Anonymous Book review: 'the father. historical, psychological and cultural perspectives'. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 2003. 12(2), pp. 188-188.

fatherhood: father child relations: psychological perspective: Fathers: Psychoanalytic Theory: Scientific Communication

How does the history of fatherhood explain its current crisis? Is fatherhood becoming a thing of the past? Countless children throughout the world grow up without fathers. This book studies the reasons for this and assesses the contribution of this phenomenon to social and psychological problems. Using images of the father from classical antiquity to the present day, The author views the origins and evolution of the father's role in bringing up children is a social construction that has been subject to change throughout history. The author examines the consequences of this, and considers the crisis facing fatherhood today. This book fills an important gap, as no other existing book faces the subject of fatherhood from such a broad and multi-disciplinary perspective. Covering these issues from historical, sociological and psychological points of view, This book will be welcomed both by people from a wide variety of disciplines including practitioners and students of psychology, sociology and anthropology, and by the educated general reader. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Anonymous Father nature: Fathers as guides to the natural world. american land & life series. 2003. pp. 198.

This book contains 19 personal essays on the role that fathers play in fostering connections between their children and the natural world. Written from the perspective of adult children or of fathers themselves, most essays show how outdoor activities, particularly hunting and fishing, are replicated across the generations and serve to foster children's sense of the sacred in nature. What ultimately ties the essays together is a fierce love between fathers and children and the need to express this love in the experience of nature. Essays explore the essence of being a father, having a father, and losing a father. They explore the landscapes of love, death, belonging, wonder, contact, recovery, identity, hope, coming of age, and succession, as well as the lessons taught by animals, trees, mountains, rivers, and ice. The essays are "Her Father's Daughter" (Jessica Maxwell); "Traplines" (John Rember); "Around the Next Bend" (Paul S. Piper); "Dance of the Fathers" (Mark Harfenist); "Fishergirl" (Gretchen Legler); "Recoveries" (James McKean); "Pillow and Cradle" (John Elder) ; "Contact" (Bernd Heinrich); "The Sound of Water" (Mark Menlove); "The Unexpected" (Charles W. Luckmann); "Hellgrammite Dance" (Stan Tag); "Eating Dirt" (Brian Doyle); "Loving Homer" (Frank Stewart); "Slowing Down: Robins, Owen, and Evolution" (John Bower); "Assessing Ice: A Father and Daughter's Coming of Age" (David Sobel); "The Eagles of Beauty Bay" (Stephen J. Lyons); "Mountain Music IV" (Scott Russell Sanders); "Treehouse" (Ted Kooser); and a coda, "Watermarks and Bloodlines" (Lorraine Anderson). (Contains author profiles) (SV).

Anonymous Following bob geldoff's recent attack on the family courts' treatment of fathers in contact disputes, eva huckle considers current initiatives for reform. New Law Journal, 2003. (7096), pp. 1365.

[Anon] and NICHD Early Child Care Res Net. Early child care and mother-child interaction from 36 months through first grade. Infant Behavior & Development, 2003. 26(3), pp. 345-370.

Relations were examined between early non-maternal child care experience in the child's first 3 years and mother-child interaction when children were 3, 4.5, and in first grade. Longitudinal analyses investigated relations between cumulative child care experiences across the first 3 years and mother-child interaction from age 3 through first grade to test whether results pertaining to 4.5-year-olds and first graders deviated from those found across the first 36 months in this sample of 1,180 from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Previously found relations in the first 3 years were restricted to certain subsamples at these later ages: More non-maternal child-care experience across the first 3 years was associated with less maternal sensitivity and less positive engagement of mother for White children but greater maternal sensitivity and child positive engagement for non-White children through first grade. Positive associations of mother-child interaction with hours of child care were similar for both African-American and Hispanic children. Negative associations between hours of care and sensitivity diminished over time for all children. Higher quality early child care experience was related to greater maternal sensitivity through first grade primarily when children had experienced relatively few hours of care. Early experience with higher quality child care benefited children's positive engagement with mother through first grade when their mothers were depressed. Results were similar whether effects were examined for non-maternal care or for non-parental care in which father care was excluded from considerations of child care experience. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

G. G. Abkarian, James Paul Dworkin and Andrea K. Abkarian. Fathers' speech to their children: Perfect pitch or tin ear? Fathering, 2003. 1(1), pp. 27-50.

fathers speech: father child communication: child-directed speech: mothers: child language development: Childhood Development: Fathers: Language Development: Oral Communication

This paper reviews the literature on the similarities and differences in child-directed speech (CDS) employed by fathers and mothers. The contributions that fathers are thought to make to their children's language and communicative development are discussed, and factors influencing the findings and interpretations of empirical studies of fathers' CDS are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Mensah Adinkrah. Men who kill their own children: Paternal filicide incidents in contemporary fiji. Child Abuse & Neglect, 2003. 27(5), pp. 557-568.

Homicide: Parents: Children: Fiji Islands: Industrial Societies: Fathers: Socioeconomic Factors

Filicide, or parental murder of offspring, constitutes a major portion of lethal violence perpetrated against children worldwide. Despite the global nature of the phenomenon, researchers have focused their studies on the developed industrialized societies with the consequent neglect of small, developing societies. Second, there is a paucity of empirical data on child homicide committed by fathers. This study therefore explores the nature & extent of paternal filicides in Fiji, a non-Western society, & the social & cultural forces underlying them in order to enhance our knowledge of the phenomenon. Information was obtained from a number of sources, including (a) a police homicide logbook, (b) newspaper reports of homicide, & (c) detailed interviews conducted with criminal justice & medical personnel. Information from these data sources was consolidated to construct case histories of paternal filicides. These cases were then analyzed for dominant themes. Case illustrations are presented in the text. Several of the study's findings are congruent with other studies of paternal filicides: poor, working-class fathers were the offenders in all cases. Regarding location, paternal filicides occurred in the home of the offender & victim. The filicides were the culmination of stresses & strains associated with marital disharmony & excessive corporal child-control strategies. The general conclusion of this study is that further research in non-Western societies has the potential to increase our understanding of the social factors & processes involved in paternal child murders. We will then be better positioned to craft effective intervention strategies. 30 References. Adapted from the source document.

Constance R. Ahrons and Jennifer L. Tanner. Adult children and their fathers: Relationship changes 20 years after parental divorce. Family Relations, 2003. 52(4), pp. 340-351.

Adult Children: Fathers: Divorce: Parent Child Relations: Remarriage: Wisconsin

Adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were examined 20 years after their parents' divorce. Data were drawn from interviews with 173 adult children from the Binuclear Family Study about their perceptions of their parents' divorce & its long-term impact. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship with their fathers; however, increased interparental conflict, early father remarriage, & low father involvement in the early post-divorce years were associated with worsening relationships over time. Those who reported that their relationships with their fathers got worse also reported poorer quality relationships with their stepmothers, stepsiblings, & paternal grandparents. 1 Table, 3 Figures, 54 References. Adapted from the source document.

Pamela C. Alexander. Parent-child role reversal: Development of a measure and test of an attachment theory model. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 2003. 22(2), pp. 31-44.

parent-child role reversal: attachment theory model: fathers: mothers: daughters: sons: Attachment Behavior: Attachment Theory: Parent Child Relations: Roles: Test Construction

The purposes of this study were to develop a measure of parent-child role reversal that could be used to explore the family context and to investigate the differential predictors and consequences of father-child and mother-child role reversal for sons and daughters. From the responses of a sample of 832 college students, a reliable and valid 42-item retrospective measure of parent-child role reversal (Relationship with Parents Scale) was developed. Father-son role reversal was associated with father's alcohol abuse, father-daughter role reversal with daughter's sexual abuse history and father's mental illness, and mother-daughter role reversal with marital conflict and daughter's sexual abuse history. Consistent with Liotti's (1992) attachment theory model of dissociation, mother-child (but not father-child) role reversal predicted dissociation and unresolved/fearful attachment for both males and females. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

G. Al-Fayez, A. Awadalla, D. I. Templer and H. Arikawa. Companion animal attitude and its family pattern in kuwait. Society & Animals, 2003. 11(1), pp. 17-28.

The Pet Attitude Scale (PAS) score of Kuwaiti adolescents correlated more highly with that of their fathers than with the score of their mothers. This contrasts with a similar American study in which the PAS score of adolescents correlated more highly with the score of their mothers. The different pattern seemed to be congruent with the father's more dominant role in Arab families. This study found that Kuwaiti family members had scores on the PAS about a standard deviation lower than that of American family members, a finding viewed as consistent with the less positive attitude toward companion animals in Muslim countries.

R. Andrade and A. L. Estrada. Are hispana IDUs tecatas?: Reconsidering gender and culture in hispana injection drug use. Substance use & Misuse, 2003. 38(8), pp. 1133-1158.

The roles of gender and culture remain elusive in the discussion of minority male vs. female Injecting Drug User (IDU) populations. A case in point is that of Hispano and Hispana IDUs. The commonly used street term for the Hispano (male) IDU, Tecato, is feminized through the use of the corresponding female noun Tecata. To do so however, minimizes the intricacies of gender and culture in the male vs. female roles of Hispano and Hispana IDUs (e.g., daughter/son, mother/father, partner, citizen). Hispano IDUs are also impacted by gender and culture in that Hispanos who embrace the Tecato way of life, must sacrifice and inure the consequences in how their male roles are minimized (e.g., the absent male figure in community, home, and family life). This article explores, through the analysis of qualitative interview data, the demands of gender and culture as they play themselves out in the lives of Hispana IDUs. Findings from this study suggest there are important gender and culture differences between Hispano and Hispana IDUs. Implications of this study include the need to reexamine the roles of gender and culture as they cause added pressure to Hispana IDUs (i.e., in demands to fulfill gender and culture stereotyped roles while also pursuing an IDU career).

W. Andritzky. Medical letters of child psychiatrists, and their role in custody and visitation litgations - results of an inquiery. Praxis Der Kinderpsychologie Und Kinderpsychiatrie, 2003. 52(10), pp. 794-811.

In the last decade, increasing divorce rates, a joint custodial concept, and a deficient legal situation of non-married fathers have been involuntarily provoking cases of a parent with child custody alienating that child in order to exclude the other parent from visitations and educational participation. Medical certificates are frequently of fateful importance in child custody litigation. In an mail survey conduced in six German cities, N = 133 child psychiatrists were asked about the frequency in which they issue such certificates, what certificates contained, what recommendations were made, and where possible the reasons why the other parent was not included in the diagnostic process. According to the results 74,4% of those surveyed were asked to issue such medical certificates at least once in the year prior to the survey; 42% of the psychiatrists stating that the other parent never or only sometimes participated. The symptoms most frequently certified were behavioural disorders (46%), aggression (34%), problems in school/ADD (28%), anxiety (26%), bed-wetting (23%), depression (21%), and psychosomatic reactions (20%). Outlining the characteristics of alienated children and of alienating parents, of "natural" and of "induced" stress-symptoms in children after parental separation, the article provides physicians and institutions of the health system with support to prevent medical certificates being abused in child custody litigation. Some fundamental guidelines are presented as to what aspects and should be explored and which persons referred to before certificates are issued to parents, social workers or judges of family law courts.

A. Angell. Family men: Middle-class fatherhood in early inustrializing america by shawn johansen. Men and Masculinities, 2003. 5(PART 4), pp. 397.

Malathi L. Apparala, Alan Reifman and Joyce Munsch. Cross-national comparison of attitudes toward fathers' and mothers' participation in household tasks and childcare. Sex Roles, 2003. 48(5), pp. 189-203.

egalitarian attitudes: multilevel modeling approach: cross-national comparison: division of labor: household tasks: child care: fathers: mothers: Euro-barometer surveys: Household Management: Cross Cultural Differences: Sex Role Attitudes

The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes toward the division of fathers' and mothers' participation in childcare/household tasks through a multilevel modeling approach. Data from the Euro-barometer surveys, including over 10,000 respondents from 13 European countries, were used. Respondents' attitudes were related to several individual- and macro-level factors. At the individual level (based on a separate regression equation for each country), it was found that respondents were most likely to hold egalitarian attitudes toward household work and childcare when they were younger, female, and politically liberal. At the macro level, countries' United Nations ratings on women's empowerment, Gross National Product, and cultural individualism were related to egalitarian attitudes. Study implications, strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

David W. Appleby. Father identity and context as predictors of divorced fathers' involvement with their children. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(8), pp. 3016-A.

Divorce: Fathers: Parent Child Relations

Current literature suggests that divorced fathers rapidly disengage from their children post-divorce. This quantitative study of 51 primarily white, middle-class divorced fathers examines Father Identity and Contextual Factors as they relate to divorced fathers' Involvement with their youngest biological child. Father Identity is composed of three factors: Salience, or giving priority to or choosing fathering activities, status, or identification over other roles; Reflected Appraisals, or the father's report of his significant others' appraisal or evaluation of him in the role of father; and Paternal Satisfaction, or the degree of satisfaction that a man derives from being a father. Contextual factors were twelve in number and included father's health, change in life patterns, sense of competency, sense of control, sense of status, quality of contacts with child, motivation to father, pain of separation from child, financial status, relationship with former spouse, spousal support of father-child relationship, and access to child. Also included in the study were demographic factors. These included father's age, educational level, race, income, level of child support paid, hours worked per week, number of jobs currently held, initiator of divorce, time since separation from child, presence or absence of current romantic involvement, residence of child, and distance father lives from child. The study found that of the Father Identity Factors, only Reflected Appraisals of former spouse, child, parents, and others was found to be significantly correlated with Father Involvement with child post-divorce. Of the Contextual Factors, Motivation to father and Status as a father were found to be significantly correlated with Father Involvement with child post-divorce. Of the Demographic Factors, time since separation from child, and physical proximity to the child post-divorce were found to be significantly and negatively correlated with Father Involvement. In addition, Weighted Contextual Factors; how fathers rated the impact of the Contextual Factors on their fathering, were not found to be significantly correlated to Father Involvement. The study also suggests that divorced fathers may view the constructs of identity and involvement in ways that significantly differ from fathers in intact families.

C. Arbona and T. G. Power. Parental attachment, self-esteem, and antisocial behaviors among african american, european american, and mexican american adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2003. 50(1), pp. 40-51.

This study examined the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American (n = 488), European American (n = 661), and Mexican American (n = 434) high school students. The attachment dimensions of anxiety and avoidance were examined using self-report scales that were developed and validated with participants in the study. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment to father and mother. Consistent with theoretical formulations, securely attached adolescents from the 3 ethnic groups had a more positive sense of self-esteem and reported less involvement in antisocial behaviors than their less securely attached peers.

E. R. Armstrong. Family law-putative fathers and the presumption of legitimacy-adams and the forbidden fruit: Clashes between the presumption of legitimacy and the rights of putative fathers in arkansas. University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review, 2003. 25(PART 2), pp. 369-406.

Robert E. Aronson, Willie L. Baber and Tony L. Whitehead. Challenges to masculine transformation among urban low-income african american males. American Journal of Public Health, 2003. 93(5), pp. 732-741.

Black American people: Low income fathers: Masculinity: Empowerment: Support schemes: USA

In this article we describe and analyze the challenges faced by an intervention program that addresses the fatherhood needs of low-income urban African American males. We used life history as the primary research strategy for a qualitative evaluation of a program we refer to as the Healthy Men in Healthy Families Program to better understand the circumstances and trajectory of men's lives, including how involvement in the program might have benefited them in the pursuit of their fatherhood goals. A model of masculine transformation, developed by Whitehead, was used to interpret changes in manhood/fatherhood attitudes and behaviors that might be associated with the intervention. We combined Whitehead's model with a social ecology framework to further interpret challenges at intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, and broader societal levels. (Original abstract).

A. B. Arteaga and J. F. del Valle. Social support networks of adolescents in residential child care. A comparative analysis with normative population. Psicothema, 2003. 15(1), pp. 136-142.

There are many researches on the theme of social support. what reveals the large interest around this concept. Its effects on health are well known. although specific mechanisms relating social Support and health are still being investigated. The aim of this Study is analysing structure (size and composition) and three functional dimensions (confidence, instrumental help and affection) of adolescent's social support networks in residential child care. The kind of social support provided by different people of their networks (father, mother, brothers, care workers, friends, etc.) is analysed by means of a social Support questionnaire. The same questionnaire was applied in a large sample of adolescents from general population, who do not have any relation with Child Welfare services. in order to compare results between both groups.

G. K. Auslander, D. Netzer and I. Arad. Parental anxiety following discharge from hospital of their very low birth weight infants. Family Relations, 2003. 52(1), pp. 12-21.

The uncertainty regarding the future well-being of very low birth weight infants is a source of considerable anxiety for parents, even after discharge from the hospital. We identify factors related to postdischarge anxiety levels of parents of 65 infants. Infant's weight relative to gestational age; the presence of central nervous system complications; informational support; and a warm, caring attitude by hospital staff explained 35% of the variance in mothers' anxiety, levels. Father's age, infant's gender, perception of the infant as problematic, and the availability of child care support explained 33% of the variance in fathers' anxiety levels. Practice implications, including both identification of high-risk groups and interventions aimed at bringing about change in specific factors, are discussed.

Daniel M. Bagner and Sheila M. Eyberg. Father involvement in parent training: When does it matter? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2003. 32(4), pp. 599-605.

Parent management training: Fathers: Involvement: Clinical outcomes: USA

We examined the impact of father involvement on treatment. Participants were 107 families enrolled in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), including 56 involved-father (IF) families, 16 uninvolved-father (UF) families, and 35 absent-father (AF) families. All groups showed improvements during treatment to within the average range on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), although mothers from AF families reported better treatment outcome than mothers from IF families. Improvements occurred on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) as well, but there were no group differences. At a 4-month follow-up, mothers in IF families maintained treatment gains on the ECBI. In contrast, mothers in AF families reported significant decline at follow-up, although their scores remained within the normal range. Results suggest that father participation in treatment may not affect immediate treatment outcome but may help to maintain the beneficial effects of PCIT. (Original abstract).

Sandra J. Bailey and Anisa M. Zvonkovic. Parenting after divorce: Nonresidential parents' perceptions of social and institutional support. 2003. 39(3-4), pp. 59-80.

Mothers: Fathers: Divorce: Social Support: Childrearing Practices

Nonresidential parents are in a precarious position as by definition they are outside of the family residence after divorce & hence often perceived as outside of the family system. Semistructured qualitative telephone interviews with 36 nonresidential parents living 50 or more miles from their children revealed social & institutional systems provide both assistance & barriers to parents following divorce. The challenge of continuing with their identity & role as a parent & family member was shown through their interactions with schools, religious institutions, & workplaces, as well as family & friends. 49 References. Adapted from the source document. COPIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM: HAWORTH DOCUMENT DELIVERY CENTER, The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

Nigel Barber. Paternal investment prospects and cross-national differences in single parenthood. Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science, 2003. 37(2), pp. 163-177.

paternal investment: cross-national differences: single parenthood: female literacy: Cross Cultural Differences: Fathers: Literacy: Parental Investment: Single Mothers

Previous research has shown that when young women have diminished prospects of paternal investment in their children, they are more likely to reproduce as teens. This study investigated whether high rates of nonmarital births for 85 countries would be predicted by diminished prospects of paternal investment as measured by high male unemployment, low wealth (gross national product [GNP]), low sex ratios, and high teen birth rates. It was predicted that single parenthood would increase with female literacy, used as an index of career orientation. In correlational and regression analyses, single parenthood rates generally declined as paternal investment increased. Single parenthood increased with female literacy in the regression analysis, possibly because the greater economic power of women in developed countries makes them less reliant on economic support from husbands. Single childbearing can thus be seen either as a response to diminished prospects of or diminished reliance on paternal investment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Stefan Bartanusz and Lenka Sulova. Functional analysis of the communication between the young child and his father or mother when reading an illustrated book. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 2003. 18(2), pp. 22-134.

Our research is concerned with the observation of communication between the child and his parents (mother-baby vs. father-baby). The children are aged from 30 to 36 months old. Communication was analysed according to utterances functions and social aims. 14 French children, 7 boys and 7 girls were filmed with each of their two parents in their home environment. 5 minutes of verbal interactions were entirely rewritten and analysed according to categories adapted from the speech acts theory. The results indicate that mothers generate more expressive utterances and fathers more commissive ones. Mothers also tend to ask more information requests. The children generate more assertive utterances with the mothers and are more directive with the fathers. Concerning parental feedback functions (approval, reformulation, clarification requests), there is no significant difference between mothers and fathers. These results are being discussed from a pragmatic and differential point of view. (Contains 6 tables, 7 figures, and 4 notes.) ABSTRACT AUTHORS: As Provided.

Haven B. Battles, Lori S. Wiener, Eleesha M. Lewis, Rita Patel and Shelma Middleton Grant. A telephone support group intervention for non-HIV-infected fathers of HIV-infected children. 2003. 2(1), pp. 63-78.

Fathers: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Children: Self Help Groups: Telephone Communications

Fathers of HIV-infected children are rarely targeted as a group for specific psychosocial support & intervention. This paper is intended to provide an in-depth case description of a specific telephone group intervention & its perceived effectiveness by group members. Themes covered during the group intervention included diagnosis disclosure, coping, relationship issues, stigma, need for social & concrete support, medical care, & losses. The group was perceived to be effective in bringing together fathers of HIV-infected children. The fathers came from geographically diverse regions & without the group they might not have the opportunity to talk openly with others. All of the participants believed the group to be a valuable resource & would recommend it to others. The findings suggest that this is a cost-effective intervention that provides support to people who are either geographically distanced from each other or who are not emotionally ready to participate in a face-to-face support group. 31 References. Adapted from the source document. COPIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM: HAWORTH DOCUMENT DELIVERY CENTER, The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

N. Baum. Divorce process variables and the co-parental relationship and parental role fulfillment of divorced parents. Family Process, 2003. 42(1), pp. 117-131.

This study examines the association between two sets of divorce process variables, a) initiation of and responsibility for the divorce and b) difficulty and duration of the legal procedure, and divorced spouses' co-parental relationship and parental functioning. In a random sample of 50 former couples, in Israel, findings showed that the longer and more conflictual the legal proceedings, the worse the co-parental relationship in the view of both parents. They also showed that mothers' parental functioning was not significantly associated with any of the divorce variables, but fathers' were. The more responsibility the father assumed for the divorce and the more he viewed himself as the initiator, the more he fulfilled his parental functions. The findings are interpreted in the discussion, and their theoretical and practical implications considered.

Elke Beecher. The importance of fathers: A psychoanalytic re-evaluation. book review. Journal of Family Studies, 2003. 9(1), pp. 113-114.

fathers: child development: psychoanalytic theory: Childhood Development: Father Child Relations

This book identifies the intrapsychic influences of the father on the developing child. Psychoanalytic interests in the importance of mothers and early bonding have replaced Freud's seminal views on the role of fathers of one hundred years ago. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

J. M. Beld. Revisiting `The politics of fatherhood': Administrative agencies, family life, and public policy. Ps -Washington-, 2003. 36(PART 4), pp. 713-718.

Bergquist,Kathleen,Ja,Sook, Mary Campbell E. and Yvonne Unrau A. Caucasian parents and korean adoptees: A survey of parents' perceptions. Adoption Quarterly, 2003. 6(4), pp. 41-58.

Explored the transracial adoption experiences of Caucasian parents adopting children from Korea, comparing mothers' and fathers' perceptions regarding reasons for adopting, family adjustment related to the adoption, and racial identity of adoptees. Found that mothers' and fathers' perceptions were more similar than different, and parents downplayed their Korean children's race. Explored implications for post-adoption training for transracial adoptive families. (Author/KB).

Anne C. Bernstein. Gender in stepfamilies: Daughters and fathers. 2003. pp. 91-104.

gender: stepfamilies: daughters: fathers: family therapy: feminist perspective: loyalty conflicts: Father Child Relations: Feminism: Sex Roles: Stepfamily: Loyalty

As stepfamilies have become more common, so too have efforts to understand their complexities. Gender has often been omitted as a key explanatory principle. This chapter analyzes how gender prescriptions and expectations contribute to problems frequently seen in stepfamilies. In addition to feminist perspectives, the approach draws on family systems theory as well as narrative and social constructionist thinking about families. Included are examples from clinical work to illustrate how therapists can help family members discover ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are both more personally satisfying and more congruent with the changed context of family life. To achieve this end, therapists must help children resolve loyalty conflicts so that they can have positive relationships with both parents. Fostering positive relationships between fathers and daughters presents a particular challenge, largely because of the impediments constructed by gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter).

S. Bluher. Everlasting solidarity? longevity and generational relations. Zeitschrift Fur Gerontologie Und Geriatrie, 2003. 36(2), pp. 110-114.

Demographic development of industrial societies is determined by continuous low birth rates and increasing life expectancy. The dramatic change in generational structure will be an enormous challenge not only for the public social security systems; as an original place of inter-generational relations, family is particularly faced with increasing life expectancy and the chances and risks of longevity. Need for nursing care is such a risk of longevity, realizing that only about 3% aged between 60 and 80 are in need of care, but about 25% at the age of 80 or older. The majority of nursing cases is well-cared at home, mostly by relatives. Although one might care for relatives for many reasons - not only for love and altruism - empirical data insist on indicating strong family ties based on senses of solidarity and commitment. The focal point of the following article is a case review describing highly emotional family relationships in a home care situation. On the one hand, the description clarifies family solidarity representing the basis of German long-term care insurance since 1995; on the other hand it demonstrates the enormous burden caring for an old mother or father. Increasing life expectancy might even intensify burdens, so that fewer and fewer relatives might be able or willing to accept them. In this matter, new mixtures of private and public services will attain increasing importance. Considering German long-term care insurance a pioneer, it expresses a new sense of limited public responsibility assuming the existance of sufficiently strong family ties.

C. C. M. Boey, A. Omar and J. A. Phillips. Correlation among academic performance, recurrent abdominal pain and other factors in year-6 urban primary-school children in malaysia. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 2003. 39(5), pp. 352-357.

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which recurrent abdominal pain and other factors were associated with academic achievement among Year-6 (12 years of age) schoolchildren. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional survey conducted from September to November 2001. Schoolchildren were recruited from primary schools that were selected randomly from a list of all primary schools in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, using random sampling numbers. Information concerning recurrent abdominal pain, socio-economic status, life events, demographic and other details was obtained using a combination of questionnaires and interviews. Academic achievement was assessed using a score based on the Malaysian Primary School Achievement Examination. An overall score at or above the mean was taken to indicate high academic achievement while a score below the mean indicated poor academic achievement. Results: A total of 1971 children were studied (958 boys and 1013 girls: 1047 Malays, 513 Chinese and 411 Indians). Of these children, 456 (23.1%) fulfilled the criteria for recurrent abdominal pain. Using the method of binary logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with poor academic performance: a low socio-economic status (odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.35); male sex (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.26-2.05); the death of a close relative (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.73-2.85); the divorce or separation of parents (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.73-5.40); the commencement of work by the mother (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02-1.76); hospitalization of the child in the 12 months prior to the study (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.12-3.01); lack of health-care consultation (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.36-2.36); missing breakfast (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.07-2.02); and lack of kindergarten education (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.04-1.75). Conclusions: Many factors, such as socio-economic status and recent life events, were associated with poor academic performance. Recurrent abdominal pain did not correlate directly to academic performance. Stress may be a means by which various factors cause children to struggle academically.

