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Selected Publications

Elwood, R.W. & Arnott, G. (in press) Assessments in contests are frequently assumed to be complex when simple explanations will suffice.  Animal Behaviour (online).

Magee, B & Elwood, R.W. (2013). Shock avoidance by discrimination learning in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is consistent with a key criterion for pain.  Journal of Experimental Biology, 216: 353-358.

Ijichi, C., Collins, L., Creighton, E., Elwood, R.W. (2013). Harnessing the power of personality assessment: subjective assessment predicts behaviour in horses.  Behavioural Processes, 96: 47-52.

Ijichi, C., Collins, L., Elwood, R.W. (2013). Evidence for the role of personality in stereotypy predisposition.  Animal Behaviour, 85: 1145-1151.

Elwood, R.W. (2012). Evidence for pain in decapod crustaceans.  Animal Welfare, 21: 23-27.

Sonoda, K., Asakura, A., Minoura, M. Elwood, R.W. & Gunji P. (2012). Hermit crabs perceive the extent of their virtual bodies.  Biology Letters, 8: 495–497.

Wilson, C. Arnott, G. & Elwood, R.W. (2012). Freshwater pearl mussels show plasticity of responses to different predation risks but also show consistent individual differences in responsiveness.  Behavioural Processes, 89: 299-303.

Jennings D.J., Elwood, R.W., Carlin C.M., Hayden, T.J. & Gammell M.P. (2012). Vocal rate as an assessment process during fallow deer contests.  Behavioural Processes, 91: 152-158.

Elwood, R.W. & Arnott, G. (2012). Understanding how animals fight with Lloyd Morgan's canon.  Animal Behaviour, 84: 1095-1102.

Doake, S. & Elwood, R.W. (2011). How resource quality differentially affects motivation and ability to fight in hermit crabs.  Proceedings of the Royal Society London B., 278: 567-573.

Barr, S. & Elwood, R.W. (2011). No evidence of morphine analgesia to noxious shock in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas.  Behavioural Processes, 86: 340-344.

Elwood, R.W. (2011). Pain and suffering in invertebrates?  ILAR Journal, 52: 175-184.

Arnott, G., Ashton, C., & Elwood, R.W. (2011). Lateralization of lateral displays in convict cichlids.  Biology Letters, 7: 683-685.

Doake, S. & Elwood, R.W. (2011). How resource quality differentially affects motivation and ability to fight in hermit crabs.  Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 278: 567-573.

Barr, S. & Elwood, R.W. (2011). No evidence of morphine analgesia to noxious shock in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas.  Behavioural Processes 86: 340-344.

Elwood, R.W. (2011). Pain and suffering in invertebrates? ILAR 52: 175-184.

Doake, S., Scantlebury, M & Elwood, R.W. (2010). The cost of bearing arms and armour in the hermit crab, Pagurus bernhardus. Animal Behaviour 80: 637-642.

Arnott, G. & Elwood, R.W. (2010). Startle durations reveal visual assessment abilities during contests between convict cichlids.  Behavioural Processes 84: 750-756.

Briffa, M & Elwood, R.W. (2010). Repeated measures analysis of contests and other dadic interactions:  Problems of semantics, not statistical validity. Animal Behaviour 80: 583-588.

Arnott, G. & Elwood, R.W. (2010). Signal residuals and hermit crab displays:  flaunt it if you have it! Animal Behaviour 79: 137-143.

Inger, R., McDonald, R.A., Rogowski, D., Jackson, A.L., Parnell, A., Preston, S.J., Harrod, C., Goodwin, C., Griffiths, D., Dick, J.T.A., Elwood, R.W. & Bearhop, S. (2010). Do non-native invasive fish support an elevated lamprey population? Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 121-129

Nasution, S., Roberts, D., Farnsworth, K., Parker, G.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2010). Maternal effects on offspring size and packaging constraints in the whelk, Buccinium undatum.  Journal of Zoology 281: 112-117

Arnott, G. & Elwood, R.W. (2009). Probing motivation to test for assessment ability in convict cichlid contests. Biology Letters, 5: 762-764.

Arnott, G. & Elwood, R.W. (2009). Gender differences in aggressive activities in convict cichlids. Animal Behaviour, 78:1221-1227

Arnott, G. & Elwood, R.W. (2009). Assessment of fighting ability in animal contests. Animal Behaviour, 77: 991-1004.

