, 36: 145-156.

Fellendorf, M., Mohra, C. & Paxton, R.J. (2004). Devastating effects of river flooding to the ground nesting bee, Andrena vaga (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae), and its associated fauna.  Journal of Insect Conservation, 8: 311-322.

Garrido, C., Rosenkranz, P., Paxton, R.J. & Gonçalves, L.S. (2003). Temporal changes in Varroa destructor fertility and haplotype in Brazil.  Apidologie, 34: 535-541.

Paxton, R.J., Bego, L.R., Shah, M.M. & Mateus, S. (2003). Low mating frequency of queens in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica and worker maternity of males.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 53: 174-181.

Ayasse, M. & Paxton, R.J. (2002). Brood protection in social insects. in: Chemoecology of Insect Eggs and Egg Deposition, Pp 117-148. (eds. Hilker, M. & Meiners, T.). Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.

Paxton, R.J., Ayasse, M., Field, J. & Soro, A. (2002). Complex sociogenetic organization and reproductive skew in a primitively eusocial sweat bee, Lasioglossum malachurum, as revealed by microsatellites.  Molecular Ecology, 11: 2405-2416.

Palmer, K.A., Oldroyd, B.P., Quezada-Euán, J.J.G., Paxton, R.J. & May-Itza, W.DeJ. (2002). Paternity frequency and maternity of males in some stingless bee species.  Molecular Ecology, 11: 2107-2113.

Fries, I., de Ruijter, A., Paxton, R.J., da Silva, A.J., Slemenda, S.B. & Pieniazek, N.J. (2001). Molecular characterization of Nosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and a note on its sites of infection in Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).  Journal of Apicultural Research, 40: 91-96.

Ayasse, M., Paxton, R.J. & Tengö, J. (2001). Mating behavior and chemical communication in the order Hymenoptera.  Annual Review of Entomology, 46: 31-78.

Paxton, R.J. & Tengö, J. (2001). Doubly duped males: the sweet and sour of the orchid's bouquet.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16: 167-169.

Paxton, R.J., Thorén, P.A., Estoup, A. & Tengö, J. (2001). Queen-worker conflict over male production and sex ratio in a facultatively polyandrous bumble bee, Bombus hypnorum: the consequences of nest usurpation.  Molecular Ecology, 10: 2489-2498.

Paxton, R.J. (2000). Genetic structure of colonies and a male aggregation in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica, as revealed by microsatellite analysis.  Insectes Sociaux, 47: 63-69.

Paxton, R.J., Thorén, P.A., Gyllenstrand, N. & Tengö, J. (2000). Microsatellite DNA analysis reveals low diploid male production in a communal bee with inbreeding.  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 69: 483-502.

Paxton, R.J., Weißschuh, N., Engels, W., Hartfelder, K. & Quezada-Euan, J.J.G. (1999). Not only single mating in stingless bees.  Naturwissenschaften, 86: 143-146.

Paxton, R.J., Kukuk, P.F. & Tengö, J. (1999). Effects of familiarity and nestmate number on social interactions in two communal bees, Andrena scotica and Panurgus calcaratus (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae).  Insectes Sociaux, 46: 109-118.

Fries, I., Paxton, R.J., Tengö, J., Slemenda, S.B., da Silva, A.J. & Pieniazek, N.J. (1999). Morphological and molecular characterization of Antonospora scoticae n.gen., n. sp. (Protozoa, Microsporidia) a parasite of the communal bee, Andrena scotica Perkins, 1916 (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae).  European Journal of Protistology, 35: 183-193.

Paxton, R.J. & Pohl, H. (1999). The tawny mining bee, Andrena fulva (Müller) (Hymenoptera, Andreninae), at a South Wales field site and its associated organisms: Hymenoptera, Diptera, Nematoda and Strepsiptera.  British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 12: 57-67.

Hatjina, F., Free, J.B. & Paxton, R.J. (1999). Hive-entrance pollen transfer devices to increase the cross-pollination potential of honey bees: II. Examination of three materials and pollen viability.  Journal of Apicultural Research, 38: 3-9.