Brooke Bollinger and Rob Palkovitz. The relationship between expressions of spiritual faith and parental involvement in three groups of fathers. The Journal of Men's Studies, 2003. 11(2), pp. 117-129.

parental involvement: Latter-day Saints: spiritual faith expressions: fathers attitudes: evangelical Christians: Mormons: Christians: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Parental Investment: Spirituality: Religious Affiliation

This study explores the relationship between spiritual faith and parental involvement in three groups of fathers: evangelical Christians, Latter-day Saints, and fathers for whom faith is not central. Results indicate that all fathers were highly involved, and none of the three groups reported significantly greater involvement with their children than the others. However, fathers who were church members, regardless of affiliation with a spiritual faith group, were more involved than non-church members. In addition, fathers who were currently married for the first time were both more involved with their children and more active in their faith than their peers. This paper presents interpretations of the findings and suggestions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Elena Bonassi. Anoressia--bulimia e funzione paterna. Richard e Piggle, 2003. 11(1), pp. 31-49.

anorexia nervosa: bulimia: expressed emotion: depersonalization phenomenon: family dynamics: child boundary: family status: father figure: parent personality: Depersonalization: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Personality Traits

Discusses anorexia nervosa and bulimia as expressions of a depersonalization phenomenon connected with the father figure and paternal functioning. Family status, family dynamics, parent personality, expressed emotion, and parent-child boundary problems are examined in relation to eating disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Simona Argentieri Bondi. St. joseph, a maternal father. 2003. pp. 227-238.

St. Joseph: Holy Family: father: history: psychoanalytic interpretation: Family Relations: Fathers: Religion

Dr. Simona Argentieri Bondi addresses the role of the father within the Holy Family. Especially emphasizing the maternal aspects of the representations of St. Joseph, she also describes the variations in his representation throughout the centuries and within different sociocultural environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter).

M. Z. Booth. The impact of parental availability on swazi students' school achievement: A nine year longitudinal study. International Journal of Educational Development, 2003. 23(3), pp. 257-274.

This paper constitutes a major part of the third phase of a longitudinal study in Swaziland investigating the short- and long-term effects of parental absence on primary children's school achievement. In 1998, 42 of the original sample Of 80 students who entered grade one in 1990 were found remaining in the educational system but varied in their educational attainment. While girls had a higher drop-out rate than boys, males repeated grades at a higher rate. Father absence from the home had a negative influence on boys' participation in and successful completion of school. Generally. the study found school achievement to be highly impacted by social variables rather than academic ability for both boys and girls. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Heidi Carolina Bowerman. The effects of father absence on female development. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 64(5), pp. 2437-2437.

father absence: biopsychosocial development: Father Child Relations: Fathers

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of father absence on female, biopsychosocial development. Father absence due to divorce, separation, desertion and death was explored. A critical literature review was conducted to identify the recent research in this area. Researchers and theorists began to show more of an interest in the role a father plays in child development in the 1970s, with rates of divorce and paternal abandonment on the rise. Based on the literature, it appears that father absence has the most significant effects on a daughter's relationships with males and achievement behavior. Additionally, the predictors of paternal attachment were briefly considered. Further research is needed to differentiate the impact of ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic factors on father-child interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

C. J. Boyatzis. Religious and spiritual development: An introduction. Review of Religious Research, 2003. 44(3), pp. 213-219.

This special issue grew out of a pre-conference on religious and spiritual development (RSD), the first pre-conference of its kind at the biennial meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development. (A second meeting will be held in April of 2003.) In this introductory essay, two brief empirical arguments are presented as rationale for this issue: the neglect of social-science research on RSD, and the centrality and importance of religion for families and children's development. The issue includes 6 papers that vary richly in topic, methods, and levels of analysis: a conceptual analysis of sanctification in family relationships, a qualitative study of the role of religion in Latter-day Saints fathers who have special-needs children, a qualitative and quantitative study of parent-child communication about religion, a structural-modeling analysis of the role of religion in the positive development of a national sample of youth, a survey study of religion in college students' volunteerism, and a data-based reconceptualization of children's concepts of God. Some papers speak directly to the important issue of whether religion offers families and children benefits that are due uniquely to religion. Overall, the special issue offers a measure of remedy for the neglect of RSD and suggests many empirical and theoretical considerations for future scholarship on RSD.

C. J. Boyatzis and D. L. Janicki. Parent-child communication about religion: Survey and diary data on unilateral transmission and bi-directional reciprocity styles. Review of Religious Research, 2003. 44(3), pp. 252-270.

We analyzed the frequency, structure, and content of parent-child communication about religion to determine if parent-child communication is characterized by a unidirectional parent-to-child transmission or a bi-directional reciprocity in which children are active participants in their religious socialization. In two 1-week data collections, Christian parents with children between 3 and 12 years completed a survey and kept a diary of their religious conversations with their children (Time 1, (N) under bar = 23, Time 2 (N) under bar = 15). Diary entries showed that families discussed religious topics an average of 5.4 times in the 2-week span, though on surveys parents reported they discussed religion with children on "most days. " The most common topics were God, Jesus, and prayer Survey data indicated some stability over time in families' communication but diaries suggested less stability. On all measures, mothers were more involved than fathers in parent-child communication. Conclusions are tentative given the sample, but a bi-directional reciprocal style of communication seemed more typical than a unidirectional transmission style. Based on specific diary and survey variables, children spoke roughly as often as parents, asked questions, and initiated and terminated conversation frequently; parents rarely corrected their children, asked more open-ended solicitations of the child views rather than "test" questions, and expressed only modest conviction that they had conveyed their own beliefs in conversations. We emphasize the need for researchers to view children as active participants in religious socialization rather than as more passive recipients of parental influences. The diary method is a promising measure for analyzing the dynamics of parent-child religious communication. Recommendations are offered for future investigations.

Patricia A. Brennan, Robyne Le Brocque and Constance Hammen. Maternal depression, parent-child relationships, and resilient outcomes in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2003. 42(12), pp. 1469-1477.

maternal depression: maternal warmth: overinvolvement: psychological control: parent-child relationships: resilient outcomes: adolescence: Major Depression: Mothers: Parent Child Relations: Parenting Style: Resilience (Psychological): Adolescent Development: Fathers

Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal depression, parent-child relations, and resilient outcomes in the context of risk in a cross-sectional study of 816 15-year-olds in Australia. Method: Resilient outcomes were defined as the following: no current Axis I diagnosis, no history of depressive disorder diagnoses, no current internalizing problems, and no indication of current social functioning difficulties. Parent-child relationship qualities were measured using the Five-Minute Speech Sample, the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory, and a child report questionnaire concerning perceived maternal warmth and hostility. The role of the father's psychiatric status in resilient outcomes was also assessed. Results: Results revealed that low levels of parental psychological control, high levels of maternal warmth, and low levels of maternal overinvolvement all interacted with maternal depression to predict resilient outcomes in youth. Conclusions: Targeting maternal and paternal parenting qualities may be a useful method of increasing the likelihood of resilient outcomes in children of depressed mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Inge Bretherton and Timothy Page. Representations of attachment to father in the narratives of preschool girls in post-divorce families: Implications for family relationships and social development. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 2003. 20(2), pp. 99-122.

Attachment: Preschool girls: Divorced fathers: Narratives

This study used the Attachment Story Completion Task-Revised (ASCT-R)(Bretherton, Ridgeway, and Cassidy, 1990), a representational measureof attachment security, to examine characteristics of preschool-aged girls' narratives associated with portrayals of attachment to the father. The children's (n = 27) parents had been divorced or legally separated for at least 2 years, and they lived in the primary custody of their mothers. We had previously discovered that girls' responses to theASCT-R differed from those of boys in unexpected ways. Whereas boys' representations of child-father attachment varied positively with teacher ratings of social behavior in child care settings, the opposite was the case for girls. Girls who portrayed children's attachment to thefather more frequently were rated lower in social competence, contrary to expectations. A more detailed analysis of responses to the ASCT-Rsuggests that girls' representational attachment behavior toward the father was associated with narrative representations of both parents as unavailable, family instability, and concerns for the father's well-being. 2 Tables, 2 Appendixes, 38 References. (Original abstract - amended).

L. Bridgers and J. R. Snarey. From father to son: Generative care and gradual conversion in william james's writing of the varieties. Journal of Moral Education, 2003. 32(4), pp. 329-340.

Using a historical and biographical, then developmental, approach, this article examines William James's spiritual family history by reviewing key events in the life of his father, Henry James, Sr. It pays particular attention to Henry Sr's tumultuous relationship with his own father, William James of Albany, and Henry Sr's subsequent conversion to the religious thought of Emmanuel Swedenborg. James's writing of The Varieties of Religious Experience can be seen as integral to his moral and religious development; that is, it functioned as an extended process of conversion that permitted him to distance himself from a rational, scientific identity. In search of the deeper emotional satisfaction and in loyalty to the two paternal ancestors, James's redefined himself, dramatically expanding his own generative legacy.

David W. Brook, Judith S. Brook, Elizabeth Rubenstone, Chenshu Zhang, Merrill Singer and Michael R. Duke. Alcohol use in adolescents whose fathers abuse drugs. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 2003. 22(1), pp. 11-34.

adolescent alcohol use: fathers abuse drugs: father attributes: father-child relations: peer influences: environmental factors: youth personality: protective factors: adolescent drinking: HIV: Adolescent Development: Children of Alcoholics: Drug Abuse: Father Child Relations: Parental Characteristics: Alcohol Abuse: At Risk Populations: Drug Abuse Prevention: Fathers: Peer Relations: Personality

This study examined the interrelation of several domains, including father attributes, father-child relations, peer influences, environmental factors, and youth personality, as they related to adolescent alcohol use. Several aspects of the father-child relationship were also examined as possible protective factors against adolescent drinking. Subjects consisted of 204 HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug-abusing fathers and their adolescent children between the ages of 12-20. Data were collected via individual structured interviews of both the fathers and the youth. Results indicated that several items from each domain were related to adolescent drinking, and that an affectionate father-childbond had a protective effect. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that the youth's personality mediated between all other domains and adolescent alcohol use. There was also a direct effect of peer influences on adolescent drinking. Findings extend the literature on the specific mechanisms which link parental substance use with adolescent alcohol use in a high-risk population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Gary R. Brooks. Helping men embrace equality. 2003. pp. 163-176.

family therapy: husband: father: feminist theorists: masculinity: psychotherapy: Feminism: Fathers: Husbands

A major challenge in family therapy is engaging a reluctant husband/father. Because of the sometimes exaggerated efforts to involve male family members, some feminist theorists have cautioned against catering to male perspectives by idealizing and patronizing fathers while criticizing and blaming mothers. The author also raises concerns about the need to proceed cautiously in seeking to incorporate a husband into therapy with a newly empowered woman. However, when the situation is appropriate, we must make psychotherapy more attractive to traditional men and sell them on the benefits of change. The recent literature in men's studies is replete with descriptions of the traditional code of masculinity and its poor fit with the role of psychotherapy client. In previous writings, the author has described a model for therapy with traditional men and utilized the acronym MASTERY to represent its core components. The author illustrates its use with a case study of the Smith family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter).

Kevin Gerard Brown. Perceived parental authority style and the quality of father-child and stepfather-stepchild relationships. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(11), pp. 4091-A-4092-A.

Childrearing Practices: Stepfamily: Fathers: Parent Child Relations: Adolescents: Authoritarianism (Psychology)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the parental authority style of stepfathers and their stepchild's perceived level of satisfaction with the stepfather-stepchild relationship. The study compared the perceived parental behavior of fathers and stepfathers and the level of satisfaction with the parental relationship perceived by the children who resided with them during adolescence. Students from two universities were asked to provide retrospective information concerning family experiences during adolescence. Research participants completed a survey questionnaire that included the Child's Attitude Toward Father Scale (Hudson, 1982), the Child's Attitude Toward Mother Scale (Hudson, 1982), the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Burl, 1991), and items measuring parental acceptance and rejection adapted from the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (Schaefer, 1965). In addition, an original set of scales, the Parental Authority Style Scales (PASS), was developed to measure the Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez-faire Parental Authority Style of parental figures. Stepchildren who did not reside with their father reported higher levels of difficulties in their relationship than did children who resided with their fathers during their adolescence. The set of independent variables, perceived parental acceptance, parental authority style, gender of the child, and family form (father or stepfather) predicted the level of perceived difficulties in the relationship as measured by the Child's Attitude Toward Father Scale or Child's Attitude Toward Stepfather Scale (Hudson, 1982; 1997). Parental acceptance was found to have a strong negative association with perceived difficulties in father-child and stepfather-stepchild relationships. Authoritarian parental authority style was associated with higher levels of difficulty in father-child and stepfather-stepchild relationships. Democratic parental authority style was associated with lower levels of reported difficulties in father-child and stepfather-stepchild relationships. Laissez-faire parenting style did not have a significant association with the perceived quality of the relationship. Females reported higher levels of difficulties in stepfather-stepchild relationships, however this finding was not consistent across the two university samples. Future study needs to be done to examine the degree to which parental acceptance and democratic parenting represent one common factor that potentially contributes to explaining the level of satisfaction in stepfather-stepchild relationships perceived by the stepchild.

Lorna Browne. What does it mean to be accountable when one is a divorced, noncustodial father? 2003. pp. 21.

This paper explores what divorced, noncustodial fathers may be considered responsible for in society and the possible consequences such accountability may have for educators. The resistance that noncustodial fathers may find to their involvement with their childrens education at their children's schools in highlighted. The author concludes by offering specific recommendations for those involved in education to assist in the empowerment of divorced, noncustodial fathers. (Contains 21 references.) (GCP).

Leyla Taeb Brusatori. The experience of male chief executive officers' relationship with their children: A phenomenological approach. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 63(8), pp. 3974-3974.

chief executive officers: father child relations: Fathers: Top Level Managers

This study examined the experience of male chief executive officers' relationship with their children. Using the phenomenological method, the male executive participants (N = 8) from local organizations completed an unstructured interview, which assessed their experience of their relationship with their child or children. The analysis supported research by Kofodimos (1990) and Friedlander (1992) in which male executives placed significant importance on their careers and personal goals and placed less importance on family and child relationships. Older male executives admitted to placing more importance on their careers and expressed regret in realizing that it had negatively impacted their relationships with their children. Younger male executives identified that their careers were important, and their relationship with their children was important but had not attempted to change their focus from their careers to their relationship with their child or children. Other male executives found that major life events changed their perspective on the importance placed upon fostering the relationship with their child or children. Through the accounts given by the participants, a model for future research was identified. The components of this model could be used to further understand and capture the male executive's experience of his child or children. Implications for use in clinical settings were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

A. L. Bryant and M. A. Zimmermann. Role models and psychosocial outcomes among african american adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2003. 18(1), pp. 36-67.

The authors examined who 679 African American ninth-graders from urban environments look up to and how their role model choices relate to substance use, delinquency, academic engagement, and psychological well-being. Male adolescents without male role models and females identifying brothers as role models reported the most problem behavior. Adolescents with paternal male role models had the most positive school outcomes, no differences were found in psychological well-being among adolescents in terms of their male role models. The presence of female role models, in contrast, was associated with psychological well-being such that adolescents with maternal role models reported the least distress. Adolescents without female role models had the lowest grades and most negative school attitudes. These findings remained when parental support, family conflict, and father presence in the household were controlled, suggesting role model effect are separate from parenting effects. Our findings support and expand on the notion that having someone to look up to is critical for African American youths' development.

Ann Buchanan and Eirini Flouir. The role of father involvement and mother involvement in adolescents'psychological well-being. British Journal of Social Work, 2003. 33(3), pp. 399-406.

Adolescents: Parent-Adolescent relationships: Wellbeing: Gender differences: Family structure: UK: Involvement: Fathers: Mothers

This study of 2,722 British adolescents aged 14-18 years explored whether paternal involvement can protect against low levels of well-beingeven when maternal involvement and risk and protective factors are controlled for. Results showed that although both father and mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to offspring happiness, father involvement had a stronger effect. Furthermore, the association between father involvement and happiness was not stronger for sons than for daughters. There was no evidence suggesting that family disruption weakens the association between father involvement and happiness, or that father involvement is more strongly related to offspringhappiness when mother involvement is low rather than high. 1 Table, 16 References. (Original abstract - amended).

J. Bullmore. What's your problem? how can I tell my father I don't want to run the family firm? Management Today -London-, 2003. (SEP), pp. 85.

P. Bungener and M. Buscaglia. Early connection between cytology and mendelism: Michael F. guyer's contribution. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 2003. 25(1), pp. 27-50.

This paper examines the contribution of the PhD dissertation of the American cytologist Michael F. Guyer (1874-1959) to the early establishment (in 1902-1903) of the parallel relationship between cytological chromosome behaviour in meiosis and Mendel's laws. Guyer's suggestions were among the first, which attempted to relate the variation observed in the offspring in hybridisation studies by a coherent cytological chromosome mechanism to meiosis before the rediscovery of Mendel's principles. This suggested for the first time that the chromosome mechanism involved a conjugation of maternal and paternal chromosomes during the synapsis followed by a segregation Of parental chromosomes in the final germ cells and a random union of the final germ cells in the fertilization. It shows that this early suggestion was similar to William Austin Cannon's later chromosome proposal attempting to explain Mendel's principles and had some influence on Walter Sutton's cytological suggestion explaining correctly the behaviour of Mendel's particle by 1903.

Ann D. Burbach. Parenting among fathers of young children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 63(7), pp. 3512-3512.

parenting practices: expectations: stress: fathers: children: child behavior: child gender: socioeconomic status: Father Child Relations: Parental Characteristics: Parental Expectations: Psychological Stress: Human Sex Differences

This study examined if child gender and socioeconomic status (SES) significantly affected reported differences in the parenting practices and expectations, parenting stress, and perceptions of child behavior of fathers of young children ages 1 to 5 years. Fathers completed the Parenting Behavior Checklist (PBC), Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI), Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) and the Behavior Screening Questionnaire (BSQ). The ethnically diverse sample was selected from a large urban area in the Midwest. Fathers were assigned to one of four groups based on gender of the focus child and SES. SES was estimated using Hollingshead's Four Factor Index of Social Status. Lower SES was defined as scores from 8 to 34, higher SES was defined as scores from 35 to 66. Results indicated that lower SES fathers of male children obtained significantly higher scores on the PBC Discipline subscale, indicating greater use of verbal and physical punishment in response to difficult child behaviors, than higher SES fathers of male and female children. Lower SES fathers of male children also obtained significantly lower scores on the PBC Nurturing subscale, indicating use of fewer nurturing behaviors that are likely to promote psychological growth, than both groups of fathers with female children. No significant differences between the four groups were found on the PBC Expectations subscale, which measures developmental expectations (developmental tasks that the parent believes the child should be capable of doing). Lower SES fathers of male children obtained significantly higher scores on the PSI Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale than higher SES fathers of male and female children. Higher scores on this subscale suggest that interactions with the child are not reinforcing to the parent, and that the parent either views themselves as abused or rejected by the child, or that the parent is disappointed in or feels alienated from the child. No significant differences were found on the parental distress, or difficult child subscales. No significant differences between groups were found for reported perceptions of child behavior, as measured by the ECBI or BSQ. The implication of these findings for parenting programs is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Louis Burgos. The effect of the father-child relationship on the social conduct of 2 1/2 year old children in preschool. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 2003. 18(2), pp. 135-155.

early paternal involvement: social development: social behavior: social conduct: nursery school: Early Childhood Development: Father Child Relations: Involvement: Psychosocial Development: Socialization: Fathers: Nursery Schools

Our goal is to study the effects of early paternal involvement on a child's socialization. Usually in works concerning the question, we study the father's contribution with questionnaires, we base our evaluation of involvement on the behavior declared by the subject. We have attempted to analyze the affective dimension of this involvement. We have developed a model of the father-child relationship which articulates the affective investment with the father's functions (mediation and sanction). Starting with this model, we analyzed the contents often nondirective interviews, then we ranked these ten fathers according to their relationship with their children. We have studied early socialization with the concept of mimesis, more pertinent than that of interaction. The social behavior of ten children was observed in a nursery school class during a period of free time. Their conduct was placed into two categories: behavior directed towards the peer or behavior directed towards conformity to the pupil's social role. In our empirical study, it does not appear that the father has direct influence on behavior directed towards the peer... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Carolyn K. Burr and David L. Strug. Service needs of male caretakers of HIV-infected and affected children: Policy and practice implications. Social Work in Health Care, 2003. 38(2), pp. 73-92.

Fathers: HIV: Needs: Carers: Men: Children: Support services: USA

The number of male caretakers (biological fathers and other men) of HIV-infected and affected children is substantial and may increase in the US and elsewhere as more women become infected. Little information exists about the needs these men have for support services to help them better perform their parenting roles as male caretakers (MCs). This paper discusses the service needs of MCs at Ryan White CARE Act Title IV programs, the challenges providers at these programs face in serving MCs, and the strategies they have found effective in working with MCs. Providers report that MCs have specific service needs including the need for emotional support. Title IV programs meet these needs in a limited way because they are organized primarily around the needs of female rather than male caretakers. We discuss how Title IV programs can tailor existing service delivery and implement organizational change to facilitate MCs' service access and utilization. Further research directly with MCs is necessary to learn more about their service needs and the barriers MCs face in accessing services. Copies of this article are available for a fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service http: [mailto://docdelivery@haworthpress.com]. (Original abstract).

M. Byrne, E. Agerbo, H. Ewald, W. W. Eaton and P. B. Mortensen. Parental age and risk of schizophrenia - A case-control study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2003. 60(7), pp. 673-678.

Background: Advanced paternal age has been suggested as a possible risk factor for schizophrenia. It is not known whether this is explained by known risk factors for schizophrenia, including sibship characteristics, death of a parent before first hospital admission, season and place of birth, and family history of psychiatric illness, or by socioeconomic factors. We investigated the risk of schizophrenia associated with parental age, adjusting for known risk factors for schizophrenia, including family psychiatric history, and controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Methods: We performed a national population, nested, case-control study based on Danish longitudinal register data. The sample included 7704 patients with an ICD-8 or ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia admitted to a psychiatric facility between 1981 and 1998 in Denmark, and 192 590 individually time-, age-, and sex-matched population controls, their parents, and siblings. The risk of schizophrenia associated with increasing parental age was investigated using conditional logistic regression and controlling for family socioeconomic and demographic factors and family psychiatric history. Results: Advanced paternal and maternal age was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in univariate analyses. Controlling for socioeconomic factors and family psychiatric history, increased risk of schizophrenia was identified in those with a paternal age of 50 years or older. Sex-specific analyses revealed that the risk of schizophrenia was increased for males with fathers 55 years or older (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-3.28); for females, the risk associated with paternal age was substantial for fathers aged 50 to 54 years (IRR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.44-3.44) and 55 years or older (IRR, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.82-6.83). Conclusion: Increased risk of schizophrenia was associated with advanced paternal age, particularly in females, lending support to the theory that de novo mutations, possibly X-linked, associated with increased parental age might be responsible for some cases of schizophrenia.

Natasha J. Cabrera. In their own voices: How men become fathers. Human Development, 2003. 46(4), pp. 250-258.

fatherhood: life course perspective: adult development: parenting influence: father role construction: child development influence: historical trends: self perception: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Parental Role: Childhood Development: Psychosocial Development: Trends

Discusses Palkovitz's examination of the differences between fathers and non-fathers, and the effect of parenting on adult development. Palkovitz discusses historical trends in fatherhood and contemporary roles of fathers, how men construct the fathering role, how engagement in fathering shapes the development of the self, social and work domains, and examines fathering from a life course perspective. The reviewer highlights particular themes of the book, including men's understanding and construction of the costs and benefits of being a dad; the ways in which men keep a balance among the various roles they play given the diverse and conflicting demands placed by many roles; and the manner in which men abstract meaning from being a dad. In addition, the reviwer suggests that Palkovitz's study emphasizes the need for services and intervention for men that are tailor made and take into account their unique condition, and that the process of fathering has profound effects on men themselves, and important implications for children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Cameron Campbell and James Lee. Social mobility from a kinship perspective: Rural liaoning, 1789-1909. International Review of Social History, 2003. 48(1), pp. 1-26.

Kinship Networks: Intergenerational Mobility: Inheritance and Succession: Opportunity Structures: Fathers: Sons: Rural Areas: China

This paper examines the role of kin networks in intergenerational mobility in rural Liaoning, China, 1789-1909. Classic studies of social mobility in historical China based on the records of imperial examination candidates suggest that society was relatively fluid. It has been claimed, however, that associations between fathers' & sons' outcomes overestimate the fluidity of historical Chinese society because many men who achieved prominence had been helped by senior kin other than their fathers. We test these claims by applying event-history techniques to longitudinal, nominative household register data, measuring the effects of characteristics of kin on the chances of obtaining an official title. Even though distant kin influenced the chances of obtaining a title, kin networks did not monopolize opportunities. There was substantial downward mobility among the sons of prominent families, & high proportions of titleholders were new, in the sense of not having any senior kin who held titles. 8 Tables, 2 Figures. Adapted from the source document.

Deborah M. Capaldi, Katherine C. Pears, Gerald R. Patterson and Lee D. Owen. Continuity of parenting practices across generations in an at-risk sample: A prospective comparison of direct and mediated associations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2003. 31(2), pp. 127-142.

poor parenting practices: adolescent antisocial & delinquent behavior: at-risk populations: fathers: sons: three generations: Antisocial Behavior: Childrearing Practices: Father Child Relations: Juvenile Delinquency: Transgenerational Patterns: At Risk Populations: Human Sex Differences

A prospective model of parenting and externalizing behavior spanning 3 generations (G1, G2, and G3) was examined for young men from an at-risk sample of young adult men (G2) who were in approximately the youngest one third of their cohort to become fathers. Ss recruitment of G1 and G2 (parents and sons) involved recruitment of 4th grade boys who attended school in higher crime areas. It was first predicted that the young men in G2 who had children the earliest would show high levels of antisocial behavior. Second, it was predicted that G1 poor parenting practices would show both a direct association with the G2 son's subsequent parenting and a mediated effect via his development of antisocial and delinquent behavior by adolescence. The young fathers had more arrests and were less likely to have graduated from high school than the other young men in the sample. Findings were most consistent with the interpretation that there was some direct effect of parenting from G1 to G2 and some mediated effect via antisocial behavior in G2. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

M. Carson. Shawn johansen. family men: Middle-class fatherhood in early industrializing america. American Historical Review, 2003. 108(PART 5), pp. 1449.