Briffa, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2009). Difficulties remain in distinguishing between mutual and self assessment in animal contests. Animal Behaviour, 77: 759-762

Appel M. & Elwood, R.W. (2009). Gender differences, responsiveness and memory of a potentially painful event in hermit crabs.  Animal Behaviour, 78: 1373-1379

Elwood, R.W. & Appel, M. (2009). Pain in hermit crabs?  Animal Behaviour, 77: 1243-1246

Appel, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2009). Motivational trade-offs and the potential for pain experience in hermit crabs.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 119: 120-124.

Elwood, R.W., Barr, S. & Patterson, L. (2009). Pain and stress in crustaceans?  Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 118:128-136.

Patterson, L., Dick, J.T.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2009). Claw loss and feeding ability in the edible crab, Cancer pagurus:  implications of fishery practice.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 116: 302-305.

Thomas, H.G., Bateman P.W., Le Comber, s.C., Bennett, N.C., Elwood, R.W. & Scantlebury, M. in press (2009). Burrow architecture and digging activity in the Cape dune mole-rat.  Journal of Zoology

Tinkler, E., Montgomery, W.I. & Elwood R.W. (2009). Foraging ecology, fluctuating food availability and energetics of wintering brent geese. Journal of Zoology , 278: 313-323

Goodwin, C.E., Dick, J.T.A., Elwood, R.W. (2009). A preliminary assessment of the distribution of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus; river (Lampetra fluviatilis L.) and brook Lampetra planeri (Bloch) lamprey in Northern Ireland. Biology and Environment, 109B: 47-52.

Wherry, T & Elwood, R.W. (2009). Relocation, reproduction and remaining alive in an orb-web spider. Journal of Zoology, 279: 57-63

Arnott, G. & Elwood, R.W.(2008). Information-gathering and decision-making about resource value in animal contests.  Animal Behaviour, 76: 529-542.

Laidre, M & Elwood R.W. (2008). Motivation matters: cheliped extension displays in the hermit crab (Pagurus bernhardus) are honest signals of hunger. Animal Behaviour 75: 2041-2047.

Prenter, J, Taylor, P.W. & Elwood, R.W.  (2008). Large body size for winning and large swords for winning quickly in swordtail males, Xiphophorus helleri.  Animal Behaviour, 75: 1981-1987.

Goodwin, C.E., Dick, J.T.A., Rogowski, D.L. & Elwood, R.W.  (2008). Lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis and L. planeri) ammocoete habitat associations at regional, catchment and microhabitat scales in Northern Ireland. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 17: 542-553.

Barr, S., Laming, P.R., Dick, J.T.A & Elwood, R.W. (2008). Nociception or pain in a decapod crustacean?  Animal Behaviour, 75: 745-751.

Patterson, L., Dick, J.T.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2008). Embryo retrieval and kin recognition in an amphipod (Crustacea). Animal Behaviour, 76: 717-722.

Arnott, G & Elwood R.W. (2007). Fighting for shells: how private information about resource value changes hermit crab pre-fight displays and escalated fight behaviour. Proc Roy Soc B, 274: 3011-3017.      

Briffa, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2007). Monoamines and strategic decisions in hermit crab fights.  Animal Behaviour, 73: 605-612.

Patterson, L., Dick, J.T.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2007). Physiological stress responses in the edible crab Cancer pagurus to the fishery practice of de-clawing.  Marine Biology, 152: 265-272

Tinkler, E., Montgomery, W.I. & Elwood, R .W. (2007).  Shared or unshared parental care in over-wintering brent geese (Branta bernicla hrota). Ethology, 113: 368–376.

Tinkler, E., Montgomery, W.I. & Elwood, R.W. (2007). Parent-offspring associations in wintering brent geese (Branta bernicola hrota): parental care or mutual assistance? Journal of Zoology, 272: 398-405.

Elwood, R.W. , Pothanikat, E. & Briffa, M. (2006). Honest and dishonest displays, motivational state, and subsequent decisions in hermit crab shell fights.  Animal Behaviour, 72: 853-859.

Prenter, J. Elwood, R.W. & Taylor, P.W. (2006). Self assessment by males during energetically costly contests over precopula females in amphipods.  Animal Behaviour, 72: 861-868.

Bailey, R.J.E., Dick, J.T.A., Elwood, R.W. & MacNeil, C. (2006). Predatory interactions between the invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus and the native opossum shrimp Mysis relicta.  Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 25: 393-405.