Quezada Euan, J.J.G. & Paxton, R.J. (1999). Rapid intergenerational changes in morphology and behaviour in colonies of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) from tropical Yucatan, Mexico.  Journal of Apicultural Research, 38: 93-104.

Paxton, R.J., Giovanetti, M., Andrietti, F., Scamoni, E. & Scanni, B. (1999). Mating in a communal bee, Andrena agilissima (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae).  Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 11: 371-382.

Freitas, B.M. & Paxton, R.J. (1998). A comparison of two pollinators: the introduced honey bee (Apis mellifera) and an indigenous bee (Centris tarsata) on cashew (Anacardium occidentale) in its native range of NE Brazil.  Journal of Applied Ecology, 35: 109-121.

Hatjina, F., Free, J.B. & Paxton, R.J. (1998). Hive-entrance pollen transfer devices to increase the cross-pollination potential of honey bees: I. Pilot study examining six materials.  Journal of Apicultural Research, 37: 231-237.

Paxton, R.J., Fries, I., Pieniazek, N.J. & Tengö, J. (1997). High incidence of infection of an undescribed microsporidium (Microspora) in the communal bee Andrena scotica (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae).  Apidologie, 28: 129-141.

Echazarreta, C.M. & Paxton, R.J. (1997). Comparative colony development of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) in lowland neotropical Yucatan, Mexico.  Journal of Apicultural Research, 36: 89-103.

Paxton, R.J., Thorén, P.A., Tengö, J., Estoup, A. & Pamilo, P. (1996). Mating structure and nestmate relatedness in a communal bee, Andrena jacobi (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae), using microsatellites.  Molecular Ecology, 5: 511-519.

Paxton, R.J. & Tengö, J. (1996). Intranidal mating, emergence and sex ratio in a communal bee Andrena jacobi Perkins 1921 (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae).  Journal of Insect Behavior, 9: 421-440.

Freitas, B.M. & Paxton, R.J. (1996). The role of wind and insects in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) pollination in NE Brazil.  Journal of Agricultural Science, 126: 319-326.

Quezada Euan, J.J.G., Echazarreta, C.M. & Paxton, R.J. (1996). The distribution and range expansion of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) in the state of Yucatán, México.  Journal of Apicultural Research, 35: 85-95.

Paxton, R.J., Tengö, J. & Hedström, L. (1996). Dipteran parasites and other associates of a communal bee, Andrena scotica (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), on Öland, SE Sweden.  Entomologisk Tidskrift, 117: 165-178.

Thorén, P.A., Paxton, R.J. & Estoup, A. (1995). Unusually high frequency of (CT)n and (GT)n microsatellite loci in a yellowjacket wasp, Vespula rufa (L.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).  Insect Molecular Biology, 4: 141-148.

Technical Notes

Soro, A. & Paxton, R.J. (2008). Characterization of 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) and their variability in related species.  Molecular Ecology Resources, in press.

Souza, R.O., Cervini, M., Del Lama, M.A. & Paxton, R.J. (2007). Microsatellite loci for euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).  Molecular Ecology Notes, 7: 1352-1356.

Paxton, R.J., Arévalo, E. & Field, J. (2003). Microsatellite loci for Lasioglossum malachurum and other sweat bees (Hymenoptera, Halictidae).  Molecular Ecology Notes, 3: 82-84.

Segelbacher, G., Paxton, R.J., Steinbrück, G. Trontelj, P. & Storch, I. (2000). Characterization of microsatellites in capercaillie Tetrao urogallus (Aves).  Molecular Ecology, 9: 1934-1935.

Mohra, C., Fellendorf, M. & Segelbacher, G. & Paxton, R.J. (2000). Dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Andrena vaga and other andrenid bees from non-enriched and CT-enriched libraries.  Molecular Ecology, 9: 2189-2191.

Paxton, R.J., Weißschuh, N. & Quezada-Euan, J.J.G. (1999). Characterization of dinucleotide microsatellite loci for stingless bees.  Molecular Ecology, 8: 690-692.

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