Sean T. Casey. Masculine mitosis: An inquiry into the development of the caucasian father and young adult son relationship. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(10), pp. 3481-3481.

father son relationship: adult sons: Caucasians: Adult Offspring: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Sons: Whites

The relationship between fathers and young adult sons has received minimal attention in the field of psychological research. To help address this deficit, a qualitative study was undertaken with 19 Caucasian men ranging in age from 19 to 31. These men varied in marital status (single and married), number of children, years of post-high-school education (0 to 7), and identified father (16 identified biological father and 3 identified stepfather as their primary father-figure). Twelve men participated in individual interviews which were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a suite of word-processing and spreadsheet software. A set of themes and subthemes was developed from this analysis, which was then presented to and reviewed by 9 men (2 of whom had participated in the individual interviews) over four focus groups. In these focus groups, additions and refinements were made to the set of themes and subthemes. An overall process description was also developed to describe the changes of the father-son relationship as the son moved from adolescence into adulthood. This process, named masculine mitosis, consists of four subprocesses. In the first subprocess, investment, the father provides personal interest and attention to his son. In the second subprocess, differentiating, the son begins to develop an identity separate from the family. The final two processes, humanizing and recognizing, involve the reconnection and redefinition of the father-son relationship on a more equal peer-like basis. Factors that would interfere with this process are also discussed. Implications for further research and therapy are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Ann Cebon. The function and role of the father in the 21st century. Australasian Journal of Psychotherapy, 2003. 22(1), pp. 52-65.

psychoanalytic psychotherapy: symbolic thinking: fathers: childhood development: psychoanalytic understanding: Conscious (Personality Factor): Psychoanalytic Theory: Father Child Relations

The function and role of fathers in our society is intrinsic to my work as a psychoanalytic psychotherapist with children as well as with adults. Further, the concept of the father is of great interest to me through my involvement in the Esther Bick model of Infant Observation. These perspectives are the basis for the discussion in the paper. I will begin with some clinical anecdotes. I will then review some ideas about the father derived from psychoanalytic understanding. Last, I will introduce an idea of particular interest to me, which is the role and function of the father in the development of the capacity for symbolic thinking in the child. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Paulo R. Ceccarelli and Belo Horizonte. May I call you father? International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 2003. 12(4), pp. 197-205.

Oedipus complex: male child: seduction: identification: repression: father: Fathers: Oedipal Complex: Psychoanalysis: Sons: Identification (Defense Mechanism): Male Homosexuality: Repression (Defense Mechanism)

The paper discusses what the author calls "The seduction by the father". It would occur when, in the Oedipus complex, the father reverses his role: instead of being the one who castrates, he seduces. Seduction here is understood in the sense that he does not act as the one who imposes limits to the child. Consequently the child can not project his hostile impulses onto the father. Based on clinical data, the Author says that, in the male child, the seduction by the father hampers the transformation of the two Oedipal attitudes towards the father into identifications. The consequences of this fact upon the construction of the "nostalgia of the father's protection" are discussed, so as the transformation of this father into the symbolic father. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Neil Chethik. Review of redefining fatherhood. Fathering, 2003. 1(1), pp. 107-109.

fatherhood: child caring: paternal involvement: nurturing role: parenting skills: Fathers: Nurturance: Parental Investment: Parenting Style: Child Care

Reviews the book "Redefining Fatherhood," (2000) by Nancy E. Dowd. The author begins by acknowledging the obvious: that there is at present no clear model for fatherhood. The "Father Knows Best" approach has been discredited and largely discarded, but no single replacement has emerged. Some wish for fathers to become more like mothers, focusing on the day-to-day caregiving of their kids; others want fathers to be more of a complement to nurturing mothers, focusing on teaching children motivation, self-confidence, and skills for the outside world. The author points out that when mothers are not present in the home (because of death or divorce), fathers tend to become more directly nurturing. For that reason, she says, men are capable of such nurturing. And it is her view that children need this kind of parenting more than any other. Unlike some social critics who include breadwinning as a legitimate form of "nurture," the author largely rejects this notion. She argues that children benefit not nearly as much from having access to money and resources as from the direct attention, love, and caring of their parents. Thus, financial contributions to the family, she says, are at best a minor factor in good fathering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Kyllike Christensson and Cecilia Ekeus. Reproductive history and involvement in pregnancy and childbirth of fathers of babies born to teenage mothers in stockholm, sweden. Midwifery, 2003. 19(2), pp. 87-95.

Babies: Adolescent mothers: Pregnancy: Childbirth: Paternal participation: Fathers: Sexual histories: Needs assessment: Midwives: Sweden: Stockholm

Objective: to describe and compare sexual and reproductive history aswell as reactions to the pregnancy and attendance in antenatal care, family classes and childbirth of fathers of babies born to teenage mothers, and fathers of babies born to average aged mothers. Design: a descriptive comparative study using a structured questionnaire for data collection. Setting: eleven postnatal wards at the five obstetric and gynaecological departments in the Stockholm area. Participants: 132 fathers of babies born to primiparous teenage mothers (Group A) and the same number of fathers of babies born to primiparous women aged between 25 -29 years (Group B) who were present in the postnatal wards. Findings: 43% of Group A compared to 17% of the Group B fathers had their first intercourse before 15 years of age. This early sexual debut was related to other health hazard, such as use of illicit drugs and cigarette smoking. The majority of the pregnancies in Group A were unplanned but most fathers reacted positively to the pregnancy and participated in the antenatal care. In contrast, only half of these fathers attended family classes. Key conclusions and implications for practice: fathers of babies born to teenage mothers differed from fathers of babiesto older mothers regarding reproductive background as well as involvement during pregnancy. The findings of this study challenge midwives to organise clinical practice in order to meet the specific needs of this group. (Original abstract).

Kyllike Christensson and Cecilia Ekeus. Socioeconomic characteristics of fathers of children born to teenage mothers in stockholm, sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2003. 31(1), pp. 73-76.

Babies: Adolescent mothers: Fathers: Socioeconomic conditions: Sweden

Aims: Teenage childbearing has been associated with adverse outcomes for the mother and the child. Despite this, no study in Sweden has focused on the fathers of those children. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare the socioeconomic situation of fathers of children born to teenage mothers with those of children born to average-aged mothers. Methods: A descriptive comparative study was conducted, which comprised 132 fathers of children born to teenage mothers (Group A) and the same number of fathers of children born to older mothers (Group B). All fathers answered a structured questionnaire regarding socioeconomic and reproductive factors. Results: On certain critical variables the Group A fathers were more likely to have had a more compromised and difficult socioeconomic background. Compared with the Group B fathers they were more likely to have tried illicit drugs and to be involved in criminality. In addition, the Group A fathers often came from single-parent households. Conclusion: Many fathers of children born to teenage mothers showed problem behaviours, which may negatively influence their ability to engage in successful parenting. Therefore increased attention should be paid to the fathers at an early stage of pregnancy, during the antenatal visits. (Original abstract).

George Christie. Some thoughts about fathers: A response. Australasian Journal of Psychotherapy, 2003. 22(1), pp. 76-87.

father role: fatherhood: psychoanalytic perspective: childhood development: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Psychoanalytic Theory: Object Relations

The author comments briefly on points raised by Rodríguez (see record 2006-01795-004), Cebon (see record 2006-01795-005) and Fullerton (see record 2006-01795-006) with regard to the role of the father. He takes up the question of the nuclear family, to the degree to which it still exists today, with reference to some points made by Cebon and Fullerton. He addresses the emerging picture of two early important roles for the father: (1) A supportive holding or containment of the motherinfant dyad; and (2) The task of helping each of them to emerge from the dyad, with the father emerging as an 'obstacle' within the dyad, and as a facilitator in the separation-individuation process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

V. G. Cicirelli. Mothers' and daughters' paternalism beliefs and caregiving decision making. Research on Aging, 2003. 25(1), pp. 3-21.

The study investigated whether both mothers' and daughters' paternalism beliefs influenced the daughters' paternalistic caregiving decision making. Fifty mother-daughter dyads (mothers' age was 82.6, daughters' age was 54.9), where daughters provided at least 10 hours of caregiving help weekly and mothers retained their cognitive functioning, were interviewed individually. Each was assessed on paternalism beliefs, instrumental activities of daily living, the number of paternalistic caregiving decisions made by the daughter, conflict over caregiving decisions, and satisfaction with the decisions. Both mother's and daughter's paternalism beliefs were related to the number of the daughter's paternalistic decisions, as was the degree of the mother's dependency (p < .05). Daughters' reports of conflict over decisions were related to differences in mothers' and daughters' paternalism beliefs, whereas mothers' reports of conflict were related only to the daughters' paternalism beliefs. Decision satisfaction was unrelated to beliefs. Implications for practitioners are suggested.

Jo Clancy. Premature birth: A family survival guide. 2003. family: parents: premature birth: preterm babies: stress: death: intensive care: mothers: grief: fathers: Family Crises: Death and Dying

Addresses the parents of preterm babies, discussing the heartbreaking stress involved, the impact on the whole family of the death of the dream of a healthy full-term baby. The author talks about how to survive leaving your baby behind after you've given birth, how to survive the long weeks while the baby is in the neonatal intensive care unit. The author describes the experience of the mother's pain, the father's grief, the pain of the older children and the grandparents; how to cope with others' reactions to the birth, and the unbearable anguish when the baby dies. The author describes the mixture of high delight and high anxiety when at last the baby comes home from the neonatal unit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the cover).

Dawne E. Clark, David Este and R. Shimoni. Paternal engagement in immigrant and refugee families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 2003. 34(4), pp. 555-568.

Canada: Engagement: Refugees: Immigrants: Fathers

Paternal disengagement has been identified as a key risk factor for Canadian children. Prior to this study, the specific barriers to paternal engagement facing immigrant and refugee fathers had not been studied or identified, nor had strategies been developed to ensure that the needs of this population are met in new and existing services. The design of specialized services for immigrant and refugee fathers, as well as the successful integration of immigrant and refugee fathers into existing services, requires that practitioners gain an understanding of fatherhood from a cross cultural perspective. The intent of this study was to explore the values, strengths and difficulties faced by new Canadian fathers as they negotiate a variety of Canadian experiences while coping with the struggles associated with migration. Implications of these findings for the development and implementation of programs intended to support families will be discussed. (Original abstract).

C. L. Clawson and M. Reese-Weber. The amount and timing of parent-adolescent sexual communication as predictors of late adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors. Journal of Sex Research, 2003. 40(3), pp. 256-265.

This study examined the moderating role of timing of first discussion of sexual intercourse with mothers and fathers on the relationship between the amount of sexual communication and sexual risk-taking behaviors in late adolescence. Late adolescents (N = 214) completed questionnaire measures regarding the amount and timing of sexual communication with their mothers and fathers. In addition, the participants provided information about their various sexual risk-taking behaviors. In general, the results suggest that timing of first discussion of sexual intercourse contributes additional variance in several sexually risky behaviors beyond that contributed by the amount of communication with both fathers and mothers. The implications of these findings are discussed.

S. Claxton-Oldfield and L. Whitt. Child abuse in stepfather families: Do people think it occurs more often than it does in biological father families? Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 2003. 40(PART 1/2), pp. 17-34.

Obie [Ed] Clayton, Ronald B. [Ed] Mincy and David [Ed] Blakenhorn. Black fathers in contemporary american society: Strengths, weaknesses, and strategies for change. 2003. Black Americans: Fathers: Father Absence: Parent Child Relations: Black Community: Family Stability: United States of America: Black Family

Looks at father absence from two sides, offering an in-depth analysis of how the absence of African American fathers affects their children, their relationships, & society as a whole, while countering the notion that father absence & family fragmentation in the African American community is inevitable. Adapted from the source document.

Obie Clayton, Ronald B. Mincy and David Blankenhorn. Conclusions. 2003. pp. 165-170.

Black Americans: Fathers: Black Family: Marriage: Father Absence: Social Problems: United States of America

A conclusion to a collection of essays devoted to the circumstances of African American fathers & the African American family more generally offers a series of conclusions gleaned from the contributions: (1) An increase in the proportion of black children who reside with their fathers is necessary & possible. (2) The benefits of marriage to fatherhood & child development underscore the need to increase the proportion of children growing up in two-biological-parent, married-couple homes. Economic dimensions to the marriage issue, particularly as they challenge African Americans, are articulated. (3) Policy reform & government involvement are critical to supporting fathers & fatherhood. (4) Father absence is not a problem limited to African Americans but impacts society in general & must be addressed as such. 11 References. J. Zendejas.

Pamela M. Cole. The developmental course from child effects to child effectiveness. 2003. pp. 109-118.

infant negative emotionality: infant colic: infant temperament: maternal well being: maternal behavior: emotion regulation: effectiveness: emotional interactions: children: caregivers: Crying: Emotional Control: Emotionality (Personality): Mother Child Relations: Psychopathology: Developmental Psychology: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Infant Development: Marital Relations: Mothers: Personality: Well Being

This chapter comments on the review of S. Crockenberg and E. Leerkes (see record 2003-02704-005) on infant negative emotionality, caregiving, and family relationships. In this chapter, the author presents findings from research focusing on how young children become effective in regulating their own emotions and how risk conditions influence this aspect of the development of effective, competent emotion regulation. She presents some recent findings that portray the transactional nature of emotional interactions between children and caregivers. Then she suggests that caregiver effects play a crucial role in paving the path from child effects to outcomes of child effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter).

Roberta L. Coles. Black single custodial fathers: Factors influencing the decision to parent. Families in Society, 2003. 84(2), pp. 247-258.

African American fathers: custodial fathers: parenting decisions: child custody: secure housing: Blacks: Parenting Skills: Single Fathers

This pilot study combined narrative and quantitative data to explore the factors enabling and motivating single African American fathers to take full custody of one or more of their children. The size and selection of the sample does not allow for generalization, since most of the men were college-educated and financially stable. The findings indicated a distinction between enabling and motivating factors. Factors that appeared to enable full custody included employment and secure housing, as they were present for all of the fathers before they took custody. Adult age at the time of their first child's birth was also a factor for 9 of the 10 fathers. Prior parental involvement, previous marital status, and maternal incompetence did not appear to be highly associated with the choice to take custody. However, the narrative data indicated that the desire to embody the kind of father they themselves did not have was a strong motivating factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Rebekah Levine Coley. Daughter-father relationships and adolescent psychosocial functioning in low-income african american families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 2003. 65(4), pp. 867-875.

biological fathers: social fathers: low income: African American: adolescent girls: father involvement: attachment: Attachment Behavior: Blacks: Father Child Relations: Lower Income Level: Psychosocial Development: Behavior Problems: Biological Family: Daughters: Fathers

This study examines the role of biological and social fathers in the lives of low-income African American adolescent girls (N = 302). Sixty-five percent of adolescents identified a primary father; two thirds were biological and one third were social fathers. Adolescents reported more contentious and less close relationships with biological than with social fathers. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that daughters' perceptions of anger and alienation from fathers was related to greater emotional and behavioral problems for adolescents, whereas perceptions of trust and communication with fathers were not predictive of youth outcomes. These relationships were generally similar for biological and social fathers, but differed according to fathers' level of contact with their daughters. A combination of low contact and high levels of either anger or trust in the daughter-father relationship related to particularly deleterious psychosocial outcomes for adolescent girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Cyleste C. Collins, Christine E. Grella and Yih-Ing Hser. Effects of gender and level of parental involvement among parents in drug treatment. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2003. 29(2), pp. 237-261.

level of involvement with children: gender: addiction severity: drug use: psychological functioning: psychological distress: drug treatment program: mothers: fathers: Distress: Drug Addiction: Drug Rehabilitation: Human Sex Differences: Parental Investment: Emotional Adjustment: Severity (Disorders)

Most studies of parents in drug treatment have focused exclusively on mothers, and few studies have examined the effects of parents' level of involvement with their children on the parents' drug use and psychological functioning, either before or after treatment. This study examined mothers and fathers (n=331) who were parents of children under the age of 18; participants were sampled from 19 drug treatment programs across four types of treatment modalities in Los Angeles County. A majority of each group (57% of 214 mothers and 51% of 117 fathers) were classified as being highly involved with their children. At the baseline assessment, higher parental involvement was related to lower levels of addiction severity, psychological severity, and symptoms of psychological distress, and to higher levels of self-esteem and perception of parenting skills. In general, fathers had higher levels of alcohol and drug-use severity than did mothers, but fathers who were more involved with their children showed lower levels of addiction severity than fathers who were less involved. Parental involvement at baseline was unrelated to drug use at the 12-month follow-up, although parents who were less involved with their children reported experiencing more stressors . . .. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Jerry L. Cook. The transition to parenthood: Predictors of father involvement and marital satisfaction for first-time parents. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 64(1), pp. 298-A.

Marital Satisfaction: Parenthood: Fathers: Family Roles: Life Stage Transitions: Mothers: Childrearing Practices

This study examined some of the factors that influence father involvement for first-time parents. These variables included: general or cultural attitudes of father involvement, personal expectations for father involvement, and level of satisfaction with the marriage. A secondary purpose was to examine factors that buffer the decline of marital satisfaction associated with the transition to parenthood. It was proposed that marital satisfaction was associated with having similar expectations for father involvement, having father involvement that met or exceeded personal expectations, and accurately perceiving spousal identity. A final purpose was to create a model of father involvement, originally represented by the level of time, awareness, and support a father provides for his child. Ninety-six couples enrolled in two prenatal classes participated in this study. Both mothers and fathers were given nearly identical surveys for the prenatal (or the third trimester of pregnancy) and postnatal (when the target child was between 3 and 6 months old) phases of the study. With a 29% attrition rate, the final sample consisted of 68 couples. The results indicated that postnatal father involvement was predicted by the level of marital satisfaction and also by the personal expectations that both spouses have for father involvement. Results failed to support the hypotheses that father involvement would be significantly related to prenatal general attitudes of father involvement. However, there was some support that general (or cultural) attitudes change as a function of personal experience for fathers; the standard set for other fathers seems to be based from and conform to their own level of involvement. As expected, postnatal marital satisfaction for both spouses was strongly related to father involvement. Although postnatal marital satisfaction was slightly related to the similarity in spouses' expectations for father involvement, the exploratory analysis shows that spouses with high personal expectations for father involvement (during the prenatal phase) tend to experience high levels of postnatal marital satisfaction, regardless of similarity of expectations between spouses. There was a general trend for postnatal marital satisfaction to be high when father involvement met or exceeded personal expectations, and low when father involvement fell short of personal expectations. The exception is when expectations were high; spouses with high expectations tend to report high levels of postnatal marital satisfaction regardless of whether father involvement met, surpassed, or fell short of those expectations. Contrary to expectations, accurately perceiving spousal identity was not related to marital satisfaction. Implications are given.

H. Corman, N. E. Reichman and K. Noonan. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' LABOR SUPPLY IN FRAGILE FAMILIES: THE ROLE OF CHILD HEALTH. Nber Working Paper Series, 2003. (9918), pp. ALL.

Thomas Cottle. The years of silence are past: My father's life with bipolar disorder. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2003. 73(4), pp. 464.

Fathers: Mental Illness: Symptoms: Parent Child Relations: Adult Children: bi-polar disorder

In a culture claiming to love openness & freedom of the self, it is amazing how puritanical & unself-reflective we remain. But then there are books like The Years of Silence are Past (see record 2002-06202-000), in which a deeply feeling human being, informed by old-fashioned academic & clinical disciplines, explores the years constituting, in this case, the life of his father & himself. Young Stephen Hinshaw knew little if anything of his father's struggle with bipolar illness. His parents, thought it best not to tell their children just where their father went on the occasions of his hospitalizations or why it was that, out of the blue, bizarre behavior seemed to overtake him. A brilliant man, Virgil Hinshaw in time opened his soul to his only son not only in conversations but through his own incisive writings. The result of Hinshaw's son reaching that point in life where he finds himself bursting with history, narratives, & excursions into his own emerging symptomatology, is this personal, instructive, & tender volume. Adapted from the source document.

J. Cramer. A father and son travel to spain's custom gunmaker extraordinaire, aguirre y aranzabal, and lay the foundations for a family tradition. Forbes, 2003. 172(PART 10; SUPP), pp. 49-61.

S. C. Crockenberg and E. M. Leerkes. Parental acceptance, postpartum depression, and maternal sensitivity: Mediating and moderating processes. Journal of Family Psychology, 2003. 17(1), pp. 80-93.

Mothers (n = 92), fathers (n = 84), and their infants (60% male) participated in a longitudinal study of postpartum depression and maternal sensitivity. Mothers completed questionnaire measures of remembered parental acceptance, depressive symptoms, and infant distress to novelty and limits. Mothers and partners reported on marital aggression and avoidance. Maternal sensitivity was observed in the laboratory at 6 months. Characteristics of mothers, partners, and infants combined to predict postpartum depression and maternal sensitivity. Remembered parental rejection predicted postpartum depressive symptoms with prenatal depression controlled; self-esteem mediated this effect. Paternal acceptance buffered against postpartum depression when infants were highly reactive and when partners were aggressive. Paternal acceptance reduced the impact of postpartum depression on maternal sensitivity; having an aggressive marital partner exacerbated the effect.

Susan Crockenberg and Esther Leerkes. Infant negative emotionality, caregiving, and family relationships. 2003. pp. 57-78.

infant negative emotionality: infant colic: infant temperament: maternal well being: maternal behavior: parental behavior: emotion regulation: paternal behavior: marital & co-parental relationships: Crying: Emotionality (Personality): Infant Development: Mother Child Relations: Well Being: Developmental Psychology: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Marital Relations: Mothers: Personality

In this chapter, the authors provide a brief tour of the burgeoning research on infant temperament in family context, beginning with the post-1986 studies linking infant negative emotionality with maternal well-being and maternal behavior. They review evidence of a moderating effect of parental behavior on infant negative emotionality through emotion regulation and consider the few studies linking infant negative emotionality with paternal behavior and with the marital and co-parental relationships. Then they identify directions for future research on infant temperament in the family context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter).

Laura Curran. Social work and fathers: Child support and fathering programs. Social Work, 2003. 48(2), pp. 219-227.

child support: family well being: fathers: welfare reform: fathering programs: social workers: Government Policy Making: Social Casework: Welfare Services (Government): Social Services

In recent years social welfare policies and practices have increasingly addressed men's roles as fathers. The landmark welfare reform legislation, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) (P.L. 104-193), contains significant revisions in child support legislation. Rapid growth has occurred in the number of social services programs working with fathers. This article introduces social workers to these policy and practice initiatives. Through a critical review of research and descriptive programmatic material, this article considers the mixed implications of these policy and practice interventions for family well-being and recommends future directions for policy and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Maria Czerwinski, Sandra D. Lane, Robert H. Keefe, Martha A. Wojtowycz, Carla Liberatore and Donald A. Cibula. Missing fathers and incarceration: Health impacts of structural violence. 2003. 4(1-2), pp. 147-167.

New York: Fathers: Prisoners: Imprisonment: Violence: Minority Groups: Racial Differences: Infant Mortality

This article uses structural violence as an explanatory framework to investigate the potential role of father incarceration on infant mortality. In Syracuse, NY, people of color face vastly disproportionate incarceration. Census data indicate profound racial & ethnic disparity in poverty, education, & health. A strong statistical association exits between the fathers not being listed on the infant's birth certificate with increased infant mortality. The authors use a variety of analyses to support their contention that the root cause of this paternal non-involvement is incarceration. 1 Table, 34 References. Adapted from the source document.

Randal D. Day. Review of handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Fathering, 2003. 1(2), pp. 182-184.

father involvement: multidisciplinary perspectives: demography: father influence: absent fathers: cultural & social context: anthropology: economic contribution to family: policy: intervention: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Interdisciplinary Research: Involvement: Sociocultural Factors: Childhood Development: Demographic Characteristics: Economics: Government Policy Making

Reviews the book "Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives" edited by Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda and Natasha Cabrera (see record 2002-01958-000). The book is divided into six sections and has a total of 22 chapters. For the most part, these chapters are very well written, dense with information, insight, and integration. The book was developed by asking leading scholars to oversee sections having two to four chapters each. Section I covers the demography of fathers and is an excellent overview of what is known numerically. Section II in the book contains two chapters written by Michael Lamb, both of which are clear, precise, and helpful summaries of what we know about the influence of fathers on young children and the effects of the absent father. In Section III, the authors focus on fathering within a cultural and social context. To add to the richness of the interdisciplinary approach of this volume, the editors invited three authors (found in Section IV) to summarize what is known about father involvement from an anthropological view. Section V looks at how men contribute economically to family life, and Section VI focuses on policy and intervention. This book asks us to examine carefully the broad and growing base of information on father involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

J. de Paul and I. Arruabarrena. Evaluation of a treatment program for abusive and high-risk families in spain. Child Welfare, 2003. 82(4), pp. 413-442.

This article describes a six-year evaluation of a comprehensive treatment program for abusive families in Spain. The evaluation involved practitioners' clinical judgments, standardized measures, and follow-up data about children's living situations. The results were similar to those obtained by similar programs from the United States and other developed countries. The analysis obtained the lowest rates of success for neglectful and abusive-neglectful families. Dropout and nondropout families differed in two paternal characteristics: alcohol problems and childhood experience of out-of-home care. Rehabilitated and nonrehabilitated families differed in several variables, including time elapsed between case detection and referral to the treatment program. Scores on measures showed significant changes during treatment.

Lorraine DeJong. Using erikson to work more effectively with teenage parents. Young Children, 2003. 58(2), pp. 87-95.

Provides suggestions to help early childhood teachers work more effectively with teenage parents and become significant adults in teenage parents' lives. Suggestions include fostering positive identification and addressing individual teenager needs. Presents Erikson's stages of psychosocial development as a basis for recommendations to develop teenage parents' trust, autonomy, initiative, industriousness, and a positive identity. Includes strategies for involving teenage fathers with their children. (KB).

D. Del Boca. Mothers, fathers and children after divorce: The role of institutions. Journal of Population Economics, 2003. 16(3), pp. 399-422.

In recent years the increase in the divorce rate in many advanced countries and the predominance of female-headed families among the poor has generated much interest in the relationship between divorce and the welfare of mothers and children. In this paper I will review a small body of economic literature which has been recently developed in order to analyze the economic consequence of divorce on the welfare of fathers, mothers and children under alternative behavioral assumptions. Important economic and econometric issues arise from an analysis of welfare in non intact households as compared with intact households. In particular the focus is on the role that institutions play in post-divorce arrangements and important implications concerning policies for child support, custody, and visitation.

E. Dermott. The 'intimate father': Defining paternal involvement. Sociological Research Online, 2003. 8(4), Fathering is alleged to have undergone dramatic changes in recent decades with proclamations of 'new fathering' dominating the literature. However, it is not always obvious what this new and 'involved' fathering entails. This paper aims to bring greater clarity to the nebulous concept of the involved father. While acknowledging the recession of traditional fatherhood centred on breadwinning, the argument looks beyond this oft-identified process. Instead the focus is on elucidating the elements viewed as the essential components of the father-child relationship. For the fathers in this study, the concept of intimacy seems to encapsulate ideas about good fathering. The idea of 'intimate fathering' encompasses, but goes beyond an emotional connection, and prioritises the quality of the parent-child relationship. This definition has implications for the analysis and understanding of fathering behaviour. In particular, such intimacy may be disassociated from a time commitment.

E. M. Dermott. Understanding involvement: Men, work and family life. 2003. 64(2), pp. 332-C.

Fathers: Childrearing Practices: Family Work Relationship: Labor Force Participation: Family Roles: Role Conflict

The widely discussed concept of 'new fatherhood' revolves around involvement with children and not around financial provision. Yet the measurable behaviour of fathers does not correspond with changes that have occurred to ideas of good fatherhood, as women continue to do more of the caring work. One popular explanation for the limited translation of new fatherhood into practice is that involvement in paid employment operates as a structural constraint on men's desired domestic activity. In order to explore the extent to which this supposition is valid, the research attempts to gain a better understanding of how fathers conceptualise their involvement with children and their commitment to paid work. These issues are explored using semi-structured interviews with the fathers of primary school age children who are employed in professional and managerial occupations. The findings suggest that there is a relative lack of conflict between work and family for these men. The thesis argues that this is because the demands of paid employment and family life are viewed differently. Explaining the meaning of 'involvement' is key because it is used in distinct ways in relation to both spheres. Most significantly, the 'intimate fatherhood' of the interviewees' involvement in family life was not closely associated with a time commitment, in contrast to how they thought about involvement in paid work. The research therefore asserts the importance of considering actors' orientations in conjunction with structural demands.

