One of the main interests of cognitive anthropologists is the study of folk concepts. Great part of my research during the last years has focused on the domain of moral and legal reasoning and the general aim of this research is to advance a cognitive approach to a specific folk concept: moral responsibility (in the sense of culpability). In dealing with the topic of moral responsibility, my study will contribute to the development of cognitive anthropology in itself since this specific theme has not yet been systematically studied by cognitive anthropologists. In dealing with the topic of moral responsibility from a cognitive point of view, my study will shed new light on a phenomenon that is already part of the object of inquiry of (non-cognitive) anthropology—in particular, of legal anthropology, of linguistic anthropology, and of this more recently established field of “language and law or language and disputing” that bridges legal and linguistic anthropology. Furthermore, this research will lead to suggestions on how to improve the interaction between the general public and the legal system.