Goodwin, C.E., Griffiths, D., Dick, J.T.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2006). A freshwater-feeding river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis L.) population in Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland.  Journal of Fish Biology, 68: 628-633.

Gallagher, M., Dick, J.T.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2006). Riverine habitat requirements of the white -clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes.  Biology and Environment 106B: 1-8.

Dick J.T.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2006). Parent-offspring conflict and motivational control of brooding in an amphipod. Biology Letters 2: 501-504

Prenter, J.,  MacNeil, N. & Elwood, R.W. (2006).  Sexual cannibalism: functions in mate choice. Animal Behaviour, 71: 481-490.

Briffa, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2005). Metabolic consequences of shell choice in Pagurus bernhardus: Do hermit crabs prefer cryptic or portable shells?"  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 59: 143-148.

Briffa, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2005). Rapid change in energetic status in fighting animals: causes and effects of strategic decisions.  Animal Behaviour, 70: 119-124.

Fielding, N.J., MacNeil, C., Robinson, N., Dick, J.T.A., Elwood, R.W., Terry, R.S. & Dunn, A.M. (2005). Ecological impacts of the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora mulleri on its freshwater amphipod host Gammarus duebeni celticus.  Parasitology 131: 331-336.

Crean, S., Dick, J.T.A. & Elwood R.W., Evans, D.W. & Rosell, R.S. (2005). survival of juvenile European eels (Anguilla anguilla) transferred among salinities and developmental shifts in their salinity preference.  Journal of Zoology, 266: 11-14.

Hume, K.D., Elwood, R.W., Dick, J.T.A. & Morrison,J. (2005). Sexual dimorphism in amphipods: the role of male posterior gnathopods revealed in Gammarus pulex.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiolog, 58: 264-269.

Briffa, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2004). Use of energy reserves in fighting hermit crabs.  Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 271: 373-379.

McCallister, J.M., Smith, T.E. & Elwood R.W. (2004). Validation of urinary cortisol as an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in the bearded emperor tamarin, (Saguinus imperator subgrisescens). Am. J. Primatology, 63: 17-23.

Bremner-Harrison, S., Prodohl, P.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2004). Behavioural trait assessment as a release criterion: boldness predicts early death in a reintroduction programme of captive-bred swift fox (Vulpes velox).  Animal Conservation, 7: 313-320.

Hardling R., Kokko, H. & Elwood, R.W. (2004). Priority versus brute force: when should males begin guarding resourses?  Am. Nat., 163: 240-252.

Taylor, P. & Elwood, R.W. (2003). Mis-measure of animal contests.  Animal Behaviour 65: 1195-1202.

Briffa, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2003). Change in the power of shell rapping during shell fights between hermit crabs: does magnitude contribute to repeated signals?  Behav. Ecol., 14: 60-65.

Crean, S.R., Dick, J.T.A., Evans, D.W., Elwood, R.W. & Rosell, R.S. (2003). Anal redness in eels as an indicator of infection by the swimbladder nematode Anguillicola crassus.  J. Fish Biol., 62: 482-485.

MacNeil, C. Fielding, N.J. Hume, K.D. Dick, J.T.A., Elwood, R.W., Hatcher, M.J. & Dunn, A.M. (2003). Parasite altered microdistribution of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea Amphipoda).  Int. J. Parasitol., 33: 57-64.

Prenter, J. Elwood, R.W. & Montomery, W.I. (2003). Fitness consequences of large male size in an orb-web spider: a field removal experiment in, Metellina segmentata.  Animal Behaviour, 66: 1053-1058.

Briffa, M & Elwood, R.W. (2002). Power of signals influences physiological costs and subsequent decisions during hermit crab fights.  Proc. Roy. Soc. B 269: 2331-2336.

Dick, J.T.A., Bailey, R.J.E. & Elwood, R.W. (2002). Maternal care in a rockpool amphipod, Apherusa jurinei: developmental and environmental cues.  Animal Behaviour, 63: 707-713.

Hume, K. Elwood, R.W. & Dick, J.T.A. (2002). Size assortative pairing in Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda): a test of the timing hypothesis.  Animal Behaviour, 64: 239-244.

Elwood, R.W. & Briffa, M. (2001). Information gathering during agonistic and non agonistic shell aquistion by hermit crabs.  Advances in the Study of Behaviour 30: 53-97.