Annie Devault and Suzanne Gratton. Les pères en situation de perte d'emploi: L'importance de les soutenir de manière adaptée à leurs besoins. Pratiques Psychologiques, 2003. 5(2), pp. 79-88.

unemployed fathers: father-child relationship: self esteem: job loss: risk factors: support: fathers experience: family: poverty: child neglect risk: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Social Support: Unemployment: Child Neglect

We now know the benefits of father involvement. But it is important to take into account the conditions in which father-child relationship is developing. Fathers who loose their jobs or who live in poverty are both susceptible to suffer from insecurity and poor self esteem. These fathers are also more at risk of developing a negative perception of their children. Also, empirical studies show that poverty and job loss are risk factors for child abuse and neglect. This study describes how fathers experience job loss. The discussion offers some information on support for these fathers and their family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Annie Devault, Carl Lacharité, Francine Ouellet and Gilles Forget. (Social and economic exclusion and fatherhood). Nouvelles Pratiques Sociales, 2003. 16(1), pp. 45-58.

ABSTRACT IN FRENCH: Que savons-nous de la manière dont les jeunes hommes en situation d'exclusion et de pauvreté assument leur paternité? Les recherches portant sur cette population sont encore très rares. Actuellement, la connaissance scientifique de la paternité est fortement teintée de l'expérience des pères qui possèdent des revenus suffisants. De plus, très souvent les informations dont on dispose au sujet de ces pères proviennent de témoignages de mères qui tracent un portrait généralement dévalorisant de pères, perçus comme étant absents et comme n'assumant pas leurs responsabilités face aux enfants. Quelques recherches ayant recueilli les témoignages de pères en situation économiquement précaire montrent toutefois une autre facette de cette population. Le présent article propose un modèle de compréhension de l'engagement paternel en contexte d'exclusion économique et sociale.; ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH: What do we know about how excluded poor young men deal with fatherhood? Research in this area is rare. Current scientific knowledge on fatherhood is teinted by the experience of middle class fathers. Also, available information on these fathers often come from mothers who generally depict a pretty negative portrait of fathers who are seen as absent and unresponsible. Some interviews with poor fathers report a different view on this population. This paper presents an analytical model of father involvement in the context of social and economical exclusion.; Reprinted by permission of Nouvelles pratiques sociales, Université du Québec à Montréal.

Annie Devault, Carl Lacharite, Francine Ouellet and Gilles Forget. Fathers in a situation of economic and social exclusion: Rejoining, adequately supporting them. 2003. 16(1), pp. 45-58.

Fathers: Parenthood: Adolescent Fathers: Social Closure: Father Absence: Youth Employment

What do we know about how excluded poor young men deal with fatherhood? Research in this area is rare. Current scientific knowledge on fatherhood is tainted by the experience of middle class fathers. Also, available information on these fathers often come from mothers who generally depict a pretty negative portrait of fathers who are seen as absent & unresponsible. Some interviews with poor fathers report a different view on this population. This paper presents an analytical model of father involvement in the context of social & economical exclusion. 1 Figure, 42 References. Adapted from the source document.

Robyn S. Dixon, Jennifer M. W. Gill and Vivienne A. Adair. Exploring paternal influences on the dieting behaviors of adolescent girls. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 2003. 11(1), pp. 39-50.

paternal influence: dieting behavior: adolescent beliefs & behaviors: body satisfaction: thinness: paternal attitudes: phyical appearance in females: weight control: fathers: daughters: Adolescent Attitudes: Eating Behavior: Father Child Relations: Parental Attitudes: Body Image: Dietary Restraint: Eating Attitudes

Investigated fathers' influence on the dieting behavior of their adolescent daughters. 50 father-daughter dyads (N=100) participated. The girls (aged 13 yrs 11 mo-15 yrs 10 mo) completed a questionnaire concerning their beliefs and behaviors with respect to dieting, their body satisfaction, and their perception of the advantages of being thinner. Fathers were surveyed in order to ascertain their perceptions of the advantages of slimness for adolescent girls and their beliefs regarding the importance of physical appearance and weight control in females of all ages. Associations were found between fathers' attitudes to physical attractiveness in females, their perceptions of the impact of being slimmer for adolescent girls, and their daughters' dieting behavior. Fathers who believed strongly in the importance of attractiveness and careful control of food intake by females were significantly more likely to have daughters who induced vomiting to lose weight. It is concluded that fathers play an influential role in determining the dieting behavior of their adolescent daughters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Mary Ann Dolan. Parental blame in everyday situations: Mandates for mothers and fathers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 63(7), pp. 3494-3494.

attributions: parental blame: parent child relationship: mothers: fathers: Attribution: Blame: Parent Child Relations

The cultural belief in the motherhood mandate remains relatively unquestioned. Mothers are viewed as the primary parent and fathers are expected to provide financial resources. Mother-blaming, a related phenomenon, continues to be pervasive in the social science literature and explains why mothers are often held responsible for their children's problems. Further, the literature suggests fathers escape the blame and criticism that envelopes mothers when something goes seriously wrong. The degree to which mothers and fathers are blamed in common, yet negative, child rearing situations, however, has not been empirically examined. Although theory suggests, for example, that a mother would receive more blame than a father when a child was not picked up from school on time, no data exist to support this claim. These cultural standards have potential implications on the internalization of blame among mothers and fathers as well as the parent-child relationship and children's development. These issues were the focus of this dissertation and were examined by utilizing a multiple measure survey design. A Parental Blame Questionnaire, adapted from existing measures, was used to examine both general attributions of maternal and paternal blame (Experiment 1) and parents' self-blame (Experiment 2). In Experiment 2, the relationship between parental self-blame and the quality of the parent-child relationship, and the relationship between parental self-blame and children's development were also examined. Established surveys, completed by both a parent and a child, were used to assess the quality of the parent-child relationship and children's development. Analyses strongly supported the hypothesis that mothers would receive more overall blame than fathers and that the allocation of blame would follow a sex-stereotyped pattern. Similarly, as predicted, parental self-blame also tended to be sex-stereotyped. Results regarding the relationship between parental self-blame and the quality of the parent-child relationship failed to support the expectation that as the degree of self-blame increased, the quality of the parent-child relationship would decline. Finally, the relationship between parental self-blame and children's development was significant, but contradicted the hypothesis: Higher levels of self-blame, among fathers, were related to more positive children's development. Potential implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

David C. Dollahite. Fathering for eternity: Generative spirituality in latter-day saint fathers of children with special needs. Review of Religious Research, 2003. 44(3), pp. 237-251.

Mormons: Fathers: Spirituality: Parent-Child relationships: Disabled people: Chronic diseases: Child rearing: Special needs children

This article presents the narratives of personal experiences of 35 Latter-day Saint fathers of children with special needs, and discusses how their religious beliefs and practices have influenced the meaning of those experiences. The narratives provide a window on how one group of highly religious fathers makes sense of having children with disabilities or chronic illnesses. For these fathers, belief in a divine plan that includes both mortal and eternal life created a coherent sense of meaning despite disability and death. That plan involved continuation of family relationships beyond death. The fathers' belief in this divine plan created an expectation of an eternal relationship with their children free from the limitations of illness or disability experienced in this life. These fathers' beliefs and expectations inspired them to make and keep a commitment to a sacred responsibility of loving, serving, and caring for their children with special needs. These fathers' experiences are also interpreted in light of a generative theory of fathering and faith and in terms of Kenneth Pargament's (1997) theory about conservation and transformation of sacred significance in religious coping and adaptation. 38 References. (Original abstract - amended).

M. Doolittle. Fatherhood, religious belief and the protection of children in nineteenth-century english families. 2003. pp. 31-42.

Fatherhood: Fathers: Sex role: Father figures

Emily M. Douglas. The impact of a presumption for joint legal custody on father involvement. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 2003. 39(1/2), pp. 1-10.

Children: Broken families: Joint custody: Fathers: Presumption: USA

Several states have laws that declare a presumption for joint legal custody for divorced families. Although some presumption laws have existed for over two decades, their effects remain unexamined. This study assessed the impact of a presumption law on father involvement by examining days and nights of contact between father and child per month, father attendance at children's activities, father participation in decision-making and payment of child support orders. The results indicate that a presumption law does not currently result in more father involvement; however, the author recommends the application of more well controlled studies before making recommendations to professionals in the field. (Original abstract).

Jan Draper. Blurring, moving and broken boundaries: Men's encounters with the pregnant body. Sociology of Health and Illness, 2003. 25(7), pp. 743-767.

Fathers: Embodiment: Pregnancy: Human Body: Boundaries: Parenthood: United Kingdom

This paper draws on the findings of a longitudinal ethnographic study of men's transition to fatherhood, conducted in the UK. It is concerned with their encounters with the pregnant & laboring body. Until relatively recently there has been surprisingly little work, either theoretical or empirical, on the experience of pregnant embodiment. Work in the last decade has indicated that women's experience of 'being-with-child,' their experience of living in & being a pregnant body, can be an ambivalent affair, as some find disconcerting the experience of simultaneously being self & yet Other. If women, who possess the embodied & therefore privileged knowledge of pregnancy, can feel ambivalence, perhaps the case for expectant men is more so. This paper draws on interviews with men making the transition to fatherhood & analyzes their experiences of & relation to the pregnant & laboring body. The theoretical analysis of their empirical accounts explores in particular the blurring, moving, & broken boundaries of the pregnant & laboring body & how these changing body boundaries can challenge the taken for-granted assumption that bodies should always be contained, strong & firm. The implications of men's encounters with this 'differently bounded' body are examined. 66 References. Adapted from the source document.

Sarah Dufour and Camil Bouchard. Promoting children's mental health in disadvantaged areas: Profiles of fathers. Fathering, 2003. 1(3), pp. 263-282.

childrens mental health: disadvantaged areas: inner-city fathers: preschoolers: Child Care: Childrearing Practices: Fathers: Mental Health: Parental Role: Disadvantaged: Urban Environments

Thirty inner-city fathers of preschoolers described how they see their role in promoting their children's mental health. Fifteen were very involved fathers with a strong sense of competence, and 15 were uninvolved fathers with a weak sense of competence. Through qualitative analysis of the interviews, we developed a typology consisting of five profiles of fathers. The fathers had two contrasting concepts of their children's mental health: one focused on fitting into society and meeting expectations, the other on expressing individuality and independence. The implications for promoting fathers' involvement and working with fathers are explored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Don Efron. A clinician's response: A commentary on research papers on attachments. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 2003. 22(2), pp. 56-59.

Attachment: Mothers: Fathers: Parent Child Relations: Childrearing Practices: Family Roles

This paper addresses the issue of the clinical utility of research papers. Two research papers dealing with attachment theory are examined. Some benefits of research papers for clinicians are described. 1 Reference. Adapted from the source document.

C. Ekeus and K. Christensson. Socioeconomic characteristics of fathers of children born to teenage mothers in stockholm, sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2003. 31(1), pp. 73-76.

Aims: Teenage childbearing has been associated with adverse outcomes for the mother and the child. Despite this, no study in Sweden has focused on the fathers of those children. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare the socioeconomic situation of fathers of children born to teenage mothers with those of children born to average-aged mothers. Methods: A descriptive comparative study was conducted, which comprised 132 fathers of children born to teenage mothers (Group A) and the same number of fathers of children born to older mothers (Group B). All fathers answered a structured questionnaire regarding socioeconomic and reproductive factors. Results: On certain critical variables the Group A fathers were more likely to have had a more compromised and difficult socioeconomic background. Compared with the Group B fathers they were more likely to have tried illicit drugs and to be involved in criminality. In addition, the Group A fathers often came from single-parent households. Conclusion: Many fathers of children born to teenage mothers showed problem behaviours, which may negatively influence their ability to engage in successful parenting. Therefore increased attention should be paid to the fathers at an early stage of pregnancy, during the antenatal visits.

Jennifer H. Elder, Gregory Valcante, Daeyoung Won and Robert Zylis. Effects of in-home training for culturally diverse fathers of children with autism. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2003. 24(3), pp. 273-295.

in-home training: culturally diverse fathers: autistic children: father-child interactions: Autism: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Parent Training: Racial and Ethnic Groups: Home Environment

Recently there has been mounting interest in the role of fathers and the effect of their increasing involvement on child development. However, to date, little has been reported regarding the role of fathers with developmentally delayed children (e.g., autism, pervasive developmental delays) and cultural influences on father-child interactions. This article addresses this knowledge gap by reporting 4 cases representing the major ethnic groups. For each case, the authors: (1) define the concept of fatherhood in its cultural context, (2) review and summarize related father-child research, and (3) present findings from a study (N = 4 children) evaluating the effects of an in-home intervention for autistic children. While variability is noted within and among the culturally diverse father-child dyads, there are also similarities across ethnic groups. Results of this study are promising, demonstrating the value of single subject experimental methods in characterizing and beginning to understand complex father-child interactions in autism and related child psychiatric disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Susan M. Elek, Diane Brage Hudson and Carla Bouffard. Marital and parenting satisfaction and infant care self-efficacy during the transition to parenthood: The effect of infant sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 2003. 26(1), pp. 45-57.

infant sex: infant care self-efficacy: parenting satisfaction: marital satisfaction: birth of first child: new parents: mothers: fathers: Human Sex Differences: Parenting Skills: Parents: Self Efficacy: Child Care: Satisfaction

The purpose of this follow-up study was to examine the effect of infant sex on changes in and differences between parents' reports of infant care self-efficacy and parenting and marital satisfaction from 4-12 mo after the birth of their first child. A sample of 32 couples was selected from 44 couples who participated in a longitudinal study of the development of parenting satisfaction and infant care self-efficacy during the first 4 mo after the birth of a first child. Couples completed a demographic questionnaire, the Infant Care Survey, the What Being the Parent of a New Baby is Like--Revised Questionnaire, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale 4 and 12 mo postpartum. Infant care self-efficacy, but not parenting satisfaction, increased from 4 to 12 mo; mothers reported higher infant care self-efficacy and parenting satisfaction than fathers at both times. Fathers of boys reported greater parenting satisfaction and infant care self-efficacy at 12 mo than fathers of girls. Marital satisfaction decreased from 4 to 12 mo for both mothers and fathers. Significant relationships existed among infant care self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and marital satisfaction at both 4 and 12 mo postpartum. Implications for families and for nursing interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Bruce J. Ellis, John E. Bates, Kenneth A. Dodge, et al. Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy? Child Development, 2003. 74(3), pp. 801-821.

W. L. Ellis. Parental custody negotiations and health insurance access for children. Families in Society-the Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 2003. 84(2), pp. 223-228.

Family practitioners who provide divorce education programs should be aware that a child in a sole-custody household (especially one headed by the father) is highly likely to lack insurance coverage for access to health care services for-healthy development. Examining 543 divorce records in New Hampshire, the author analyzed coverage across divergent family types following custody negotiations and found that a child in a sole-custody household was at higher risk for lacking coverage than was one in a shared-custody household. These results were confirmed by a chi-square test and logical regression statistical analysis. In a multivariate analysis, the author found that teenagers, children whose parents earned high incomes, and those with working mothers were likely to be covered, although the likelihood was lower in the case-of daughters.

Michelle Emerson, Dawn Baunach and Elisabeth Burgess. Fathers' influence on reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. 2003. Fathers: Parental Influence: Parent Child Relations: Sex Education: Sexual Behavior: Risk

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fathers' involvement in providing sex education to their children & high-risk sexual behaviors reported by their children. As a part of a larger study of social & sexual attitudes & behaviors, 956 college students provided data on the amount & types of sexual topics that they had discussed with their fathers & their sexual behaviors. About 67% of the sample had discussed at least one sex-related topic with their father. Respondents who had discussed many of the sex-related topics had less sexual partners before the age of 18, had less sexual partners in their lifetime, & were more likely to use birth control with their sexual partners. Other sex-related topics had no effect or the opposite effect on high-risk sexual behaviors. The findings are discussed, & recommendations for future research in the area of father-child sexual communication are offered.

Tara Emmers-Sommer, David Rhea, Laura Triplett and Bell O'Neil. Accounts of single fatherhood: A qualitative study. Marriage & Family Review, 2003. 35(1), pp. 99-115.

single fatherhood: father child relations: challenges: joys: social perception: child custody: quality of communication: experiences: Parent Child Communication: Single Fathers: Experiences (Events): Parental Attitudes

Relying on single fathers' accounts, this study examined the experience of single fatherhood and the communication practices between single fathers and their child. Single fathers also answered closed-ended questions. Results offer insight into the challenges and joys that single fathers experience. Single fathers clearly disclosed love for their child and a valuation of their relationship with their child, and expressed exasperation and dissatisfaction with the court system and negative perceptions of single fathers by society. More detailed information and discussion follow. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Susan A. Esdaile and Kenneth Mark Greenwood. A comparison of mothers' and fathers' experience of parenting stress and attributions for parent-child interaction outcomes. Occupational Therapy International, 2003. 10(2), pp. 115-126.

Parenting: Mothers: Fathers: Stress: Parent-Child interactions: Outcomes: Disability: Children: Parenting Stress Index

Parents of children with disabilities are vulnerable to parenting stress, which may place them at physical and psychological risk. However, it is not clear whether fathers experience stress differently to mothers, or whether theirexperiences are reported less frequently. Additionally, there is little reported on the relationships and gender differences between mothers' and fathers' attributions for parent-child interaction outcomes. Parenting stress was assessed in this study using Abidin's (1990) Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and parenting attributions were assessed using the original (Bugental et al., 1989; Bugental and Shennum, 1984), and modified versions of the Parenting Attribution Test, also known as the Child Interaction Survey (CIS) (M-CIS: Esdaile and Greenwood, 1995b). Participants were 53 mothers and 25 fathers of children with disabilities. Having a child with a disability was associated with elevated scores on the PSI; some gender differences were found. Only one significant outcome was found on the assessment of parenting attributions. Thus, thefindings suggest that further research is indicated to explore differences in mothers' and fathers' experiences of parenting stress, and the assessment of parenting attributions. The fact that having a child with a disability was associated with elevated scores on the PSI for both mothers and fathers indicates the importance of considering stress management as an integral part of occupational therapy programmes that involve parents of children with special needs. Therapists also need to consider possible gender differences when planning stress management programmes including both mothers and fathers of children with disabilities. (Original abstract).

William V. Fabricius. Listening to children of divorce: New findings that diverge from wallerstein, lewis, and blakeslee. Family Relations, 2003. 52(4), pp. 385-396.

Adult Children: Young Adults: Divorce: Child Support: Child Custody: Fathers: Residence: Adjustment: Parent Child Relations: College Students

I review new findings on (a) college students' perspectives on their living arrangements after their parents' divorces, (b) their relations with their parents as a function of their living arrangements, (c) their adjustment as a function of their parents' relocation, & (d) the amount of college support they received. Students endorsed living arrangements that gave them equal time with their fathers, they had better outcomes when they had such arrangements & when their parents supported their time with the other parent, they experienced disagreement between mothers & fathers over living arrangements, & they gave evidence of their fathers' continuing commitment to them into their young adult years. These findings consistently contradict the recent, influential public policy recommendations of Judith Wallerstein. 2 Tables, 3 Figures, 1 Appendix, 47 References. Adapted from the source document.

Jay Fagan and Marina Barnett. The relationship between maternal gatekeeping, paternal competence, mothers' attitudes about the father role, and father involvement. Journal of Family Issues, 2003. 24(8), pp. 1020-1043.

father competence: father role: father involvement: mothers attitudes: maternal gatekeeping: Competence: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Involvement: Mothers

This study explored the relationships between maternal gate-keeping, mothers' perceptions of father competence, mothers' attitudes about the father role, and amount of father involvement The sample consisted of 30 nonresidential and 72 residential fathers. The results of path analysis revealed that residential status of the father had a direct link to mothers gatekeeping behavior. Father competence was indirectly and directly linked to amount of father involvement with children. Gatekeeping mediated the relationship between father competence and involvement. Maternal gatekeeping was causally linked to amount of father involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Jay Fagan, Marina Barnett, Elisa Bernd and Valerie Whiteman. Prenatal involvement of adolescent unmarried fathers. Fathering, 2003. 1(3), pp. 283-301.

prenatal involvement: adolescent unmarried fathers: teenaged mother: adolescent couples: Adolescent Fathers: Adolescent Mothers: Childrearing Practices: Couples: Male Female Relations: Adolescent Pregnancy

This study investigated factors associated with adolescent unmarried, nonresident fathers' prenatal involvement with the teenaged mother. The sample consisted of 57 adolescent couples. Father characteristics and social-context factors were expected to predict fathers' prenatal involvement. Results of the multivariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between romantic involvement and fathers' prenatal involvement. Also, interparental conflict was negatively associated with father's prenatal involvement after controlling for romantic involvement. In addition, teenage fathers were less likely to be involved when the young mother had friends with children born outside of marriage, when the adolescent father was unemployed, and when the father scored lower on a measure of empathy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Brid Featherstone. Taking fathers seriously. The British Journal of Social Work, 2003. 33(2), pp. 239-254.

Fathers: Family Structure: Family Policy: Social Work: Children: Family Roles: Child Custody

This article explores contemporary developments in men's lives in relation to fathering. It explores 'changing' family structures & the attendant consequences for the lives & identities of fathers. It identifies key initiatives that have been developed by the post-1997 Labor administration in relation to fathers & explores the thinking behind such initiatives, as well as more general initiatives in relation to supporting families. It identifies an important theme promoted by the administration -- fathers are actual or potential resources for their children. It then goes on to look at how fathers appear to be constructed within child protection social work where notions of threat appear more dominant as a theme in relation to men generally. The article goes on to explore the possibilities within the current climate for practices in relation to fathers that are more attuned to the complexities of their lives. 41 References. Adapted from the source document.

A. R. Febbraro. Alpha bias and beta bias in research on labour and love: The case of enhancement versus scarcity. Feminism & Psychology, 2003. 13(2), pp. 201-223.

In this article I analyse two research traditions in feminist psychology and apply them to the work/family literature. The similarities tradition ('beta bias') emphasizes how women and men are alike in order to promote the equality and integration of women into existing male-dominated structures. The differences tradition ('alpha bias') emphasizes women's distinct experiences in male-dominated structures in order to bring about more fundamental change. Using the concept of functional equivalence, I argue that the enhancement and scarcity hypotheses in the work/family literature provide a case in point. On the one hand, the enhancement hypothesis suggests that multiple roles (parent, worker, spouse) enhance women's wellbeing, and it has been used to promote the integration of women into existing male-dominated workplaces. On the other hand, the scarcity hypothesis suggests that women, more so than men, experience tremendous work/family stress, and it has been used to highlight the need to systemically transform male-dominated structures. In examining the functions that these hypotheses serve, their utility and consequences, I explore their ideological, epistemological and political implications. I suggest that, rather than viewing these hypotheses/traditions as mutually exclusive, dichotomous alternatives, it is more useful to view them as two sides of a necessary contradiction, each with its own strengths and weaknesses, in particular contexts.

Judith A. Feeney. Adult attachment, involvement in infant care, and adjustment to new parenthood. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 2003. 22(2), pp. 16-30.

Attachment: Adjustment: Parenthood: Mothers: Fathers: Infants: Childrearing Practices: Sexual Division of Labor: Australia

In a study of adult attachment & adjustment to new parenthood, 76 couples completed questionnaires on three occasions: during pregnancy, & six weeks & six months post-birth. At twelve weeks post-birth, couples also completed diary records detailing spouses' involvement in infant care, & assessing perceived fairness of partner's effort. Although wives spent much more time than husbands on infant care, spouses generally rated their partner's effort as fair. Dissatisfaction with partner's effort bore little relation to time spent on tasks, but was predicted by interactive effects of partners' attachment characteristics. Perceptions of unfairness were linked to increases in attachment insecurity & decreases in marital satisfaction & individual adjustment for both partners. The results highlight the systemic nature of adult attachment relationships, & have important implications for the well-being of offspring. 3 Tables, 33 References. Adapted from the source document.

R. Fehrenbacher. Maria bullon-fernandez, fathers and daughters in gower's confessio amantis: Authority, family, state, and writing. Studies in the Age of Chaucer, 2003. 25pp. 356-358.

Manciple's tale: Chaucer

Ruth Feldman and Pnina S. Klein. Toddlers' self-regulated compliance to mothers, caregivers, and fathers: Implications for theories of socialization. Developmental Psychology, 2003. 39(4), pp. 680-692.

Preschool children: Socialization: Interpersonal interaction: Mothers: Fathers: Carers: Compliance: Selfregulation: Comparative studies

To compare children's socialized behavior to parents and nonparental agents, this study examined self-regulated compliance to mothers and caregivers - an early form of internalization - in 90 toddlers, half ofwhom were also observed with fathers. Adults were observed in play, teaching, and discipline sessions with the child and were interviewed on child-rearing philosophies. Child cognition and emotion regulation were assessed, and naturalistic observations were conducted at child-care locations. Mean-level and rank-order stability were found in child compliance to the 3 adults. Child emotion regulation and adult warm control in a discipline situation were related to self-regulated compliance to the mother, caregiver, and father. Compliance to parents correlated with parental sensitivity and philosophies, and compliance to thecaregiver correlated with child cognition and social involvement whenchild-care quality was controlled. Maternal sensitivity and warm control discipline predicted compliance to the caregiver but not vice versa. Results are consistent with theoretical positions on the generalization of socialization from the mother to nonmaternal agents. (Originalabstract).

Eliane Ferrez and Anne Dafflon Novelle. Sexisme dans la littérature enfantine analyse des albums avec animaux anthropomorphiques. Cahiers Internationaux De Psychologie Sociale, 2003. 57pp. 23-38.

picture books: children's literature: sexism: anthropomorphical animals: gender asymmetries: Human Sex Differences: Literature: Personality Traits: Sex Roles: Fathers: Mothers

A detailed analysis of the anthropomorphical children's literature makes evident the sexist character of these books. Female are under represented in the central roles and the animals who do represent them are less interesting and more restricted. Girls, who are more often depicted reside and less active than boys, appear less often in the illustrations. Women, more passive, essentially depicted inside and in domestic and private locations, are present only in a few traditional professional roles. Roles given to men are more extensive: as well as playing a variety of professional roles, fathers share more entertaining activities with their children, while mothers have more parental obligations. The various implications that those gender asymmetries have for the children are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

P. A. Fisher, L. D. Leve, C. C. O'Leary and C. Leve. Parental monitoring of children's behavior: Variation across stepmother, stepfather, and two-parent biological families. Family Relations, 2003. 52(1), pp. 45-52.

