This page last revised 6 May 1998
The following does not pretend to represent a definitive historical timeline for Ireland or to document the history of the troubles in Northern Ireland since the 1960s. This is a sketch of the events I believe have a direct relevance to the colonial experience of Ireland. I have plumped for 1172 as the first date as it indicates a direct move on Englands part towards a governing role in Ireland.
Please E-mail me with any suggestions or important points I have failed to include. The Links section contains a number of informative on-line histories of Ireland, North and South, from various perspectives.
Henry II of England decreed feudal lord of Ireland by Pope.
Statutes of Kilkenny - an attempt to retain a Gaelic Irishness and cultural identity separate from Norman and English settlers.
Line of the Pale at Clongowes.
Accession of Henry VIII. Protestants sent to Ireland to colonise / plant.
Henry VIII proclaimed King of Ireland.
Accession of Elizabeth I. Reformation fails to take root.
Policy of Plantation.
Rebellion of Hugh ONeill, Earl of Tyrone.
Surrender of ONeill.
Enforcement of English law in Ireland.
Settlement of Scots in Ards peninsula (Co. Down) by private treaty.
Plantation of Derry and other areas planned and begun.
Catholic - Gaelic rebellion for return of lands.
59% of land of Ireland owned by Catholics.
Cromwell invades Ireland.
Act of Settlement strips Cromwells opponents of land.
James II deposed in England.
22% of land of Ireland owned by Catholics.
Siege and relief of Derry.
William of Orange defeats James II at the Battle of the Boyne.
14% of land of Ireland owned by Catholics.
Initial penal laws against Catholics.
Penal Code enacted, Catholics lose right to education and to vote.
7% of land of Ireland owned by Catholics.
5% of land of Ireland owned by Catholics.
Rebellion plotted by United Irishmen, carried out and quashed. Wolfe Tone, a central figure, hanged in 1798.
Act of Union passed with effect from 1st Jan 1801.
Daniel OConnells Catholic Association founded.
Spring Rice Report to the British Government advocating a general survey of Ireland.
Catholic Emancipation Act passed - overturns Penal laws.
Chief Secretary Stanley introduces system of National Education in Ireland with English as the sole medium of instruction.
Accession of Queen Victoria.
OConnell campaigns to repeal the Union.
The Nation newspaper founded by Thomas Davis, dedicated to the cause of Irish Nationalism
Beginning of famine which lasted until 1849. Affected general population but most significantly those who were likely to support nationalism and resist colonialism.
Irish Nation newspaper founded.
Land Act proposed by Gladstone is passed.
Irish National Land League founded.
Land War. Parnell encourages boycott of repressive landlords.
Gladstones second Land Act.
First Home Rule Bill (not passed).
Second Home Rule Bill (not passed).
United Irishman newspaper founded by Arthur Griffith.
Land Purchase Act (Wyndham Act).
Land Purchase Act.
Ulster Volunteer Force founded.
Outbreak of World War I.
Easter Rising in Dublin.
The Government of Ireland Act partitions Ireland into Northern and Southern Ireland.
Anglo - Irish Treaty.
Northern Ireland parliament opened by King George V. Sir James Craig first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.
General Election in Ireland gives a pro - treaty majority , thus creating the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland.
Civil War breaks out in Ireland.
End of Civil War.
Constitution of Eire replaces initial 1922 Constitution.
Republic of Ireland declared and accepted by Britain with support for Northern Ireland.
The Republic of Ireland Act.
The Ireland Act.
The Troubles. IRA campaign in the North, Loyalist reaction groups. Intermittent violence, great political and social upheaval etc.
Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association founded.
British Army sent to Derry.
Direct rule re-imposed in Northern Ireland.
Anglo - Irish Agreement.
Peace Declaration and paramilitary cease-fire.
May, proposal of British - Irish Agreement. A peace initiative involving constitutional changes for both Britain and Ireland to be decided by a referendum held throughout Ireland.
This project was completed under the direction of Dr. Leon Litvack as a requirement for the MA degree in Modern Literary Studies in the School of English at the Queen's University of Belfast. The site is evolving and will include contributions from future generations of MA students on other writers and themes.
This page was written by Andy Morrison. E-mail me with your suggestions.
The Imperial Archive Project is supervised by Leon Litvack. E-mail me with your suggestions.
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