Briffa, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2001). Changes in motivational state during hermit crab shell fights.  Animal Behaviour 62: 505-510.

Briffa, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2001). Changes in lactate and glucose reveal decision rules for hermit crab shell fights.  Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 268: 1841-1847.

MacNeil, C., Montgomery, W.I., Dick, J.T.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2001). Factors influencing the distribution of Gamarus pulex and G. duebeni in Irish rivers.  Archive fur Hydrobioliogie, 151: 353-368.

MacNeil, C., Dick, J.T.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2001). Coexistence of native and introduced amphipods in littoral habitats.  Arch. Hydrobiologie, 151: 591-607.

Bridge, A., Elwood, R.W. & Dick, J.T.A. (2000). Imperfect assessment and limited information preclude optimal strategies in male:male fights in the orb-web spider, Metellina mengei.  Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 267: 273-280.

Briffa, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2000).The power of rapping influences eviction during hermit crab shell fights.  Behavioural Ecology, 11: 288-293.

Briffa, M & Elwood, R.W. (2000). Cumulative or sequential assessment during hermit crab shell fights.  Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 267: 2445-2452.

Briffa, M. & Elwood, R.W. (2000). The temporal pattern of shell rapping within bouts indicates costly signalling.  Animal Behaviour, 59: 159-165.

MacNeil, C. Dick, J.T.A. & Elwood, R.W. (2000). Different physiochemical tolerances of amphipods revealed by field transplantations.  Oecologia, 124: 1-7.

MacNeil, C., Elwood, R.W. & Dick, J.T.A. (1999). Differential microdistribution and interspecific interactions in coexisting Gammarus and Crangonyx amphipods.  Ecography, 22: 415-423.

Day, R. & Elwood, R.W. (1999). Predation risk and proximity to feeding sites influence the use of sleeping sites in the tamarin Saginus midas midas.  Ethology, 105: 1035-1051.

Prenter, J., Elwood, R.W. & Montgomery, W.I. (1999). Sexual size dimorphism and reproductive investment by female spiders: a comparative analysis.  Evolution, 53: 1987-1994.

Briffa, M., Elwood, R.W. & Dick, J.T.A. (1998). Analyses of repeated signals during hermit crab shell fights.  Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 265: 1467-1474.

Elwood, R.W., Wood, K., Gallagher, M. & Dick, J.T.A. (1998). Probing motivational state during agonistic encounters in animals.  Nature, 393: 66-68.

Dick, J.T.A., Faloon, S., Elwood, R.W. (1998). Active brood care in an amphipod: influences of egg-development, temperature and oxygen.  Animal Behaviour, 56: 663-672.

Prenter, J., Elwood, R.W. & Montgomery, W.I. (1998). No association between sexual size dimorphism and life histories in spiders.  Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 265: 57-62.

Nelson, C.J.T. & Elwood, R.W. (1997). State mediated and age dependent recognition in the biparental African cichlid, Pelvicachromis pulcher.  Animal Behaviour, 54: 803-809.

Prenter, J. Elwood, R.W. & Montgomery, W.I. (1997). Sexual dimorphism in temperate spiders: implications for the differential mortality model.  Journal of Zoology, 243: 341-349.

Dick, J.T.A. & Elwood, R.W. (1996). The effects of natural variation in sex ratio and habitat on mate guarding decisions in amphipods.  Behaviour, 133: 985-996.

Elwood, R.W. (1995). Motivational change during resource assessment in hermit crabs.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 193: 41-55.

Mason, C. & Elwood, R.W. (1995). The couvade and the onset of paternal care: social, physiological and physiological causation?  International Journal of Nursing Studies, 32: 137-148.

Elwood, R.W. & Mason, C. (1994). The couvade and the onset of paternal care: a biological perspective.  Ethology and Sociobiology, 15: 145-156.

Elwood, R.W. (1994). Temporal based kinship recognition: a switch in time saves mine.  Behavioural Processes, 33: 15-24.

Prenter, J., Elwood, R.W. & Montgomery, W.I. (1994). Assessments and decisions in mate guarding in Metellina segmentata (Areneae: Metidae).  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 35: 39-43.

Elwood, R.W. & Dick, J.T.A. (1990). The amorous Gammarus: the relationship between precopula duration and size assortative mating in G. pulex.  Animal Behaviour, 39: 828-833.