Previous longitudinal research has shown that parental monitoring is a powerful predictor of child outcomes. Children from families with low levels of monitoring are particularly at risk for antisocial behavior, difficulties in school, and related problems. We studied whether parental monitoring-as reported by mothers/stepmothers, fathers/stepfathers, interviewers, and teachers-differs across two-parent biological families, stepmother families, and stepfather families. Two-parent biological families were hypothesized to have higher levels of monitoring than stepparent families. Controlling for demographic differences, two-parent biological families showed higher levels of monitoring than stepfather families but did not differ significantly from stepmother families. The significant difference between stepfather and two-parent biological families involved the length of the relationship: only biological families of shorter duration (9 years or fewer) had higher levels of monitoring than step/ather families.

Michael Thomas Fitch. Levels of family involvement and gender role conflict among stay-at-home-dads. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 64(2), pp. 407-407.

child care: gender role conflict: social interactions: family involvement: incmoe level: earning potential: stay-at-home fathers: working mothers: Household Management: Income Level: Working Women: Division of Labor: Family: Fathers: Involvement: Mothers: Role Conflicts: Social Interaction

The purpose of this research was to learn more about families who have chosen to have the father stay at home with the children while the mother worked away from the home. The research focused on factors that contribute to families choosing this arrangement and in determining if the Stay-at-Home-Dads are experiencing gender role conflict as a result of the amounts of time being devoted to either household or child care tasks. Additional areas of research interest were those of determining how the division of household labor was decided upon, and in finding if there were areas of stress common to the Stay-at-Home-Dads. The Gender Role Conflict Scales (O'Neil, 1981a, 1981b) and a researcher generated Household and Child Care Task Protocol were voluntarily completed by twelve Stay-at-Home-Dads from Maricopa County in Arizona. Semi structured interviews were conducted with each of the Stay-at-Home-Dads to discuss the results of the assessment instruments and to extract additional information that would assist the researcher in understanding the families' situation. Descriptive statistical analysis of the assessment instruments revealed that 100% of Stay-at-Home-Dads showed elevated scores on Factor 1 of the Gender Role Conflict Scales, suggesting that Success, Power and Competition were potential areas of conflict. The results of the Household and Child Care Task Protocol showed that each of the Stay-at-Home-Dads devoted the majority of their daily time to child care tasks as opposed to that of household tasks. Areas of stress that were common to more than one of the Stay-at-Home-Dads were those of having to discipline the children, missing social interactions with other adults. Living with a decreased income and learning to "handle" the real or perceived stereotypes of being a Stay-at-Home-Dad. This research was able to show that families chose this arrangement due to wanting their children to be raised by a parent, and that the mothers' earning potential was greater than that of the father's. The conclusions, implications, and recommendations for applications and for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Karin Flaake. Körperlichkeit und sexualität in der adoleszenz junger frauen: Dynamiken in der vater-tochter-beziehung. Psyche: Zeitschrift Für Psychoanalyse Und Ihre Anwendungen, 2003. 57(5), pp. 403-425.

body awareness: sexuality: father-daughter relationship: adolescence: psychoanalytic theory: Adolescent Development: Parent Child Relations: Daughters: Fathers

Central to psychoanalytic theories on femininity in the 1970s to 1990s was the relationship between mothers and daughters. With the exception of the extreme case of sexual abuse, the sexually erotic content of father-daughter relationships was hardly discussed. The author makes an initial attempt towards filling this gap by taking an intersubjective perspective on the results of an empirical study providing psychoanalytic and hermeneutic interpretation of interviews with 13-to-19-year-old girls and young women and with their mothers and fathers/stepfathers. The focus is on the body-related and sexual fantasies triggered by changes in adolescence (development of the breasts, changes in the genitals, first menstruation, the new quality of sexual desires). These fantasies and the disruptions of existing psychic equilibria that they cause are by no means limited to the girls and young women themselves. The considerable confusion they also provoke in the adults involved indicate that adolescent change processes represent a challenge to the entire family structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Suzanne Marie Flannery-Quinn. The portrayals of male parents in caldecott award-winning american picture books (1938-2002): Examining the culture of fatherhood presented to young people. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 64(2), pp. 678-A.

Literature: Popular Culture: Books: Fathers: Parent Child Relations: Mass Media Images

In order to provide an understanding of the cultural scenarios associated with fatherhood in artifacts/media geared toward young children, this research examines the portrayals of male parents in award-winning American picturebooks. Caldecott medal and honor books from 1938 to 2002 are measured for the frequency of depictions of father characters, the activities that father characters engage in, and the level of involvement of the father characters via the depictions of interactions of the father characters with their children in the books. The relative portrayals of presence, absence, interactions, and direct care of father and mother characters are compared. In addition, the presence and levels of involvement of father and mother characters are compared and analyzed in a longitudinal fashion. Father characters are present in 47% of the books, compared with mothers who are present in 51% of all of the books. Fathers are depicted as engaging in less direct interactions with children in the stories than are mothers. Changes over time in the presence and depictions of fathers reveal that there is a "fluctuating" image of fathers, similar to that found by LaRossa et al's (2000) examination of comic strip fathers. Results are interpreted in a symbolic interaction framework with implications for understanding the culture of fatherhood as it is presented to young people.

Robert L. Flewelling, Mallie J. Paschall and Christopher L. Ringwalt. Effects of parenting, father absence, and affiliation with delinquentpeers on delinquent behavior among african-american male adolescents. Adolescence, 2003. 38(149), pp. 15-34.

Black American people: Adolescent boys: Criminal behaviour: Predictors: Absent fathers: Mothers: Parenting: Perceived control: Peer relationships: Delinquents: USA

This study examined the effects of different aspects of parenting, father absence, and affiliation with delinquent peers on delinquent behavior in a cohort of African-American male adolescents. One round of survey data was collected from the youths' mothers or mother surrogates (N = 175) and two rounds of survey data were collected from the adolescents themselves. Analyses revealed that mothers' perceived control ofsons' behavior was a deterrent of delinquent behavior, while other aspects of parenting (e.g., mother-son communication and relations) werenot. The effect of mothers' perceived control was not mediated by adolescents' affiliation with delinquent peers. The effects of mothers' parenting variables and peer affiliation did not vary significantly by family structure, but socioeconomic disadvantage was more strongly associated with delinquent behavior in father-absent families. Though parenting effects were modest, this study suggests that African-American male adolescents are less likely to engage in delinquent behavior if they are closely monitored and supervised by their parents. (Original abstract).

E. Flouri and A. Buchanan. The role of mother involvement and father involvement in adolescent bullying behavior. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2003. 18(6), pp. 634-644.

It has been suggested that bullying behavior at school maybe linked to parenting and family characteristics. Based on data from 1, 147 adolescents aged 14 to 18 years in Britain, this study explored whether father involvement can protect against offspring bullying behavior Results showed that low father involvement and low mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to bullying behavior in adolescents. Neither the association between father involvement and bullying nor the one between mother involvement and bullying was higher for sons than for daughters. There was evidence showing that the impact of the father-child relationship depended on the closeness of the mother-child relationship in that father involvement protected more when mother involvement was lower.

E. Flouri and A. Buchanan. The role of father involvement and mother involvement in adolescents' psychological well-being. British Journal of Social Work, 2003. 33(3), pp. 399-406.

This study of 2,722 British adolescents aged 14-18 years explored whether paternal involvement can protect against low levels of well-being even when maternal involvement and risk and protective factors are controlled for. Results showed that although both father and mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to offspring happiness, father involvement had a stronger effect. Furthermore, the association between father involvement and happiness was not stronger for sons than for daughters. There was no evidence suggesting that family disruption weakens the association between father involvement and happiness, or that father involvement is more strongly related to offspring happiness when mother involvement is low rather than high.

E. Flouri and A. Buchanan. The role of father involvement in children's later mental health. Journal of Adolescence, 2003. 26(1), pp. 63-78.

Data on 8441 cohort members of the National Child Development Study were used to explore links between father involvement at age 7 and emotional and behavioural problems at age 16, and between father involvement at age 16 and psychological distress at age 33, controlling for mother involvement and known confounds. Father involvement at age 7 protected against psychological maladjustment in adolescents from non-intact families, and father involvement at age 16 protected against adult psychological distress in women. There was no evidence suggesting that the impact of father involvement in adolescence on children's later mental health in adult life varies with the level of mother involvement. (C) 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Eirini Flouri and Ann Buchanan. What predicts fathers' involvement with their children? A prospective study of intact families. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2003. 21(1), pp. 81-97.

father involvement: prediction: mother involvement: socioeconomic status: behaviour problems: family size: school performance: father education: domestic tension: Childhood Development: Father Child Relations: Involvement: Academic Achievement: Behavior Problems: Family Relations: Fathers: Mother Child Relations

This study used longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study to explore factors associated with aspects of fathers' involvement with their children at age 7, 11 and 16 yrs in intact families. Father involvement was predicted by different factors at different ages but generally it was continuous and multidimensional, and strongly associated with mother involvement. Low parental socio-economic status and child behaviour problems were negatively related to father involvement at age 7. With older children, father involvement was inversely related to family size and poor school performance. Financial difficulties in the family were not related to father involvement at either age. Domestic tension was negatively related to certain aspects of fathers' involvement with younger children. Father's education was generally related to father's involvement but maternal employment was only related to low father-interest in child's education at age 7 and 11 yrs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Joan Collier Fogg. Portraits of successful woman leaders: Looking through the mirror via side-by-side portraiture. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 64(1), pp. 298-A.

Leadership: Professional Women: Family Relations: Parent Child Relations: Fathers

This qualitative study will take a reflective and refractive view of family relationships of four successful women leaders in education, business, and ministry/arts with particular examination of the role of family interaction paying particular attention to interaction with the father. Drawn from the author's personal experience as artist, educator, and administrator, a newly created methodology called side-by-side portraiture creates an additional portrait of the author to lay beside the portraits of the women, thereby adding authentic resonance to the study. After researching theories of development and relationship, and placing those in the context of historical family development, the success of these candidates (who are identified by personal recommendations and credentials) is given personal reflection as the portraits focus on the formation of self through relationship. The study shows areas of commonality and divergence among the women, and has implications for the spiritual grounding of the family in today's world, team parenting, studies involving overcoming difficulties that are in the path of success, and mentoring.

I. Forkel and R. K. Silbereisen. Paternal self-efficacy as moderator of the link between economic hardship and adolescents' depressed mood. Zeitschrift Fur Entwicklungspsychologie Und Padagogische Psychologie, 2003. 35(3), pp. 163-170.

The aim of the present work was to investigate whether high general self-efficacy of the father corresponds to less severe maladaptive effects of economic hardships on the father himself, on family relations, and on adolescent offspring. The point of departure was a family-stress model, indirectly linking low per capita income, unstable work situation of both parents, and reduction in income to adolescents depressed mood via the perception of economic pressure, parental depressed mood, and the deterioration in positive family climate. The role of the fathers' self-efficacy as a moderator was tested with a sample of 305 intact families with adolescents who were aged between 10 and 13 years. The results suggest a protective role of paternal self-efficacy. The correlations between fathers' unstable work situation and his depressed mood as well as between fathers' depressed mood and that of the adolescent were smaller if the father had, high self-efficacy.

Ines Forkel and Rainer K. Silbereisen. Väterliche selbstwirksamkeit als moderator des zusammenhangs zwischen ökonomischen härten und depressiver gestimmtheit bei jugendlichen. Zeitschrift Für Entwicklungspsychologie Und Pädagogische Psychologie, 2003. 35(3), pp. 163-170.

paternal self efficacy: depressed mood: economic hardship: family relation: adolescent offspring: Depression (Emotion): Fathers: Lower Income Level: Offspring: Self Efficacy: Emotional Development

The aim of the present work was to investigate whether high general self-efficacy of the father corresponds to less severe maladaptive effects of economic hardships on the father himself, on family relations, and on adolescent offspring. The point of departure was a family-stress model indirectly linking low per capita income, unstable work situation of both parents, and reduction in income to adolescents' depressed mood via the perception of economic pressure, parental depressed mood, and the deterioration in positive family climate. The role of the fathers' self-efficacy as a moderator was tested with a sample of 305 intact families with adolescents who were aged between 10 and 13 years. The results suggest a protective role of paternal self-efficacy. The correlations between fathers' unstable work situation and his depressed mood as well as between fathers depressed mood and that of the adolescent were smaller if the father had high self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

France Frascarolo, Nicolas Favez and Elisabeth Fivaz-Depeursinge. Fathers' and mothers' performances in father-mother-baby games. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 2003. 18(2), pp. 101-111.

fathers: mothers: differences: dyadic games: performance: infants: Games: Human Sex Differences: Parent Child Relations: Infant Development

Until now studies comparing fathers and mothers have mostly been realized in dyadic situations, father-infant versus mother-infant. The aim of the present paper was to bring to the core similarities and differences, between fathers and mothers, in terms of performance (N=42 families) in a triadic context. Father, mother and baby, seated in a triangular formation were invited to play as usual: first, one parent played with the infant and the other was participant-observer, and then they reversed their roles. Globally, no differences were observed between fathers and mothers in terms of being available, keeping their assigned roles, sharing a common focus of interest and co-creating games with their three month old infant. However a difference emerged when the order in which parents began as active parent versus third party parent was taken into account. Mothers who played first were better active partners than fathers, for keeping roles, sharing focus and co-creating games; and fathers who were first third party parent were better than third party mothers for sharing a common focus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Yuka Fukumaru. Relationship between fathers' multiple roles and depression. Japanese Journal of Family Psychology, 2003. 17(2), pp. 97-110.

depression: parental role: family relations: dual-earners: psychological health: marital quality: fathers multiple roles: working wives: Depression (Emotion): Fathers: Marital Relations: Role Conflicts: Working Women: Dual Careers

This research examined the relationship between multiple roles of work, family, and depression. Data were obtained through questionnaires given to fathers with young children, while traditional research has focused on working mothers or dual-earner couples, the focus of this paper is to compare fathers by their wife's working conditions. An examination of the spillover indicated that fathers whose wives are working experienced strong negative spillover from family to work, but this did not predict depression. Marital quality also influenced depression of fathers whose wives are working. Our results suggest that it's important to consider the attitude of companies or government, as well as the ideas of individuals, on marital quality in order to understand the relationship between psychological health and multiple roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Vivian L. Gadsden, Stanton E. F. Wortham and Herbert M. I. Turner II. Situated identities of young, african american fathers in low-income urban settings: Perspectives on home, street, and the system. Family Court Review, 2003. 41(3), pp. 381-399.

African American fathers: urban fathers: minority fathers: low-income fathers: perceptions of familial & peer & legal system influences: identity: Blacks: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Parental Attitudes: Self Concept: Attitudes: Family Relations: Interpersonal Influences: Legal Processes: Lower Income Level: Peer Relations: Urban Environments

Young, low-income, African American fathers have been at the center of research, practice, and policy on families over the past decade. This article uses a "voicing" analytic technique to examine identities among young, low-income, African American fathers living in an urban setting; the intersections of these identities; and the fathers' perceptions of the influences of familial, peer, and legal systems as barriers and resources in their development as fathers and the sustainability of their fathering roles. The primary questions addressed urban fathers' representations of their transition to fatherhood, intergenerational relationships, transformative events, and visions of a possible self. Results from a survey, focus groups, and interviews suggest that the fathers seek to reinvent themselves and reconstruct their identities by separating from street life, redefine home as a place of stability, and challenge the practices of social and legal systems that appear to work against their responsible fathering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Vivian Gadsden L., R. Rethemeyer Karl and Pennsylvania Univ, Philadelphia National Center on Fathers,and Families. Bay area fatherhood initiatives: Policymaker and practitioner perspectives on intergrating fathering efforts. A report from the bay area fathering integrated data system (BAyFIDS) II project. 2003. pp. 60.

The past 10 years have been a period of enormous growth in efforts around father involvement, with local government systems attempting to meet the needs of the diverse father population. The Bay Area Fathering Indicators Data System (BAYFIDS) Project is designed to track and analyze the operation and impact of fathering programs and describe the nature of local and county policy efforts around fatherhood in the San Francisco Bay Area. This report expands in two ways on an earlier study conducted in 2000: (1) it offers through the directory an updated count of programs; and (2) it addresses directly policy changes in the nine counties as they relate to program development, implementation, expansion, and devolution. Chapter 1 of the report, the BAYFIDS directory, updates the findings regarding programs in the Bay Area as of Spring 2003. Chapter 2 summarizes data from telephone surveys with policymakers in county child support services, social services agencies, and county departments of education and with practitioners representing the "master group" from the 2000 study; the survey was to determine ways in which they have experienced change, problems, and possibilities. Chapter 3 discusses cross-cutting themes and offers conclusions. Survey findings revealed that fatherhood, male involvement, and unwanted fatherhood prevention were of relatively low priority for the social service agencies in the Bay Area. Practitioners suggested that child and family service organizations may have internalized some key ideas from the fatherhood movement and integrated them into their programs. Balanced against this picture for fathering efforts was the retrenchment found in publicly sponsored father support programs. (KB).

Vivian Gadsden, Aisha Ray and ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early,Childhood Education. Fathers' role in children's academic achievement and early literacy. ERIC digest. 2003. pp. 5.

Noting that our ability to incorporate the cultural strengths and the distinctive ways that families, specifically fathers, contribute to educational accomplishments of preschool children is severely constrained by major gaps and inadequacy in the research literature, this Digest explores what is known about the role of fathers in young children's academic achievement and early literacy. Among the research discussed is a critical review of research on father involvement in childrens education and schooling that concluded that fathers' participation in literacy activities, the barriers that parents face as a result of low literacy, and their perceptions of the role that they can play in their children's literacy development may affect children's preparedness for school. The Digest discusses research that examines the extent to which fathers are involved with their children's schools, and points out that even when fathers have limited schooling, their involvement in children's schools and school lives is a powerful factor in children's academic achievement. The Digest also points out that children's development of early literacy begins at birth and relies on a range of environmental stimuli, and that fathers can ensure that their children are exposed to the best environmental stimuli by participating at home and in early childhood education settings. The Digest concludes with suggestions for ways that early childhood educators can introduce fathers to approaches that provide opportunities for children to scribble and write, learn new vocabulary, identify letters and important words such as their names, and utilize relevant print within and outside the household. (LPP).

N. L. Galambos, E. T. Barker and D. M. Almeida. Parents do matter: Trajectories of change in externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. Child Development, 2003. 74(2), pp. 578-594.

This study examined the relative influence of three parenting behaviors (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and deviant peers on trajectories of externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. A white, working-to-middle-class sample of adolescents and their mothers and fathers in two-earner families participated in a 31/2year longitudinal study (N = 109 families). The study began when the adolescents were in sixth grade (M age = 11.5 years). Analyses showed that parents' firm behavioral control seemed to halt the upward trajectory in externalizing problems among adolescents with deviant peers. Initial levels of internalizing problems were higher among adolescents with parents who reported lower levels of behavioral control and among adolescents with deviant peers. This study suggests that parenting exerts an important influence in adolescents' lives and may do so even in the face of potentially negative peer influence.

E. Ganadaki and J. Magill-Evans. Mothers' and fathers' interactions with children with motor delays. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2003. 57(4), pp. 463-467.

OBJECTIVE. in early intervention programs, parents are often asked to teach their child new skills. As fathers are increasingly involved in intervention, clinicians need more information on fathers' unique interactive style. This pilot study compared mothers' and fathers' parent-child interactions during a teaching episode to identify similarities and differences in order to better understand parents' strengths. METHODS. The Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale was used to observe 10 mothers and 10 fathers interacting with their 10- to 28-month-old children in their homes. The children were receiving early intervention for a motor delay. The Caregiver Scores (parent's contribution to the interaction) of mothers and others were compared using paired t tests. RESULTS. Mothers had more optimal interactions as indicated by significantly higher Caregiver scores than fathers, t (9) = 3.83, p = .004. The subscales with statistically significant differences were Caregiver Contingency and Cognitive Growth Fostering. Children's scores when they interacted with their mothers or fathers did not differ. CONCLUSION. When observing fathers teaching their child new skills, therapists should remember that fathers of children with motor delays (and typically developing children) may use a more task-oriented communication style with less consideration of the child's actions than do mothers.

Jan Allison Ganesh. A program design to screen and treat parents suffering from postpartum depression. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 63(10), pp. 4900-4900.

postpartum depression: cognitive behavioral approach: treatment modalities: psychological needs: program design: parents: Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Program Development: Fathers: Mothers

Postpartum depression affects approximately 10 to 15 percent of women and 5 percent of men following the birth of a child. Research has indicated the incidence of this disorder may in fact be greater. One longitudinal study found that the incidence of postpartum depression in women increased to 53.7 percent at one year postpartum (Areias, Kumar, Barros, & Figueiredo, 1996). The disorder of postpartum depression impairs the functioning of the entire family unit, not just the afflicted individual. Historically, the medical model focuses on the physical well being of the mother during the prenatal and postpartum period. In this treatment paradigm the father of the baby plays a supportive role and his physical and psychological needs are not attended to. Yet the literature reveals that he himself is at risk for the development of postpartum depression. The purpose of this dissertation was to create a program that includes both the mother and father in the screening and treatment of postpartum depression. This program is designed to be implemented in an existing obstetric office. It is cost-effective and utilizes the present staff, with the addition of one masters or doctoral level therapist. Patients and third-party payers will provide the funding. The treatment modalities will include individual, couple, family, and group therapies. The treatment program will incorporate a cognitive-behavioral approach with a psycho-educational component. The expectant couple relies on the obstetrician to provide the care they need for their transition into parenthood. In this venue the incorporation of the psychological and physical needs of the couple would provide a more comprehensive treatment approach. A program developed for an obstetrician's office to provide education, early diagnosis, and intervention within that office setting would improve the quality of care for the expectant couple. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Kristen Elizabeth Gardiner. Children's perceptions of parental love as a function of parental gender and gender of child. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 64(2), pp. 962-962.

psychological control: physical control: children: parental love: parental gender: gender differences: Human Sex Differences: Mother Child Relations: Parental Characteristics: Parental Role: Fathers: Love: Mothers

Earlier studies have addressed children's perceptions of differential treatment by parents and the effects of such differential treatment; however, little investigation has been undertaken on perceptions of the differences between how mothers and fathers express love to their children, and, more specifically, of differences in love expressions towards male children and towards female children (Corsello, 1973; Kowal & Kramer, 1997; Volling & Elins, 1998; Dekovic, Gems, & Jensens, 1991; Russell & Russell, 1989; Droppleman & Schaefer, 1963). Although prior research has provided some understanding of parenting differences with respect to several different constructs, questions remain regarding these differences as viewed by a child's perspective. The participants of the study were given a vignette in which a mother or a father loved their child either a lot or only a little bit. The researcher's objective was to support statistically the premise that boys and girls would perceive the expressions of love differently as expressed by their mothers and fathers on three parenting dimensions: Acceptance versus Rejection, Psychological Autonomy versus Psychological Control, and Firm versus Lax physical control based on whether the parent was a mother or father, the child was a boy or girl, and whether the parent loved the child a lot or only a little bit. The participants involved in this study included 63 female and 45 male children aged 8-12 years (inclusive) from two San Diego Catholic parochial schools. The participants were primarily Caucasian, Catholic, upper-middle class, whose parents were still married. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) and two qualitative, un-normed measures created by the researcher. The results from three one-way ANOVAS as well as from an interview and a pilot questionnaire supported the notion that children perceive parental behaviors differently if a child perceives a parent to love his or her child a lot as compared to children who perceive a parent as only loving him or her a little bit. But the study did not support the hypothesis that children perceive mothers and fathers as significantly differing with regards to clusters of behaviors that make up overall parental acceptance, parental psychological control, and physical control. Thus, this study did not statistically support the premise that boys and girls perceive messages of love differently from mothers and fathers, although certain specific parenting behaviors appeared to differentiate among mothers and fathers with respect to sons and daughters. It appeared that it was an overall repertoire of behaviors that allows a son or a daughter to perceive love from a mother or a father, not specific individual behaviors. Therefore, specific differential parental loving behaviors may exist, but as long as a parent is accepting overall, the child will feel loved. The child will feel loved if the parent generally encourages psychological autonomy. If a mother or fathers exerts firm control over his or her child, then the child will also perceive the behaviors as loving. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Maria A. Gartstein and Beverly I. Fagot. Parental depression, parenting and family adjustment, and child effortful control: Explaining externalizing behaviors for preschool children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2003. 24(2), pp. 143-177.

parental depression: family adjustment: coercive behavior: instructional behavior: parenting style: child effortful control: externalizing behavior problems: preschool children: mothers: fathers: Behavior Problems: Family Relations: Parental Characteristics: Self Control: Adjustment: Externalization: Major Depression: Preschool Students

Contributions of symptoms of parental depression, marital/family adjustment, parents' coercive (physical restraint, criticism, directives) and instructional behaviors (cognitive guidance, i.e., explanations of goals/strategies, suggestions regarding strategies for completing tasks), and children's effortful control to preschool children's externalizing behavior problems were investigated. It was hypothesized that children's higher levels of effortful control serve a protective function, leading to lower levels of child conduct difficulties despite parental/familial risk factors. Higher levels of depressive symptoms, coercion, and cognitive guidance, along with lower levels of child effortful control, were associated with higher levels of child externalizing behaviors. Differences in hierarchical regression models were observed for data obtained from mothers and fathers, with maternal coercive behavior and cognitive guidance serving as statistically significant predictors of children's externalizing behavior and reports of marital/family adjustment predicting child externalizing problems described by fathers... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Christina B. Gee and Jean E. Rhodes. Adolescent mothers' relationship with their children's biological fathers: Social support, social strain and relationship continuity. Journal of Family Psychology, 2003. 17(3), pp. 370-383.

social support networks: adolescent mothers: children's biological fathers: social strain: relationship continuity: teenage mothers: psychological adjustment: maternal grandmothers: new male partners: Emotional Adjustment: Male Female Relations: Social Stress: Social Support: Biological Family: Fathers: Grandparents: Significant Others

Two-hundred and eighteen low-income, minority, adolescent mothers were interviewed during the perinatal period and 3 years later about their social networks, including their relationships with their children's fathers. Few adolescents were involved with fathers at both time points. Relationships with fathers were, in general, less supportive and less problematic over time. Moreover, although father support was not associated with adolescent mothers' psychological adjustment, father absence and father strain had negative associations with psychological adjustment. Maternal grandmother support buffered the negative effects of strain in the adolescents' relationships with biological fathers. Perceptions of less social support from maternal grandmothers and more social support from fathers during the perinatal period as well as less social support from a new male partner at 3 years postpartum predicted relationship continuity between adolescent mothers and fathers at 3 years postpartum. Implications for intervention and policy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

A. Geers and C. Brenner. Background and educational characteristics of prelingually deaf children implanted by five years of age. Ear and Hearing, 2003. 24(1), pp. 2S-14S.

Purpose: This study documents child, family and educational characteristics of a large representative sample of 8- to 9-yr-old prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant by 5 yr of age. Because pre-existing factors such as the child's gender, family characteristics, additional handicaps, age at onset of deafness and at implant, may affect postimplant outcomes, these variables must be accounted for before the impact of educational factors on performance with an implant can be adequately determined. Classroom variables that may affect postimplant outcomes include placement in public or private, mainstream or special education, oral or total communication environments. Other intervention variables include type and amount of individual therapy, experience of the therapist and parent participation in therapy. Documenting these characteristics for a large representative sample of implanted children can provide clinicians and researchers with insight regarding the types of families who sought early cochlear implantation for their children and the types of educational programs in which they placed their children after implantation. It is important to undertake studies that control for as many of these factors as possible so that the relative benefits of specific educational approaches for helping children to get the most benefit from their cochlear implant can be identified. Method: Over a 4-yr period, 181 children from across the US and Canada, accompanied by a parent, attended a cochlear implant research camp. Parents completed questionnaires in which they reported the child's medical and educational history, characteristics of the family, and their participation in the child's therapy. The parent listed names and addresses of clinicians who had provided individual speech/language therapy to the child and signed permission for these clinicians to complete questionnaires describing this therapy. Results: To the extent that this sample is representative of those families seeking a cochlear implant for their child, especially during the initial period of device availability, this population can be characterized as follows. Most parents had normal hearing, were of majority (white) ethnicity and had more education and higher incomes than the general population. The families tended to be intact with both a mother and a father who involved their hearing-impaired child in family activities on a regular basis. The children were enrolled in the full range of educational placements available across the United States and Canada. Fairly even distributions of children from public and private schools, special education and mainstream classes and oral and total communication methodologies were represented. Educational placement changed as children gained increased experience with a cochlear implant. They received an increased emphasis on speech and auditory skills in their classroom settings and tended to move from private school and special education settings to public school and mainstream programs. These data support the position that early cochlear implantation is a cost effective procedure that allows deaf children to participate in a normal school environment with hearing age mates.

C. A. Gerhardt, K. Vannatta, J. M. McKellop, et al. Brief report: Child-rearing practices of caregivers with and without a child with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: Perspectives of caregivers and professionals. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2003. 28(4), pp. 275-279.

Objective To evaluate predictions from professionals in pediatric rheumatology regarding the child-rearing practices of caregivers of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and healthy classmates. Methods Sixteen professionals identified items from the Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) that were expected to differentiate between caregivers of children with JRA (64 mothers, 45 fathers) and caregivers of healthy classmates (64 mothers, 40 fathers). Families were interviewed, and physician ratings of disease severity were obtained. Results Experts predicted difficulties in protectiveness, discipline, and worry. Ratings from parents of children with JRA showed modest agreement with the professionals, surprising similarity to controls, and a limited association with disease factors. Conclusions Contrary to expert opinion, JRA has only a modest influence on some child-rearing practices. Educating health care providers may minimize misperceptions about caring for children with JRA, and screening parents of children with more severe disease may assist in allocating education and services for families.

Jan Gerris, Ulla Kinnunen, Anne Makikangas and Ad Vermulst. Work-family conflict and its relations to well-being: The role of personality as a moderating factor. Personality and Individual Differences, 2003. 35(7), pp. 1669-1683.

Fathers: Work-Family conflict: Moderators: Personality: Depression: Job satisfaction: Marital satisfaction: Subjective wellbeing: Netherlands: Five factor model

The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the Big Five personality dimensions as possible moderating factors between two types of work-family conflicts: work interference with family (WIF); and family interference with work (FIW); and their relationship to well-being in the domains of work and family generally as well. The participants were fathers (n = 296) who took part in a national family research project in the Netherlands in 1995. All fathers were employed full-time. The results showed that emotional stability moderated the relationships between WIF and job exhaustion and between WIF and depression. Inaddition, agreeableness moderated the relationship between FIW and marital satisfaction. Consequently, emotionally stable fathers were protected from negative effects of WIF on well-being at work (job exhaustion) and on general well-being (depression). In the same way, agreeablefathers were protected from negative effects of FIW on marital satisfaction. Besides these moderating effects, both WIF and FIW and emotional stability and agreeableness had main effects on well-being. (Original abstract).

K. Ghodsi, A. Shirdel, R. Akbarzadeh, S. Haghighi, A. R. Pasdar and S. A. T. Yazdi. A study of rare cases combined deficiency of factor V and factor VIII in an iranian family, (father and four children), mashhad, north east of iran. Journal of Medical Genetics, 2003. 40(SUPPL 1), pp. 1.46.

human genetics: BSHG

Benjamin Jacob Gorvine. Fathers and father figures of head start children: A study of the effects of involvement on children's socioemotional development. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 63(10), pp. 4942-4942.

father child conflict: classroom observations: psychological research: positive interaction: head start children: gender role beliefs: father figures: socioemotional development: Emotional Development: Father Child Relations: Human Sex Differences: Psychosocial Development: Classroom Behavior: Fathers

Fathers have long been ignored or played a secondary role to mothers in the psychological research literature, and fathers in poverty have been a particularly understudied group. In an attempt to address this deficiency in the research literature, this study explores the links between Head Start fathers' involvement with their children and children's adjustment and peer competence, as well as the determinants of fathers' involvement. Ninety-two mothers and 31 fathers and father-figures were interviewed about fathers' extent and quality of involvement with their children, and fathers were also asked open-ended questions about the rewards and challenges of parenting, and their views on the Head Start program. Children's peer competence was evaluated via classroom observations, and both teachers and parents reported on children's adjustment. Reports of higher quality of the parents' relationship were positively related to both the extent and quality of fathers' involvement. Fathers' gender role beliefs in terms of their endorsement of egalitarian roles were also found to be associated with higher quality of fathers' involvement. Higher levels of reported father-child conflict were associated with children's more positive and less negative interaction with peers, and greater extent of fathers' involvement with children was also associated with children's more positive interaction with peers. Relatively few associations were found between fathers' involvement and children's adjustment. Fathers identified a diverse range of both the rewards and challenges of parenting, and reported an equally diverse group of ideas of how to foster their greater involvement in the Head Start program. The findings suggest the possibility that fathers' and father figures' involvement may be particularly facilitative for certain realms of children's development (i.e., peer competence), and that father-child conflict may be one mechanism through which fathers exert their influence on children's peer competence. These results underscore the importance of designing policies that encourage fathers' involvement in their children's lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Andrew R. Gottlieb. Sons talk about their gay fathers: Life curves. 2003. pp. 183.

David E. Gray. Gender and coping: The parents of children with high functioning autism. Social Science and Medicine, 2003. 56(3), pp. 631-642.

Coping: Sex Differences: Autism: Mothers: Fathers: Brisbane, Australia

Gender is a concept that is frequently discussed in the literature on stress, coping, & illness. Research has reported that women are more vulnerable than men are to stressful events & use different strategies to cope with them. Furthermore, it is often asserted that these gender-based differences in coping may partially explain the differential impact of stressful events on men & women. Unfortunately, much of this research has equated gender with sex & failed to contextualize the experience of illness & coping. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the role of gender & coping among parents of children with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome in an Australian sample. It attempts to analyze the different meanings of the disability for mothers & fathers & describes the various strategies that parents use to cope with their child's disability. 31 References. Adapted from the source document.

Marianne Grunell. Men who care. breadwinners and nurturing carers in a transitional period. 2003. 50(4), pp. 392-407.

Caregivers: Males: Sex Stereotypes: Social Change: Family Roles: Fathers: Sexual Division of Labor: Dual Career Family: Netherlands

At the end of the 20th century, the concept of care provided by men was passing through an ambiguous transitional process: surface & undercurrents, not necessarily in favor of their caring, began to emerge in public debate. Changes in male caring patterns are under study in the last two decades of the previous century. The key themes include their motives to care (differently), & the costs & benefits. In an era of modernity, choosing -- even with respect to care -- implies having to motivate such choices. As a result, social selection processes progress differently; imitation & identification have become more important. Rational value motivations for men to care can be broadly observed in the Netherlands, but behavioral patterns, as charted more often, lag behind. Pressure exerted by the traditional, complementary division of labor & pressure from the traditional labor regime are the most important counterforces, where value rationality appears to be quickly discarded. By contrast, affective motivations in terms of caring for children, coupled with the wishes of a female partner & her economic potential, appear to be the most important changing factors. The sustainability of change is reflected in his affective motivations & her aspirations, while the care provided by men takes shape & has developed in different ways & in different socioeconomic milieus. The dominance of the Dutch one-&-a-half income household can be understood within the context of reconciling old demands with new desires: change is "produced" here & incorporated in the continuity of the (main) breadwinner model. But men & women no longer only represent each other's complementary points of reference. As a result of mutual identification & imitation, new patterns are developing between the sexes, patterns in which men are adopting a different approach to care. 62 References. Adapted from the source document.

Denise D. Guastello and Stephen J. Guastello. Androgyny, gender role behavior, and emotional intelligence among college students and their parents. 2003. 49(11-12), pp. 663-673.

Androgyny: Sex Role Orientations: Emotions: Generational Differences: Personality Traits: Sex Differences: College Students: Mothers: Fathers

Androgyny, gender role behavior, & emotional intelligence were measured in 576 students & their parents to examine the extent to which these variables exhibited generational effects or consistencies within families. Chi-square analyses indicated that sons were more androgynous in personality than their fathers, but that there was no significant difference in androgyny between daughters & mothers. The men also showed an increase in androgynous behavior across generations, whereas the women showed an increase in masculine gender-typed behavior & a decrease in feminine gender-typed behavior. ANOVA revealed that fathers scored significantly lower on emotional intelligence than mothers & students. Significant correlations on emotional intelligence for mothers & their respective students indicated a strong influence on this construct; no such relationship was found between students & fathers. The strongest correlations in masculine & feminine personality & behavior were obtained for mothers & daughters. It was also hypothesized that androgyny would predict higher emotional intelligence; multiple regression supported this hypothesis for students, mothers, & fathers. 5 Tables, 44 References. Adapted from the source document.

Anders Hakansson, Christer Petersson and Kerstin Petersson. General parental education in sweden: Participants and non-participants. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 2003. 21(1), pp. 43-46.

Babies: Health care: Parenting skills: Educational programmes: Participation: Mothers: Fathers: Sweden

Objective - To study factors of importance for participation in parental education within routine child health care. Design - All parents of children born during 1 year were invited by the district nurse to participate in parental education; their participation during the infant year was registered. Setting - Catchment area of two health centres in Vaxjo, Sweden. Subjects - 221 infants and their parents. Main outcome measures - Number of educational sessions for mothers and fathers. Results - 63% of mothers and 20% of fathers attended at least one session. These mothers attended a mean of 5.7 (SD 2.2) sessions and these fathers a mean of 2.8 (SD 2.3) sessions. Logistic regression analyses showed that the only variable of significance for participation was being a first-time parent (odds ratio 3.9 for the mothers and 3.7 for the fathers). Odds ratios above 2.0 (non-significant) were found for married mothers and Swedish mothers, as well as for Swedish fathers. Conclusion - It is still a considerable problem to get certain groups involved in routine parental education in Swedish child healthcare programmes. (Original abstract).

J. Hardt, U. T. Egle and A. Engfer. Der kindheitsfragebogen, ein instrument zur beschreibung der erlebten kindheitsbeziehung zu den eltern. Zeitschrift Für Differentielle Und Diagnostische Psychologie, 2003. 24(1), pp. 33-43.

Childhood Questionnaire: retrospective description: parental relationships: love: discipline: models: role reversal: sibling competition: marriage quality: SES: happiness: Early Experience: Parent Child Relations: Parental Characteristics: Questionnaires: Retrospective Studies: Child Discipline: Fathers: Mothers: Punishment: Role Models: Siblings: Socioeconomic Status

The Childhood Questionnaire is designed for adults for retrospectively describing their relationship to their parents. It contains 8 dimensions concerning mother and father respectively: perceived love, punishment, parents as models, trivializing punishment, ambition, role-reversal, parental control, and competition between siblings. Four more dimensions describe the quality of the parental marriage, SES, social support from persons not belonging to the family, and feelings of happiness during childhood, 700 individuals (mean age 38.3 yrs) completed the Childhood Questionnaire. Results show that these dimensions could be reliably assessed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Elizabeth Harvey, Jeffrey S. Danforth, Tara Eberhardt McKee, Wendy R. Ulaszek and Julie L. Friedman. Parenting of children with attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The role of parental ADHD symptomatology. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2003. 7(1), pp. 31-42.

parenting: children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: ADHD: parental ADHD: symptomatology: parent-child behavior: mothers: fathers: parent training: inattention: impulsivity: Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: Parent Child Relations: Parenting Style: Symptoms: Child Neglect: Impulsiveness

The present study examined the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and parent-child behavior among 46 mothers and 26 fathers of ADHD children. It was found that fathers' self-reports of inattention and impulsivity were strongly associated with self-reports of lax parenting both before and after parent training, and with self-reports of overreactivity after parent training. Fathers' impulsivity was also associated with more arguing during audiotaped observations of parent-child interactions prior to parent training. Mothers' self-reports of inattention were modestly associated with self-reports of laxness before and after parent training. Prior to parent training, there were nonlinear relations between mothers' inattention and observations of mother-child behavior, with mothers who reported moderate levels of inattention engaging in the most negative parent-child interactions. After parent training, these relations were linear, with the mothers who reported the most inattention engaging in the most negative parent-child interactions. These results were weakened but were generally still significant when parental depression and alcohol use were controlled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Craig Heller, Bruce Cunningham and Hannah Heller M. Selecting children's picture books with positive native american fathers and father figures. MultiCultural Review, 2003. 12(1), pp. 43-48.

Explores images of Native American fathers and father figures in children's picture books, offering background information about Native American cultures, traditional ways of culture and family, and the past and present role of fathers and father figures. Presents distinctive children's books along with guidelines for selecting and evaluating these books. (SM).

Karen Henwood and Joanne Procter. The 'good father': Reading men's accounts of paternal involvement during the transition to first-time fatherhood. British Journal of Social Psychology, 2003. 42(3), pp. 337-355.

first-time fathers: transition: paternal involvement: contemporary sociocultural transformation: masculinity: fatherhood: expectations: Adjustment: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Involvement: Culture (Anthropological): Sociocultural Factors

The study investigates men's responses to contemporary sociocultural transformations in masculinity and fatherhood, and revised expectations of them as fathers. Four cultural and academic perspectives on 'new fatherhood' are described: a progressive psychosocial transformation agenda, attempts to reinstate traditional family values, a mix of optimism and resistance to change in men and fathers' relationship to the gender order, and criticism of new fatherhood discourse for reproducing hegemonic masculinity. A qualitative analysis is conducted of interviews conducted with a heterogeneous sample of 30 men aged 18-35 years in Norfolk. Interviewees overwhelmingly welcomed the opportunities offered to them by the new fatherhood model and supported a perceived cultural shift towards men and fathers being involved in, rather than detached from, family life. But three areas of tension and difficulty in living the ideal were also reported: providing cash and care; valuing selflessness and autonomy; and negotiating fairness, equity and decision making (for fathers who rather than helping out wanted full involvement in child care). We conclude that neither the 'hegemonic masculinity' nor the 'men as part of the family' perspectives exhaust the options for reading the gratifications and... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Alain Herzog, Carole Muller Nix, Claudia Mejia and François Anserment. Étude clinique sur le rôle paternel lors D'une naissance prématurée. Psychothérapies, 2003. 23(2), pp. 97-106.

premature birth: psychological well-being: child psychiatry: Father Child Relations: Parental Role: Fathers

Over recent years, the interaction between pediatrics and child psychiatry has developed considerably especially in the field of neonatology. A multidisciplinary reflexion on the psychological well-being of the child and his parents in the case of a premature birth has emerged. Many studies have been done from the maternal standpoint following a premature birth. This study focused on the father's role after this event. We analysed the language of four fathers of premature children, based on a semistructured interview, which took place when the child was 42 weeks old. We were surprised in that the premature birth had a much less dramatic effect on them, as compared to the mothers, enabling them rapidly to become functional and to undertake a truly alternative role in the interaction between mother and child. The psychological dynamics of these fathers enabled us to tune into finer aspects of the paternal function, in particular his influence on the stability of the couple as parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

E. J. Hill, Alan J. Hawkins, Vjollca Märtinson and Maria Ferris. Studying 'working fathers': Comparing fathers' and mothers' work-family conflict, fit, and adaptive strategies in a global high-tech company. Fathering, 2003. 1(3), pp. 239-261.

working fathers: working mothers: work family conflict: work-family fit: adaptive strategies: global high-tech company: Family Conflict: Family Work Relationship: Fathers: Mothers: Role Conflicts: Business Organizations: Working Women

Working fathers are underrepresented - conceptually and empirically- in work-family research. Using a global corporate sample of working fathers from 48 countries (N = 7,692), this study compares working fathers to working mothers on key work-family variables as suggested by Voydanoff s (2002) application of ecological systems theory. It examines the direction and the path of the predictors of work-family fit and whether a scarcity or expansion model better explains these results. Finally, it considers what work-family adaptive strategies may affect those relationships. Although fathers consistently reported less family-to-work conflict than mothers, they reported equal amounts of work-to-family conflict. That is, fathers struggled as much as mothers to keep work from draining their energies at home. Similarly, though fathers were less likely than mothers to have used most corporate programs to help find harmony between work and family life, they frequently chose options that provided flexibility in when and where work was done. Overall use of any work-family programs by fathers, including the specific use of flexi-time and flexi-place, were found to be work-family adaptive strategies that predicted greater work-family fit. Having a spouse as the primary caregiver did not predict greater work-family fit for working fathers, but it did for working mothers. Curiously, having greater responsibility for childcare predicted greater work-family fit for fathers but less work-family fit for mothers. These findings have implications for guiding further development of work-family research and programs that include fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

R. M. Hodapp and L. A. Ricci. Fathers of children with down's syndrome versus other types of intellectual disability: Perceptions, stress and involvement. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 2003. 47(4-5), pp. 273-284.

Down's syndrome: Learning disabilities: Children: Fathers: Perceptions: Involvement: Stress

Background: The present study examined fathers' perceptions of, stress relating to and involvement with children with Down's syndrome (DS) (n = 30) versus those with other types of intellectual disability (ID) (n = 20). Methods: Fathers and mothers completed questionnaires about their children's personalities and maladaptive behaviours, their own parenting stress, and the fathers' level of involvement. Results: Both fathers and mothers rated their children with DS as having more positive personality traits and fewer maladaptive behaviours. Possibly because of these positive perceptions, fathers of children with DS also reported less child-related stress, particularly in the areas of acceptability, adaptability and demandingness. The two groups of fathers were very similarly involved in child rearing. The personality, age and maladaptive behaviours of the children related to stress levels in the fathers of children with DS, while maladaptive behaviours, gender and the fathers' education levels related to stress levels in the fathers of children with other types of ID. Conclusions: These results highlight the importance of examining parental stress and involvement with children with different types of ID. (Original abstract).

S. L. Hofferth and K. G. Anderson. Are all dads equal? biology versus marriage as a basis for paternal investment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 2003. 65(1), pp. 213-232.

The stepfather relationship provides a source of potential conflict in remarriage families, because the mother and partner may have different interests in the well-being of children from a prior union. Using three different theoretical perspectives-biology, sociology, and selection-this paper examines the engagement, availability, participation, and warmth of residential fathers in married biological parent, unmarried biological parent, married stepparent, and cohabiting father families. The data come from 2,531 children and their parents who were interviewed during the 1997 wave of the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of income Dynamics. Biology explains less of father involvement than anticipated once differences between fathers are controlled. Marriage continues to differentiate paternal investment levels, as do age of child and financial responsibility to nonresidential children.

Sandra L. Hofferth. Race/Ethnic differences in father involvement in two-parent families: Culture, context, or economy? Journal of Family Issues, 2003. 24(2), pp. 185-216.

Economic aspects: Fathers: Child rearing: Practice: Racial differences: Parent-Child relationships: Sociocultural Factors: Neighbourhoods: White people: Hispanic American people: Black American people: USA

This article examines the contribution of economic circumstances, neighborhood context, and cultural factors to explaining race /ethnic differences in fathering in two-parent families. Data come from the 1997 Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative sample of children younger than age 13. Black children's fathers exhibit less warmth but monitor their children more, Hispanic fathers monitor their children less, and both minority groups exhibit more responsibility for child rearing than White fathers. Economic circumstances contribute to differences in paternal engagement and control, and neighborhood factors contribute to differences in warmth and responsibility. Cultural factors, such as intergenerational fathering and gender-role attitudes, contribute to explaining differences from Whites in control and responsibility on the part of both Blacks and Hispanics. 4 Tables, 47 References. [Copyright 2003 Sage Publications, Inc.].

J. P. Hoffmann. A contextual analysis of differential association, social control, and strain theories of delinquency. Social Forces, 2003. 81(3), pp. 753-785.

The history of criminological thought has seen several theories that attempt to link community conditions and individual-level processes. However, a comparative analysis of contextual effects has not been undertaken. This article estimates a multilevel model that examines the effects of variables derived from three delinquency theories. The results indicate that youths residing in areas of high male joblessness who experience stressful life events or little parental supervision are especially likely to be involved in delinquent behavior. The attenuating impact of school involvement on delinquency is more pronounced in urban environments low in male joblessness. These results suggest that examining the contextual implications of delinquency theories is important, but theories need to be developed with more attention to specific contextual processes.

Penny Holmes. Mediating "in front of the mirror": A case study in child-inclusive practice. Journal of Family Studies, 2003. 9(2), pp. 267-272.

Divorce: Mediation: Daughters: Mothers: Fathers: Australia: Family Conflict: Parent Child Relations

This case study describes a couple & their 2 daughters who were having a difficult time going through a divorce because the daughters, ages 16 & 12, refused to see their father. The mediator at the Family Mediation Center in Victoria (Australia) brought the children in for separate interviews & gave the parents feedback on the children's perspective using the "in front of the mirror" technique in which the parents withheld comments until the interviewer finished all the feedback. Results of this self-reflective process are reported. 2 References. M. Pflum.

H. Hops, B. Davis, C. Leve and L. Sheeber. Cross-generational transmission of aggressive parent behavior: A prospective, mediational examination. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2003. 31(2), pp. 161-169.

The intergenerational transmission of aggressive parenting behavior was examined within the context of a prospective longitudinal study of adolescent and young adult adjustment. Thirty-nine young adults (G2; 33 females, 6 males) who had participated in early phases of this study with their parents (G1) continued their involvement with their young children (G3; 17 females, 22 males, mean age D 2.6) several years later. Data included direct observation of parent-adolescent (G1-G2) and parent-child (G2-G3) interactions as well as self-reports. Analyses demonstrated directly observed cross-generational continuity in aggressive parenting from G1 to G2 some 6-7 years later. However, the results also showed that adolescent aggressive behavior served as the mediational link reducing the direct path from G1 to G2 aggressive parenting to nonsignificant levels. The results are consistent with a social interactional model of intergenerational continuity of parenting behavior.

K. Horike. Familial aortic dissection; cases involving a father, mother, and son. Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery, 2003. 56(PART 6), pp. 445-447.

Wade F. Horn. Is it working? early evaluations of fatherhood-renewal programs. 2003. pp. 138-152.

Fathers: Father Absence: Black Americans: Social Programs: Visitation: Child Support: Well Being: Low Income Groups

Assesses the effectiveness of new fatherhood programs aimed at low-income, noncustodial African Americans in terms of increasing work effort & employment level, improving child-support payment rates, increasing father involvement, & enhancing child well-being. Following an overview of the results of nonexperimental & experimental evaluations of these programs, discussion centers on six lessons: (1) Promoting fatherhood is hard work. (2) Father-involvement services & child-support enforcement can be a tough mix. (3) Earlier intervention is necessary. (4) A focus on increased visitation for low-income fathers may be insufficient to improve child well-being. (5) Bolstering cohabitation may not be sufficient to improve child well-being. (6) These programs must address marriage. Rather than discouraging, negative evaluations ought to be used to improve on what is not working. 30 References. J. Zendejas.

Penelope Maria Huang. Negotiating gender, work, and family: Examining gendered consequences of leave-taking over time. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 64(5), pp. 1861-A.

Family Work Relationship: Sexual Inequality: Wages: Income Inequality: Working Mothers: Fathers: Labor Force Participation: Occupational Segregation: job leavers: leave-taking: work history

This dissertation examines the interdependent and reciprocal relationship between gender inequalities in the family and gender inequalities in the workplace that each reproduce the other. The empirical regularity of the gender gap and family gap in wages has spurred several attempts to explain the relationship between parenthood and wages that contribute to the gender wage gap. Chief among these are explanations derived from neoclassical economic theories of human capital, which suggest that women's lower relative wages are a result of higher incidents of job interruptions and an inconsistent work history relative to men. Other explanations suggest that gender differences in wages are a result of institutionalized inequalities that have arisen from a "separate spheres" model of the traditional division of labor. Using the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY 1979-1998), data are arranged into a pooled cross-section time series and a partial-adjustment model with fixed effects is employed in the examination of both immediate short-term, as well as long-term effects of job leaves, work history, marital status, and family status on men's and women's wages over time. Lifetime expected wages are estimated and a wage trajectory is projected to characterize a path of wage growth over the working life course as a function of work history, human capital, job leaves, marital status, and family status. Results support a gendered interpretation, such that the negative effect of children on women's wages persists net of work history, job interruptions, and a host of human capital controls. The long-term effect of children on women's wages results in a (dollars)0.98 hourly wage penalty to women's equilibrium wage. Further, results reveal that taking leave exacts a greater penalty to men's wages than to women's. Moreover, this effect is entirely conditional on men's employment in male-dominated occupations. That is, wage penalties for leave-taking are found only for men in male-dominated occupations, which points to the gendered nature of norms and expectations associated with work.

Clark D. Hudspeth. Does class matter in father-child interaction? Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(10), pp. 3743-A.

Parent Child Relations: Fathers: Class Differences: Social Class: Parenthood: Childrearing Practices: Father Absence

Some assert that the U.S. has become increasingly fatherless in the last decade. This decline is alleged to have resulted from a devaluation of fatherhood in American culture. This is particularly true of Black fathers, but applies to career oriented White fathers as well. Others contend that this is a misleading depiction of fathering today. Variation in father-child interaction is not just a matter of race or career chasing. Another variation in fathering comes from the relationship of religion to paternal interaction. But perhaps more telling are studies that show the link between social class, educational attainment, occupational status, and differences in modes of parenting. This dissertation investigates the link between father-child interaction patterns and practices and class standing. Conceptually, father-child interaction is perceived as being a three-dimensional construct: paternal supervision, attachment, and involvement. Class effects on these fathering variables are assessed using three social class schemas in a series of Ordinary Least Squares regressions. Race, religion, sociodemographic control variables were included in the equation as were race-class and religion-class interaction terms. Initial findings revealed that some commonly used operationalizations of social class may produce misleading or inaccurate results. This shortcoming was resolved by using three separate social class schemas. Although this approach revealed significant class effects, many of these were mediated with the addition of various controls into the regression equation, especially race and focal child's age. In some cases statistical significance was not affected, in others it was reduced, and still in others it was eliminated entirely. In the end, results suggest that the effects of social class on fathering do not vary substantially across religious denominations. However, the class effects on father-child interaction do vary significantly across racial and ethnic boundaries. This study also demonstrates that the cultural approach used by many family scholars to explain fathering patterns and practices in American society has serious limitations. Some of the limitations were rectified in this study by combining the cultural approach with a social class based structural approach. Overall, regression outcomes presented in this dissertation call attention to the fact that class does matter in father-child interaction.

Ronald S. Immerman and Wade C. Mackey. Perspectives on human attachment (pair bonding): Eve's unique legacy of a canine analogue. Evolutionary Psychology, 2003. 1pp. 138-154.

human attachment: mother-child bond: father-child bond: canids: Evolutionary Psychology: Father Child Relations: Mother Child Relations: Fathers: Mothers

The mother-child bond is undoubtedly homologous with that of other primates (and mammals). However, the man-woman pair bond and man(to)child pair bond are not paralleled by any terrestrial primate nor many mammals. Hence, knowledge of primate behavior would not be predictive of the pan-human (i) social father and (ii) the extended pair bond between a man and woman (with the cultural overlay of marriage). It is suggested that female choice of mating partner shifted in the direction of a canid analogue in which men's motivations to share resources with the female and to exhibit paternalistic behaviors were positively selected. Accordingly, it would be predicted that, compared to other terrestrial primates, the neuro-hormonal bases for the mother-child affiliative bond would be similar, but the bases of man-woman affiliative bond and the man(to)child affiliative bond would be dissimilar. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Glendessa M. Insabella, Tamra Williams and Marsha Kline Pruett. Individual and coparenting differences between divorcing and unmarried fathers: Implications for family court services. Family Court Review, 2003. 41(3), pp. 290-306.

demographic characteristics: father involvement: parental conflict: unmarried couples: divorce: coparenting: Family Conflict: Father Child Relations: Involvement: Parental Investment: Fathers: Never Married

The current study examines differences in demographic characteristics, parental conflict, and nonresidential father involvement between divorcing and unmarried fathers with young children. Participants were 161 families (36 unmarried) with children aged 0 to 6 years, involved in a larger longitudinal study of separating and divorcing families. Baseline data were gathered from parenting plans, court databases, and parent reports. Results indicated that unmarried fathers were younger, more economically disadvantaged, less well educated, less likely to have their children living with them, and had less influence on decision making. Unmarried fathers reported more conflict regarding their attempts to be involved with their children in their day-to-day activities. Understanding these unique characteristics and dynamics will help to maximize effective services in the legal system for unmarried couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Hiroko Iwata. A concept analysis of the role of fatherhood: A japanese perspective. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 2003. 14(4), pp. 297-304.

concept analysis: fatherhood: father role: behavioral dimension: consequential dimension: nursing: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Behavioral Assessment

A concept analysis of the father's role is presented from a Japanese perspective. To conceptualize the term father's role, the process for concept analysis was employed. The analysis resulted in a definition of the term and four defining attributes. Two dimensions of the father's role emerged as being most commonly used or implied: a behavioral dimension and a consequential dimension. Each of these dimensions had another four subcategories in terms of the direction of the consequences: those were to the child, the mother, the family, and the father himself. The findings will assist in instrument development and to a further understanding of the concept that will stimulate nursing theory development and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Gertrude Charlotte Jackson. The effects of marriage, family environment, and child factors on african american men's participation in the social, emotional and moral development of school-age children. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(10), pp. 3728-A.

Black Americans: Fathers: Parent Child Relations: Childrearing Practices: Marital Satisfaction: Home Environment: Psychological Development: Moral Development: Child Development: Age Differences

Despite the increase in fatherhood literature in this country, very little is known about the parent and child relationships of married African American men in intact families: in particular, married African American fathers and school-age children. Since the primary socialization of the child begins in the home and the interpersonal relationships of the immediate family members affect the child's socialization, this study examined the relationships between family environment, marital satisfaction, child's age and gender on the childrearing behaviors of married African American fathers in both early and middle adulthood. Guided by the Afrocentric theory, life course theory and ecological human development theory, the first objective was to determine if differences exist in childrearing behaviors in the social, emotional, and moral development of school age children between African American fathers in early adulthood and African American fathers in middle adulthood. Second, the objective was to determine if family environment, marital satisfaction, and child's age and gender affect childrearing participation of African American fathers in both early and middle adulthood. Finally, the objective was to determine the effects of life experiences occurring on childrearing attitudes and behaviors of African American fathers in early and middle adulthood. A cross-sectional, non-probability, explanatory design was used to examine childrearing behaviors of 100 married African American fathers. Of the 100 participants, six fathers participated in three focus groups. Data were collected from fathers at African American Protestant church sites using self-administered questionnaires and focus groups. Bivariate and multivariate statistics were used for analysis of quantitative data. Categories and themes were used for analysis of qualitative data. Analysis did not support differences in childrearing behaviors between African American fathers in early and middle adulthood. As multiple determinants, family environment, marital satisfaction, and child's age and gender were not predictors of childrearing behaviors in married African American fathers. Findings revealed that educated, employed African American fathers in stable and supportive marital and familial relationships were more likely to have high levels of participation in childrearing.

Jennifer Lee Jackson. African-american adolescent girls and fathers: Paternal contribution to depression, self-efficacy, and religiosity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 64(1), pp. 422-422.

African-American: adolescent girls: middle-class fathers: paternal contribution: depression: self-efficacy: religiosity: daughters experience: paternal closeness: time spent: Daughters: Depression (Emotion): Fathers: Self Efficacy: Blacks: Father Child Relations: Middle Class

This study investigates the relationship between the role of middle-class African American fathers and depression, self-efficacy, and religiosity in adolescent daughters. Beyond examining exclusively paternal presence in the home, this study considers daughter's experience of paternal closeness and amount of time spent by fathers with their daughters. Previous research has not extensively looked at the presence of middle-class African-American fathers and the relationship with their daughters to understand the unique paternal influence. Studies, for the most part, have focused on paternal absence as detrimental to the African American family, without regard to socio-economic status. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 255 African American Adolescent girls ages 12-19, from middle-class families. The sample was obtained from the public-use data set of the North Carolina Adolescent Health study (ADD-Health), which examined the health-related behaviors of adolescents grades 7-12. Measures for the present study were developed from the ADD Health study's WAVE-I In-home interview questions and final construction of the scales used for the present study were based on previously validated depression and religiosity scales. The self-efficacy scale was developed based on previous research and displayed moderate reliability. Results show that, (1) Increased closeness with father, not presence in the home or shared activities with father, is associated with lower depression in adolescent African American girls, (2) Increased closeness with father and paternal presence in the home is positively associated with the adolescent females' future academic goals, and (3) Religiosity in African American girls is not associated with paternal presence, however, frequent church attendance is positively associated with paternal closeness. Implications for further research are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

K. Jackson, B. M. Ternestedt and J. Schollin. From alienation to familiarity: Experiences of mothers and fathers of preterm infants. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2003. 43(2), pp. 120-129.

Background. The birth of a preterm infant has a long-term impact on both parents. Mothers report more stress and poor adjustment compared with fathers. Influencing factors, such as family situation and health status of the child, can support or weaken the coping ability of the parents. Studies on experiences of fathers are sparse. Aim. The aim of this research was to study how mothers and fathers of preterm infants describe their experiences of parenthood during the infant's first 18 months of life. Methods. Seven consecutively selected sets of parents of preterm infants born at less than or equal to34 weeks of gestation with no serious congenital defects were interviewed 1-2 weeks after the infant's birth and at 2, 6 and 18 months of age, and the findings were analysed using a phenomenological method. Findings. Internalization of parenthood was described as a time-dependent process, with four syntheses of experiences - alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. Within the syntheses, similarities in how mothers and fathers described their parental roles involved concern for the child, insecurity, adjustment and relationship with the child. Regarding differences, mothers experienced having more responsibility and control of the care and a need to be confirmed as a mother, while fathers described confidence in leaving the care to the staff and wanted to find a balance between work and family life. Important turning points in parenthood experiences often occurred when the infant could be removed from the incubator, discharged from the ward, and when the infant looked normal compared to full-term infants. Conclusions. The structure of the phenomenon of parenthood was formed by the integration of the syntheses of alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. The structure seems to be based on the parents' expectations of the parental role, the infant's health condition and the health care environment. These interacting factors are influenced by cultural beliefs.

A. S. Jacobs and R. Krawiec. Fathers know best? christian families in the age of asceticism. Journal of Early Christian Studies, 2003. 11(PART 3), pp. 257-264.

S. R. Jaffee, T. E. Moffitt, A. Caspi and A. Taylor. Life with (or without) father: The benefits of living with two biological parents depend on the father's antisocial behavior. Child Development, 2003. 74(1), pp. 109-126.

Children: Conduct disorders: Fathers: Antisocial behaviour

Presents results indicating that the less time fathers live with their children the more conduct problems their children have, but only if the fathers engage in low levels of antisocial behaviour. When fathers engage in high levels of antisocial behaviour, the more time they live with their children, the more conduct problems their children have. Behavioural genetic analyses show that children residing with antisocial fathers receive a 'double whammy' of genetic and environmental risk for conduct problems. (Original abstract - amended).

M. Jaroensutasinee and K. Jaroensutasinee. Type of intruder and reproductive phase influence male territorial defence in wild-caught siamese fighting fish. Behavioural Processes, 2003. 64(1), pp. 23-29.

This study investigated how parental care increases with offspring age by examining the level of male aggressiveness toward potential intruders during egg guarding in a natural population of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). The degree of aggressiveness was measured at two reproductive phases in response to three types of intruders: male, female and females that have laid eggs. The nest-holding males became more aggressive after their eggs hatched than after the eggs were laid. Nest-holding males displayed gill cover erection, biting, tail beating and attacking at the highest rate towards male intruders, intermediate towards female intruders and the least aggressive towards females, which have laid eggs. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jennifer Jenkins M., Jon Rasbash and O,Connor,Thomas,G. The role of the shared family context in differential parenting. Developmental Psychology, 2003. 39(1), pp. 99-113.

This study examined role of shared family context in understanding differential parenting. Findings indicated that child age was the strongest child-specific predictor of positivity and differential positivity. Lower SES, marital dissatisfaction, and larger family size related to higher differential positivity. Children's temperament related to parental negativity and differential negativity, moderated by SES. Mixed-gender sibships in families with marital dissatisfaction and children in single-parent families received highest differential negativity levels. (Author/KB).

David H. Jensen. Playful fathering: The burden and promise of horace bushnell's christian nurture. Fathering, 2003. 1(2), pp. 169-177.

critique of individualism: relational anthropology: mother: protector of hearth & home: oppression: playful fathering: Books: Childhood Play Behavior: Christianity: Father Child Relations: Parenting Style: Anthropology: Fathers: Mothers

Horace Bushnell's Christian Nurture yields both oppressive and liberating strands for a contemporary interpretation of fatherhood. The work's critique of American individualism, its thoroughly relational understanding of human beings, and description of the family as a web of organic connection offer promising lenses for a post-patriarchal understanding of fatherhood. At the same time, Bushnell's relational anthropology is plagued by an understanding of the mother as protector of hearth and home that eventually proves oppressive to all members of the human family. Embedded within its pages, however, lies a potentially illuminating reflection on the significance of playing with children. This emphasis on play might prove helpful in expanding a view of fathering beyond duty and toward delight, grounded in the God of creation who delights in all God's children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Jill B. Jones and Sherry Neil-Urban. Father to father: Focus groups of fathers of children with cancer. Social Work in Health Care, 2003. 37(1), pp. 41-61.

Fathers: Carers: Cancer: Children: Burden: Focus groups

Caring for a child with cancer is a demanding experience for both parents, yet most research focuses on mothers. In this paper, we present the findings of a secondary analysis of data from a study in which the caregiving experience of fathers is investigated. In two focus groups, ten fathers provided first-hand information about caring for a child with cancer and its impact on their families. In addition, the findings demonstrate how these men through sharing a deeply meaningful and challenging experience offered mutual support and caring. This paper describes the fathers' remarkable and unexpected exchange. Social work implications are also addressed. 1 Table, 36 References. COPIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM: HAWORTH DOCUMENT DELIVERY CENTER, The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. (Original abstract - amended).

A. F. Jorm, K. B. G. Dear, B. Rodgers and H. Christensen. Interaction between mother's and father's affection as a risk factor for anxiety and depression symptoms. evidence for increased risk in adults who rate their father as having been more affectionate than their mother. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2003. 38(4), pp. 173-179.

mother's affection: father's affection: risk factors: anxiety: depression: adult offspring: Affection: Major Depression: Parent Child Relations: Fathers: Mothers: Parental Characteristics

Retrospective reports of low care from either parent are found to be associated with increased risk for anxiety and depression in adulthood. Furthermore, fathers are generally reported as having been less caring than mothers, which raises the issue of whether greater care from fathers across the whole population would benefit mental health. A community survey was carried out in Canberra, Australia, with 2,404 adults aged 20-24 and 2,530 aged 40-44. Ss retrospectively reported on affection shown by their parents and on other aspects of family functioning. These data were analyzed in relation to risk for anxiety and depressive symptoms and neuroticism. Retrospective reporting of greater affection from both fathers and mothers was generally associated with fewer anxiety and depression symptoms and lower neuroticism. However, there was a significant interaction effect, such that mental health was worse in families where the father was reported to show a higher level of affection but the mother a lower level. Such families were found to have a range of problems, including higher rates of emotional problems in the parents, conflict in the home, parental separation or divorce, and parental mistreatment. These family problems accounted for much of the interaction effect observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Dominique Joye, Manfred Max Bergman and Paul S. Lambert. Intergenerational educational and social mobility in switzerland. 2003. 29(2), pp. 263-291.

Social Justice: Switzerland: Intergenerational Mobility: Males: Educational Attainment: Social Background: Fathers: Sons: Educational Mobility

Economic efficiency & social justice can be assessed in part through the degree of distribution of social opportunities according to meritocratic principles, rather than to inheritance of advantage. In this sense, we examine the intergenerational social mobility of men in Switzerland based on all available representative data sets in Switzerland. From our analyses of intergenerational mobility based on educational categories, ISCO-88 major groups, & the Goldthorpe class schema, Switzerland can now be included in the list of countries for which information on social mobility as measured by mainstream sociology is available. Substantively, we find that the degree of inheritance of social advantage from fathers to their sons is considerable & similar to that of most other modern societies. Additionally, most results point toward a slight increase in social mobility over time. A careful examination of educational & social stratification across generations leads us to formulate criticisms regarding theoretical propositions & methodological practices of social mobility studies. 13 Tables, 80 References. Adapted from the source document.

Sharon Judge. Determinants of parental stress in families adopting children from eastern europe. Family Relations, 2003. 52(3), pp. 241-248.

Mothers: Fathers: Childrearing Practices: Stress: International Adoption

Sources of variation in parents' assessment of parental stress & the effects of early institutionalization were investigated. Participants included 109 mother-father pairs who adopted children from Eastern Europe. Significant differences between mothers & fathers were obtained on child- & parent-related stress. The direction & magnitude of the differences between parents varied by the individual scale. Results indicated that children's behavior problems were highly associated with parenting stress for both mothers & fathers. 5 Tables, 45 References. Adapted from the source document.

B. Kalicki. The significance of subjective concepts of parenthood for educational behavior and parental partnership. Zeitschrift Fur Padagogik, 2003. 49(4), pp. 499-512.

The construct Of subjective concepts of parenthood, conceived as the personal interpretation of maternal or paternal responsibility, is outlined and distinguished from related theoretical concepts. The relation of subjective concepts of parenthood with the parents' actual educational behavior and questions of its development and specific modifiability are discussed against the background of available theoretical models and empirical findings. Finally, possibilities to apply these concepts in parctice are considered and some educational programs are sketched.

T. Kelsall. Michael schatzberg, political legitimacy in middle africa: Father, family, food. African Affairs -London- Royal African Society-, 2003. 102(NUMB 409), pp. 667-668.

Y. M. Kim, F. Putjuk, E. Basuki and A. Kols. Increasing patient participation in reproductive health consultations: An evaluation of "smart patient" coaching in indonesia. Patient Education and Counseling, 2003. 50(2), pp. 113-122.

Paternalistic models of health care, social distance between patients and providers, and cultural norms discourage patients from playing an active role in health consultations. This study tested whether individual coaching can give family planning patients the confidence and communication skills to talk more openly and more vigorously with providers. Educators met with 384 Indonesian women in clinic waiting rooms and coached them on asking questions, expressing concerns, and seeking clarification. An analysis of audiotaped consultations found that patients who received coaching articulated significantly more questions and concerns than others. Coaching narrowed differentials in active communication by patient type, age, and assertiveness, but it widened differentials by patient education and socioeconomic class. The discontinuation rate at 8 months was lower in the intervention than the control condition, but the difference was only marginally significant. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Valarie King. The influene of religion on fathers' relationships with their children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 2003. 65(2), pp. 382-395.

Fathers: Religiosity: Parent Child Relations: United States of America

This study explores how aspects of a father's religiousness are related to the type & quality of involvement with his children. Factors that potentially confound or explain the connection between religiousness & fathering are also examined. Multiple measures of religiousness & father-child ties are considered in a series of bivariate & multivariate regression models. The sample of 810 fathers comes from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS). Results indicate that religious fathers are more involved fathers & that they report higher quality relationships; this is true for both married & divorced fathers. The greater involvement of religious fathers is explained only in part by demographic factors & the mediating influences of traditional attitudes & marital quality. 1 Table, 1 Appendix, 66 References. Adapted from the source document.

Ulla Kinnunen, Ad Vermulst, Jan Gerris and Anne Mäkikangas. Work-family conflict and its relations to well-being: The role of personality as a moderating factor. Personality and Individual Differences, 2003. 35(7), pp. 1669-1683.

marital satisfaction: emotional stability: personality dimensions: general well-being: moderating effects: family research: work-family conflict: Family Work Relationship: Personality Correlates: Well Being: Family Conflict: Fathers: Personality Measures

The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the Big Five personality dimensions as possible moderating factors between two types of work-family conflicts: work interference with family (WIF); and family interference with work (FIW); and their relationship to well-being in the domains of work and family generally as well. The participants were fathers (n = 296) who took part in a national family research project in the Netherlands in 1995. All fathers were employed full-time. The results showed that emotional stability moderated the relationships between WIF and job exhaustion and between WIF and depression. In addition, agreeableness moderated the relationship between FIW and marital satisfaction. Consequently, emotionally stable fathers were protected from negative effects of WIF on well-being at work (job exhaustion) and on general well-being (depression). In the same way, agreeable fathers were protected from negative effects of FIW on marital satisfaction. Besides these moderating effects, both WIF and FIW and emotional stability and agreeableness had main effects on well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Julia Franziska Klausli. Processes that link marriage and parenting for fathers and mothers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 64(4), pp. 1926-1926.

parent child relationship: marriage relationship: parenting behaviors: father daughter relationship: parental characteristics: father son relationship: child care: Father Child Relations: Marital Relations: Marriage: Mother Child Relations: Fathers: Mothers

The current study investigated relations between positive and negative behaviors in marriage and parenting behaviors for fathers and mothers. Processes that link observed behaviors in a marital interaction with parenting behaviors were assessed like the spill-over hypothesis stating that aspects of marriage spill-over into the parent-child relationship and like the common-factor hypothesis stating that parental characteristics determine both the marriage as well as the parent-child relationship. Past research studies have mostly assessed the marriage relationship using general self-report measures but not considering specific observed behaviors. 65 families that are part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care participated in the current study. Observational measures were used to assess marriage behaviors such as supportive communication, positive affect, cohesiveness, withdrawal or negativity as well as parents' positive caregiving and stimulation towards their child. Both parents' supportive communication and cohesiveness in marriage were related to parents' positive caregiving and stimulation of their children. Positive affect in marriage predicted more positive caregiving and stimulation for mothers. Child gender moderated the relation between marital interactions and fathers' quality of parenting with the father-daughter relationship being more closely associated with marriage than the father-son relationship. Fathers who withdrew from the marriage relationship tended to be less positive towards their daughters but not towards their sons. Also supportive communication was positively related to fathers' positive caregiving of their daughters but not of their sons. The current study found evidence for both the spill-over and the common-factor hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

D. T. Kline. Bullon-fernandez, maria, fathers and daughters in gower's "confessio amantis": Authority, family, state, and writing. Speculum -Massachusetts-, 2003. 78(PART 2), pp. 472-473.

Ariel Knafo. Authoritarians, the next generation: Values and bullying among adolescent children of authoritarian fathers. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy (ASAP), 2003. 3(1), pp. 199-204.

authoritarian fathers: adolescent children: power values: authoritarian parenting: bullying behaviors: conformity values: power: tradition: self direction values: universalism values: Israeli fathers: Adolescent Development: Authoritarianism: Parenting Style: Values: Bullying: Fathers

The author comments on an article by Altemeyer (2003). The implications of authoritarianism to social phenomena are extended to the values and bullying behaviors of adolescent children of authoritarian fathers. Eighty-two authoritarian and 252 nonauthoritarian Israeli fathers participated with their adolescent children. Authoritarian fathers expected their children to give high importance to power, tradition, and conformity values and lower-than-average importance to benevolence, universalism, and self-direction values. In comparison with offspring of nonauthoritarian fathers, offspring of authoritarian fathers gave more importance to power values and less importance to universalism values. Offspring of authoritarian fathers also tended to associate more with bully friends. The combination of high adolescent power values and their fathers' authoritarian parenting was associated with the highest degrees of bullying by adolescents. The social implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Erica Alethea Kovacs. Individual and familial predictors of multiple dimensions of fathers' parenting. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 64(5), pp. 2441-2441.

psychosocial factors: stressful life events: marital satisfaction: fathers parenting: warmth: rejection: involvement: discipline: depression: education level: income level: Educational Attainment Level: Fathers: Parenting Skills: Child Discipline: Depression (Emotion): Parent Child Relations: Social Acceptance

Fathers are typically underrepresented in research on parenting and parental effects on children. Additionally, little is known about the determinants of fathers' parenting. This study investigated multiple determinants of several dimensions of fathers' parenting in a community sample of 80 two-parent families with a child between 8 to 11 years of age. Fathers' parenting dimensions of warmth, rejection, consistency of discipline, involvement, and time spent were assessed using multiple measures, including both observational and questionnaire measures. Child factors (age, gender), maternal and paternal psychosocial factors (education, depression, history of problems, marital satisfaction) and family psychosocial factors (stressful life events, income) were examined as predictors of a variety of dimensions of fathers' parenting using cross-sectional data. Predictors that consistently predicted parenting were tested simultaneously using multiple regression. Little evidence for the prediction of parenting by child factors was found. More consistent support was found for the prediction of parenting by individual psychosocial factors. Identical analyses for parenting by mothers were also conducted. Findings have potential implications for understanding factors that uniquely relate to fathers' parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Edythe M. Krampe. The inner father. Fathering, 2003. 1(2), pp. 131-148.

inner experience: father presence: father child bond: symbolic structure: sense of father: introjection: object relations: ethological attachment theory: analytic psychology: cultural anthropology: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Psychodynamics: Theories: Anthropology: Attachment Behavior: Jungian Psychology

In this article, I explore the inner experience of the father and father presence and offer a new interpretation of the son's or daughter's bond with his/her father. I first delineate the subjective inner world and the role of symbols in it. I then describe the elements of this world, particularly as they pertain to the inner father. I draw from object relations theory, Bowlby's ethological attachment theory, analytic psychology, and cultural anthropology to hypothesize the existence of the inner father, an innate symbolic structure in the psyche, which I refer to as the sense of father. The inner father is also made up of introjected material from actual experience with the personal father. I explicate how the inner father and the introjected father contribute to the father image, an intrapsychic phenomenon similar to Bowlby's internal working model. Fatherlessness is also addressed at the personal, social psychological, and societal levels. The significance of the inner father for practitioners is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Ambika Krishnakumar and Maureen M. Black. Family processes within three-generation households and adolescent mothers' satisfaction with father involvement. Journal of Family Psychology, 2003. 17(4), pp. 488-498.

family processes: three-generation households: satisfaction: adolescent mothers: attitudes: father involvement: family systems perspective: grandmothers: African Americans: Adolescent Attitudes: Family Relations: Father Child Relations: Intergenerational Relations: Blacks: Family Systems Theory: Fathers: Grandparents: Involvement: Parental Investment

This investigation used a family systems perspective to examine how family dynamics within 3-generation households were associated with mothers' satisfaction with father involvement. The participants were low-income African American adolescent mothers (n=148) and grandmothers recruited at delivery and followed over 6 months. The overall model explained 68% of the variance in satisfaction with father involvement. Fathers who were involved with caregiving activities had positive relationships with adolescent mothers and grandmothers. Grandmothers served as gatekeepers; when grandmothers reported positive relationships with the 2 young parents, adolescent mothers reported positive relationships with their male partners. Mothers who reported positive partner relationships also reported high parenting efficacy and satisfaction with father involvement. Efforts to increase paternal involvement should focus on role clarification for grandmothers and fathers and on parenting activities for mothers and fathers, regardless of their romantic relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Claudette Lafond. Meurtre du père en question. Revue Française De Psychanalyse, 2003. 67(5), pp. 1609-1617.

power struggles: paternal penis: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Penis: Power

Struggles for power are born of the psychic conflictuality surrounding desire for the paternal penis. They are resolved differently according to the difference of the sexes. Medea's desperate solution resides in sadism, to the point of murdering her children following her shame at being abandoned and her rage at losing the object of desire. The solution found by the brothers in the primitive horde lies in a "totemisation" via guilt. The paternal penis is the stake of this whole fantasmatic theatrical situation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Martine Lamour and Paulette Letronnier. Prevention of fatherhood disorders--accompanying early father-child interaction in day-care centers. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 2003. 18(2), pp. 191-210.

research-action-training program: day-care centers: father-child interaction: public health service: preventive approach: child protection: young children: fatherhoood disorders: Child Day Care: Day Care Centers: Father Child Relations: Prevention: Public Health Services: Disorders: Educational Programs: Fathers

Over the last fifteen years, increasing numbers of fathers have been attending medical or day-care centers for young children, traditionally "reserved" for mothers and babies. Thus the professionals who work there are able to take an active part in the "co-construction of the fathers" by accompanying their emerging fatherhood. The Research-Action-Training approach used in partnership with the public health service ("Mother and Child Protection" in Paris) has proven to be a particularly interesting tool for modifying the routine found in day-care centers. Through the transfer of knowledge on fatherhood processes and new triadic models, it has led to improvements in the manner fathers are welcome but also babies and the whole family. The preventive approach taken with disturbed father-baby relationships and fatherhood disorders will be illustrated by short clinical examples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

M. Laucht. The role of fathers in developmental pyschopathology. Zeitschrift Fur Klinische Psychologie Und Psychotherapie, 2003. 32(3), pp. 235-242.

Background: The significance of the mother child relationship for child maladjustment has been discussed intensely. The role of fathers in child psychopathology, however, has remained unclear. Objective: To draw attention to this research deficit and to indicate how to compensate for it. Method: In a literature survey the significance of the father child relationship is outlined from a developmental psychopathology perspective. Results: While research on fathers and normal child development has made considerable progress the study of the role of fathers in maladjustment and psychopathology in their children has just begun. Evidence thus far suggests that including the father perspective can contribute significantly to a better understanding of the onset and course of child psychopathology. Conclusions: The integration of research on fathers into developmental psychopathology is an important research desideratum.

Manfred Laucht. Die rolle der väter in der entwicklungspsychopathologie. Zeitschrift Für Klinische Psychologie Und Psychotherapie: Forschung Und Praxis, 2003. 32(3), pp. 235-242.

paternal role: developmental psychopathology: child development: father-child relationship: Childhood Development: Developmental Psychology: Fathers: Parent Child Relations: Psychopathology

Background: The significance of the mother-child relationship for child maladjustment has been discussed intensely. The role of fathers in child psychopathology, however, has remained unclear. Objective: To draw attention to this research deficit and to indicate how to compensate for it. Method: In a literature survey the significance of the father-child relationship is outlined from a developmental psychopathology perspective. Results: While research on fathers and normal child development has made considerable progress the study of the role of fathers in maladjustment and psychopathology in their children has just begun. Evidence thus far suggests that including the father perspective can contribute significantly to a better understanding of the onset and course of child psychopathology. Conclusions: The integration of research on father into developmental psychopathology is an important research desideratum. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Ruth Lax. The daughter's seduction by her father is her enticement into the oedipal phase. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 2003. 51(4), pp. 1305-1309.

daughter: father: seduction: oedipal phase: mother: love: Sigmund Frued: psychoanalytic theory: father's active role: mother-daughter bond: Demeter-Persephone myth: Daughters: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Oedipal Complex: Drama: Freud (Sigmund): Mother Child Relations: Mothers: Myths

Notes that the following is the well-known and generally accepted classical Freudian version of the beginning of the girl's oedipal drama: Angry and bitter that her mother deprived her of a penis, the girl turns to her father, bestowing on him the love she has withdrawn from her mother. She does so hoping that her father will provide what her mother withheld. Consciously and unconsciously the girl fantasizes that her father will fulfill her wishes by giving her a penis, and that later he'll give her a baby. In this article, the author presents a position that differs radically from the classical Freudian view. Its significance rests on the fact that it is based on Freud's own statements that have not been repudiated by him. The author emphasizes the father's active role in the girl's "turn from the mother." The author uses the Demeter-Persephone story as a mythical illustration that contradicts a long-held dogma of analytic theory by stressing the father's active role in the disruption of the mother-daughter bond. It is argued that the Demeter-Persephone myth reverberates with the girl's developmental phases to a much greater extent than do the vicissitudes of Oedipus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

J. W. Leavitt. What do men have to do with it? fathers and mid-twentieth-century childbirth. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 2003. 77(2), pp. 235-262.

This article addresses the role of fathers during the births of their children, focusing on the United States in the mid-twentieth century when childbirth was a highly medicalized, in-hospital experience for the large majority of American women. It puts this period into the perspective of changing birth practices over time, and, using sources rich in the voices of all birth participants, especially the fathers-to-be, traces some significant changes in hospital practices. Specifically examined are men's feelings and activities while their wives were in labor and delivery, and their participation in decisions about labor induction, anesthesia, and cesarean section. In contrast to earlier writings of the author, this essay puts men at the center of some of the changes identified.

Marceline Lee, Lynne Vernon-Feagans, Arcel Vazquez and Amy Kolak. The influence of family environment and child temperament on Work/Family role strain for mothers and fathers. Infant and Child Development, 2003. 12(5), pp. 421-439.

daily hassles: work-family role strain: dual earners: family environment: child characteristics: family expressiveness: child sociability: child temperament: family conflict: mothers: fathers: Childrearing Practices: Daily Activities: Family Relations: Family Work Relationship: Role Conflicts: Personality Correlates: Personality

This study examined the additive effect of structural variables, child characteristics, and the family environment on mothers' and fathers' work/family role strain. Differences between mothers and fathers on these variables were also examined. The sample consisted of 36 dualearner families whose children had been in daycare from infancy through 4 years of age. Structural variables included work schedules and time spent with child for mothers only, fathers only, and both parents together with child. Child characteristics included temperament and health. Family environment variables included different components of the family environment (conflict, cohesion, expressiveness, organization, and control) and parenting daily hassles. Results showed that mothers' time with child and caregiving for child were greater than fathers'. Mothers reported more expressiveness in the family and more daily hassles with children than fathers. Mothers' level of role strain was also significantly higher than fathers'. For mothers, role strain was associated with hours away from home, child sociability, family conflict, and daily hassles. Fathers' role strain was associated with family expressiveness, organization, and their wives' daily hassles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Paul Legler and Studies Inc Policy. Low-income fathers and child support: Starting off on the right track. final report. 2003. pp. 61.

The child support reform provisions within the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) have been markedly successful in improving child support enforcement efforts. Child support is an important part of the mix of supports necessary to assist welfare recipients to make the transition to work and self- sufficiency. Now, post-PRWORA, there is a greater focus on the low income fathers who are expected to pay child support. This report examines the treatment of low income fathers in the child support system in the United States and how the system could be improved. It suggests that the time of establishment of the child support order and shortly thereafter is the key time for the child support agency to establish a more positive relationship with low income fathers. Improving this "up front" process could increase both financial and emotional support for children. The report analyzes default order practices, examines best state practices, and reviews and analyzes selected international practices. It includes recommendations for child support programs, state legislative action, and federal action. The analysis concludes that three changes to the child support system are of particular importance: reducing the proportion of orders entered by default, setting realistic child support orders at the outset, and making adjustments to orders to reflect changes in circumstances. (Contains 16 references.) (SM).

Jenni A. Leinonen, Tytti S. Solantaus and Raija-Leena Punamäki. Social support and the quality of parenting under economic pressure and workload in finland: The role of family structure and parental gender. Journal of Family Psychology, 2003. 17(3), pp. 409-418.

economic pressure: social support: family structure: parental gender: workload: parenting quality: instrumental support: punitive parenting: Finland: emotional support: authoritative parenting: Family Socioeconomic Level: Parenting Skills: Punishment: Stress: Work Load: Assistance (Social Behavior): Fathers: Human Sex Differences: Mothers: Parental Permissiveness

This study focused on how factors outside the home affect the quality of mothering and fathering. Economic pressure and workload were evaluated along with the compensating role of social support on parenting. Information was gathered from 842 mothers and 573 fathers including 139 single-mother and 21 single-father families. The results showed that the nature of the strains, together with parental gender and family structure, influenced their effects on parenting. The results further revealed some gender- and strain-specific protective functions of social support on parenting. For example, economic pressure was related to increased punitive parenting, which was compensated by instrumental and emotional support among the mothers. Workload was related to less authoritative single fathering, which was compensated by instrumental support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Bethany L. Letiecq and Sally A. Koblinsky. African-american fathering of young children in violent neighborhoods: Paternal protective strategies and their predictors. Fathering, 2003. 1(3), pp. 215-237.

African-American fathering: young children: violent neighborhoods: paternal protective strategies: community violence: Blacks: Childrearing Practices: Fathers: Neighborhoods: Violence

Using an ecological framework, this study investigated African- American fathers' use of five protective strategies to keep their preschool children safe from community violence. Father, child, and contextual predictors of fathers' protective strategies were also examined. In-depth interviews with 61 African-American Head Start fathers and father figures revealed that participants were most likely to adopt the strategy of monitoring and teaching personal safety, followed by teaching neighborhood survival tactics, reducing exposure to violent media, engaging in community activism, and instructing children to fight back. Overall, parenting practices, social support, and psychological functioning were the best predictors of these strategies, with one exception. Child's gender was the best predictor of the strategy "reduce exposure to violent media," with fathers of sons more likely to limit such exposure. Implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Tessa J. Leverton. Parental psychiatric illness: The implications for children. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 2003. 16(4), pp. 395-402.

parental psychatric illness: children: adverse outcomes: psychiatric disorders: behavioral difficulty: risk factors: father roles: Childhood Development: Mental Disorders: Parent Child Relations: Parental Characteristics: Psychiatric Patients: Fathers

Purpose of review: In the UK recent guidance from the Department of Health and the Royal College of Psychiatrists has stressed the need for patients who are also parents to be recognized and offered appropriate services. There is now extensive literature on the links between parental mental illness and adverse outcomes for children. Adverse outcomes include not only psychiatric disorders, but also cognitive, emotional, social and behavioural difficulties. This review considers recent contributions of relevance to clinicians, researchers and policymakers. Recent findings: In addition to continuing work describing the links between specific parental mental illness and problems for children, recent research has focused more on possible mechanisms to explain these findings. In the past year some outstanding papers on parenting styles and the contribution of fathers have been published. Summary: Despite a large evidence base we need further research to clarify the ways in which parental mental illness impacts on children, specific risk (and protective factors) and the role of fathers. We need to know more about the reciprocal relationship between parents and children. As yet we have little specific information from the child's perspective: perception of their parent's illness... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

C. Lewis and M. E. Lamb. Fathers' influences on children's development: The evidence from two-parent families. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 2003. 18(2), pp. 211-228.

Although it is often assumed that men have an important influence on their children's development, the supportive evidence can be difficult to locate and summarize. In this paper, we analyse the evidence with respect to four emergent themes. First, men often appear to interact with their children less sensitively than mothers do, and many children thus appear to form closer attachments to their mothers than to their fathers. Second, the data also indicate that fathers may play specific and important roles, with men in some cultures having clearly defined roles as playmates to their children. Third, paternal play styles predict later socio-emotional development while paternal involvement seems to predict adult adjustment better than maternal involvement does. Such evidence suggests, fourth, that we need appropriate measures of fatherhood that are not simply borrowed from the study of motherhood.

Assistance Center Literacy. Perspectives on family literacy. 2003. pp. 57.

This joint publication of the journals of the Literacy Assistance Center (LAC) and the National Even Start Association (NESA) focuses on innovative practices and theory in family literacy education, offers an array of perspectives to members of the literacy community, and critically examines some assumptions about literacy in general, as well as the roles of specific family members within the family literacy framework. The articles are as follows: "From the Editors: Perspectives on Family Literacy" (Marguerite Lukes, Claudia M. Ullman) ; "Reflecting Culture in Reflective Practice: How Literacy Professionals Improve Family Outcomes by Learning Across Cultures" (Martha Kamber, Norma Tan); "Making Connections: Using Narrative and Journal Writing in a Holistic Literary Enhancement Program for Incarcerated Mothers" (Joan Ports); "Digital Family Stories: Using Video Projects to Improve Family Literacy" (Gloria Nudelman, Lua Hadar); "'The Good Mother': Exploring Mothering Discourses in Family Literacy Texts" (Suzanne Smythe, Janet Isserlis); "Involving Fathers in Family Literacy: Outcomes and Insights from the Fathers Reading Every Day Program" (Stephen Green); "Literacy for the Littlest: Sharing Books with Babies and Toddlers" (Laurie Danahy, Jennifer Olson); "Designer Literacy: Reading the Labels" (Elsa Auerbach). The document concludes with NESA and LAC announcements. All articles contain references and some contain figures and tables. (MO).

T. F. Locke and M. D. Newcomb. Gender differences and psychosocial factors associated with alcohol involvement and dysphoria in adolescence. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 2003. 12(3), pp. 45-70.

Correlations between Alcohol Involvement, Dysphoria, and their combined effects, with Social Conformity, Perceived Opportunity, Relationship Satisfaction, parental divorce, and Family Support/Bonding were examined with Structural Equation Modeling in a community sample of late adolescents (males =290, females = 606). Results revealed gender differences between Alcohol Involvement and Dysphoria. Girls had an affectively-involved style of alcohol use that was reflected in a second-order construct, while Alcohol Involvement and Dysphoria were unrelated for teenage boys. Boys had a stronger association between Alcohol Involvement and less Family Support/Bonding than girls. Less satisfaction with opposite sex friends was related to more Alcohol Involvement for boys and more Dysphoria for girls. (C) 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Terry Lugaila A. and Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC Economics and,Statistics Administration. A child's day: 2000 (selected indicators of child well-being). household economic studies. currect population reports. 2003. pp. 21.

This report is the second based on data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) providing a portrait of the well-being of children and their daily activities. The report highlights a variety of indicators that portray children's experiences at home and at school, and includes findings about parents' feelings toward their children and a comparison of children from one- and two-parent families. The statistics are based on data collected in the child well-being module of the 1996 SIPP panel, administered from December 1999 through March 2000 to 10,445 designated parents and their 19,411 children. Indicators examined in this report relate to: (1) daily interactions (children never living away from home, mealtimes shared, daily interaction with fathers, praising/talking to child, reading interaction, family television rules, and family outings); (2) extracurricular activity participation (clubs, sports, and lessons); (3) academic achievement (academically on-track, gifted class enrollment, changing schools, grade repetition, suspension); (4) educational expectations for children; and (5) parents' feelings toward their children (such as child taking up more time than expected and parent anger with child). Among the major findings are that relative to children living with a single parent, children living with married parents tended to have more daily interaction with their parents, experienced more television viewing restrictions, were read to more often, were more likely to participate in extracurricular activities, and progressed more steadily in school. Parents' educational attainment was positively related to reading to children, television rules, child extracurricular activity participation, gifted class enrollment, and expected child educational attainment; educational attainment was negatively related to grade repetition and suspension. Parents' feelings toward their children related to parent age, marital status, poverty status, number of children, and race /ethnicity. (KB).

Brenda L. Lundy. Father- and mother-infant face-to-face interactions: Differences in mind-related comments and infant attachment? Infant Behavior & Development, 2003. 26(2), pp. 200-212.

mind-mindedness: infant-father attachment: attachment security: parent perspective-taking: father-infant relations: attachment: Attachment Behavior: Childrearing Practices: Father Child Relations: Mother Child Relations: Fathers: Mothers

The present research explored the relations among fathers' and mothers' appropriate mind-related comments during interactions with their 6-month-old infants, and subsequent infant attachment security. More frequent occurrences of mind-related comments were expected to predict frequency of synchrony which, in turn, was expected to predict attachment security. For both mothers and fathers, frequency of interactional synchrony was found to mediate the relation between mind-related comments and attachment security. Results are discussed in terms of children's future perspective-taking skills, friendships and social adaptation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Wade C. Mackey. The evolutionary value of the man (to) child affiliative bond: Closer to obligate than to facultative. 2003. pp. 305-336.

man child affiliative bond: biological father: social father: evolution: rape: child development: well being: Childhood Development: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Theory of Evolution

Notes the value of the ongoing social father to the well-being of the developing child and maintains that rape is a phenomenon that effectively precludes the biological father from being the ongoing social father. First, the argument is presented that there does exist, in fact, a man (to) child affiliative bond that is independent of the man-woman bond and of the woman (to) child bond. Second, the recent social experiment, in parts of the industrialized world, of abrading or excluding the father from the mother-child dyad is analyzed in terms of the consequences for the commonweal across generations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter).

Wade C. Mackey and Ronald S. Immerman. The father(to)child affiliative bond: Convergent evolution with the canid analogue. 2003. 50(1-2), pp. 42-57.

Animal behavior: Fathers: Children & youth: Families & family life: Monkeys & apes: Comparative analysis

Primate homologues, especially from the African great apes, can usually be successfully utilized to form comparisons with the human condition. However, the man(to)child pair-bond is not paralleled by any terrestrial primate nor even many mammals. Hence, knowledge of primate behavior would not be predictive of the pan-human social father. It is suggested that female choices of mating partners shifted in the direction of a canid analogue in that men's motivations to share resources with the female and to exhibit paternalistic behaviors were positively selected. Accordingly, it is argued that, for humans, convergent evolution occurred which trended toward the canid template. Consequently, it would be predicted that, compared to other terrestrial primates, the neuro-hormonal basis for the mother-child affiliative bond would be similar, but the basis for man(to)child affiliative bond would be dissimilar. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT].

Svend Aage Madsen. Fa/edrene i tilknytningsforskningen. Psyke & Logos, 2003. 24(2), pp. 559-572.

attachment patterns: fathers: male caregiving models: secure autonomous category: Attachment Behavior: Caregivers: Father Child Relations: Models

Discusses research that shows children can have different attachment patterns with their father and mother. It has been shown that fathers and mothers in a representative population are equally able to form a secure base for their children; 60% of both men and women belong to the category "Secure/Autonomous" when measured by the Adult Attachment Interview. A Danish study on fathers' attachment to their infants shows that men's working models of care giving for their infants stem from their relationships with their own mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

P. Malinen. Like father like son? growth strategies of small finnish family businesses. World Conference- International Council for Small Business, 2003. (NUMB 48), pp. 94.

ICSB: Small business

Wendy D. Manning, Pamela J. Smock and Susan D. Stewart. The complexity of fathers' parenting responsibilities and involvementwith nonresident children. Journal of Family Issues, 2003. 24(5), pp. 645-667.

Noncustodial fathers: Parent-Child relationships: Child rearing: USA: Involvement

Most policies that legislate father involvement with nonresident children treat men as if they have obligations to only one set of children. This paper describes the complexity of nonresident fathers' parenting circumstances and assesses whether and how parenting configurations are associated with the fathers' involvement with nonresident children. We find that nonresident fathers often have parenting obligations within and outside their current residences, and that the complexity of these obligations may result in less economic support to and visitation with nonresident children. Our results suggest that new policy efforts need to recognize the complexity of nonresident fathers' family ties. 4 Tables, 36 References. [Copyright 2003 Sage Publications, Inc.].

Jennifer F. Marchand and Ellen Hock. Mothers' and father's depressive symptoms and conflict-resolution strategies in the marriage and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 2003. 164(2), pp. 227-239.

mother & father avoidance & attacking conflict-resolution strategies: depressive symptoms: externalizing vs internalizing child behaviors: Conflict Resolution: Depression (Emotion): Family Relations: Marital Conflict: Personality Processes: Avoidance: Coping Behavior: Externalization: Fathers: Internalization: Mothers: Psychosocial Development

The authors examined mothers' and fathers' avoidance and attacking conflict-resolution strategies in the marriage and their depressive symptoms as they related to children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. A nonclinical community sample of 51 families and their children's 1st-grade teachers (N=41) participated. Both mothers and teachers completed a behavior-problem checklist in order to evaluate the incidence of internalizing and externalizing behaviors in the children. Correlational statistics revealed significant associations between parents' avoidance and attacking strategies and their depressive symptoms. Also, parents' use of avoidance was related to more internalizing behaviors in the children. When hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine the contributions of the parents' attributes to children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors, mothers' avoidance and an interaction between mothers' and fathers' avoidance were identified as significant predictors of children's internalizing behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Patricia Sue Ashbaugh Martin. Ethnic identity formation in biracial children: The father's perspective. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(12), pp. 4487-A.

Biraciality: Fathers: Parent Child Relations: Ethnic Identity: Intermarriage: Childrearing Practices

Social scientists and practitioners agree that the influence fathers have on their children's development is complex, multifaceted and varies across subculture. This study focused on the fathers of Black/White interracial families. Specifically, the purpose was to more fully understand (a) how fathers in interracial families define their role in the ethnic identity formation process for their children; (b) what specific parental practices fathers report in regards to the ethnic identity process for their children; and (c) what fathers think about the role of others (e.g., family, friends, role models) in this process. A qualitative research approach, which lends itself to the exploration of new topics, was used. Fourteen fathers of Black/White biracial children were interviewed. Results indicated that fathers were highly involved in their children's lives and very intentional in their parenting practices. When compared with research findings regarding practices that support ethnic identity formation in biracial children, however, their parenting practices fell short. The need for education and support for parents of biracial children on supporting identity development was evident.

M. McCormack. `Married men and the fathers of families': Fatherhood and franchise reform in britain. 2003. pp. 43-54.

Fatherhood: Fathers: Sex role: Father figures

David J. McDowell, Ross D. Parke and Shirley J. Wang. Differences between mothers' and fathers' advice-giving style and content: Relations with social competence and psychological functioning in middle childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 2003. 49(1), pp. 55-76.

mothers: fathers: advice-giving style: advice content: social competence: psychological functioning: middle childhood: loneliness: depression: Assistance (Social Behavior): Mental Health: Parent Child Communication: Psychosocial Development: Social Skills: Childhood Development: Competence: Depression (Emotion): Peer Relations

The current study examined the relation between mothers' and fathers' advice-giving style and content and children's social competence and psychosocial functioning at a single time point and across a 1-yr period. 58 3rd-grade children (50% Euro American, 40% Latina, and 10% African American, Asian American, or other) participated at Time 1 in this short-term longitudinal study. At Time 2, 46 of these children participated. Parental advice-giving style predicted social competence concurrently and 1 yr later above and beyond content. In addition, results also indicate that fathers' advice giving predicted peer and teacher ratings of social competence over and above mothers' advice giving both concurrently and 1 yr later. Parental advice-giving style was also related to children's psychosocial functioning as measured by self-reports of loneliness and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

James P. McHale, Kathryn C. Kavanaugh and Julia M. Berkman. Sensitivity to infants' cues: As much a mandate for researchers as for parents. 2003. pp. 91-108.

infant negative emotionality: infant colic: infant temperament: maternal well being: maternal behavior: parental behavior: emotion regulation: researchers: attention to infant signals: Crying: Cues: Emotionality (Personality): Infant Development: Mother Child Relations: Developmental Psychology: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Marital Relations: Mothers: Personality: Well Being

In this chapter, the authors augment several points made by S. Crockenberg and E. Leerkes (see record 2003-02704-005) and by other contributors to this volume. The following points are addressed: (1) Researchers need to pay closer attention to what it is that babies are signaling; (2) Without understanding infants' signals, how well are we estimating sensitivity? (3) Infant behavior can exert its effects by serving a regulatory function in the family; and (4) Child effects occur in complex family systems containing multiple others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter).

Thomas J. McMahon and Francis D. Giannini. Substance-abusing fathers in family court: Moving from popular stereotypes to therapeutic jurisprudence. Family Court Review, 2003. 41(3), pp. 337-353.

fathers: family relations: substance abuse: family court settings: stereotyping: therapeutic jurisprudence: treatment: developmental outcomes: Adjudication: Alcohol Abuse: Drug Abuse: Father Child Relations: Childhood Development: Court Referrals: Drug Rehabilitation: Legal Processes: Stereotyped Attitudes

Although all forms of substance abuse disproportionately affect men during early to middle adulthood, when many are fathering children, the status of substance-abusing men as parents is largely ignored in public policy, service delivery, and research exploring the consequences of chronic drug and alcohol abuse. In this review, the authors highlight issues of potential concern to professionals working with this poorly understood, negatively stereotyped population of fathers in family court settings. After reviewing the existing literature on substance-abusing fathers and their children, the authors challenge family court personnel to use (a) awareness of stereotyping, (b) clinical assessment, (c) the principles of therapeutic jurisprudence, and (d) treatment resources to minimize, as much as possible, the risk for poor developmental outcomes incurred by children with a substance-abusing father. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Bettina Meissner. Las meninas of velázquez--pater semper incertus. 2003. pp. 241-255.

father son relationship: Las Meninas: art: artists: psychoanalytic interpretation: art history: Father Child Relations: Fathers: History

Incorporating post-Renaissance art, emphasis on the father-son relationship continues. Aspects of this relationship are crucial to Dr. Bettina Meissner's discourse on Las Meninas, as she analyzes Velázquez's relationship, both real and fantasied, with King Philip IV, a father figure, considering both psychological and historical-cultural issues. The artist is identified with royalty in the power of his art and creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter).

Sue Falter Mennino. Dads in the workplace: How men juggle jobs and kids. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 64(3), pp. 1095-A.

Working Men: Family Work Relationship: Sex: Fathers: United States of America: United Kingdom: Australia: Canada

Balancing the responsibilities of a job and a family is a critical problem for many people in contemporary society. One of the central questions researchers ask is, what job trade-offs do women make to help them balance jobs and children? The purpose of this study is to extend that question to men. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected from fathers in the United States, Canada, and Australia, I investigated how gender as a social structure influences the job trade-offs fathers make as they juggle the responsibilities of their jobs and their children. I recruited study participants through fathering web sites on the Internet and collected data via an on-line survey and standardized follow-up e-mail interviews. A content analysis of the fathering web sites reveals that web sites in the United States reflect the underlying assumption that job-family issues are a dilemma for individual fathers whereas web sites in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom address job-family balance as a social issue as well as an individual problem. Analysis of the survey and interview data show that fathers make career trade-offs as well as everyday job accommodations to be involved with their children. Fathers cite time, travel considerations, and flexible workplace conditions as primary reasons for changing jobs and declining promotions. Logistic regression and Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses of the survey results reveal that working long hours, having a male-dominated job, flexible working conditions, the ages of his children, his attitude toward gendered behavior, his education, his religion, and his level of involvement affect the type of job accommodations a father makes as well as the magnitude of job-family juggling he does. More importantly, my research also provides evidence that gender as a social structure constrains fathers' behaviors. For example, fathers receive encouragement and support when they are somewhat involved with their children, but disapproval and skepticism when they assume primary caregiving responsibility for their children. In addition, there are contradictory ideological assumptions regarding gender and caregiving, for example, fathers and mothers have the same caregiving capabilities but, at the same time, fathers and mothers have different caregiving responsibilities.

R. L. Metsapelto and L. Pulkkinen. Personality traits and parenting: Neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience as discriminative factors. European Journal of Personality, 2003. 17(1), pp. 59-78.

This study used variable- and person-oriented approaches to examine the relationship between personality traits (at age 33) and parenting (at age 36) among 94 mothers and 78 fathers. The SEM revealed that Openness to Experience (O), low Neuroticism (N), and Extraversion (E) were related to parental nurturance; low O to parental restrictiveness; and low N to parental knowledge about the child's activities. Cluster analysis based on the three parenting factors yielded six gender-related parenting types with distinguishable personality profiles. Authoritative parents (mostly mothers) and emotionally involved parents (mostly fathers), who were high in nurturance and high to moderate in parental knowledge, were high in E and high to moderate in O. Authoritarian parents (mostly fathers) and emotionally detached parents (mostly mothers), who were low in nurturance, high to moderate in restrictiveness, and moderate to low in parental knowledge, were low in 0 and E. Permissive parents, who were low in restrictiveness and parental knowledge and moderate in nurturance, were high in N, E, and O. Engaged parents, who were high in nurturance, restrictiveness, and parental knowledge, were moderate in all personality traits. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness did not differ between the parenting types. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

Charlene E. Miall and Karen March. A comparison of biological and adoptive mothers and fathers: The relevance of biological kinship and gendered constructs of parenthood. 2003. 6(4), pp. 7-39.

Parenthood: Mothers: Fathers: Adoptive Parents: Sex: Social Environment: Kinship: Parent Child Relations: Canada

Using in-depth qualitative interviews with 82 respondents, we examine the nature of beliefs & values about biological (birth) & adoptive parents. With a Canada-wide random sample of 706 respondents, we examine their prevalence in the larger population. We also consider how aspects of biological kinship, gender, & actual parenting behavior affect assessments respondents make of the emotional bonding that occurs between parents & children. Different "natures" are ascribed to women & men whether biological or adoptive parents -- motherhood is instinctive & fatherhood is learned. We consider the implications of the social context & these gendered constructs of motherhood & fatherhood for family practitioners working in adoption. 3 Tables, 1 Appendix, 68 References. Adapted from the source document. COPIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM: HAWORTH DOCUMENT DELIVERY CENTER, The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

José E. Milmaniene. A propósito da família na atualidade. Revista De Psicanálise Da SPPA, 2003. 10(2), pp. 223-234.

cultural fantasm: family: father: family hierarchy: generations: psychoanalysis: Dominance Hierarchy: Family Relations: Fantasy: Fathers: Sex Role Attitudes

In this paper the author examines the cultural fantasmatic aspects under which the family develops nowadays. The circumstances that jeopardize such development and the critique of such circumstances are discussed in order to relate them to the structuring of pathology amongst family members. This problem is attributed, mainly, in today's family organizations, to the diminished strength of the structural role of the father. It is stated that despite the crises that the occidental family is facing currently, the desire and the need for a family is still very strong even among the more rebellious and outsiders groups of people. The author suggests that the shapes and the styles a family will present in the future depends on how the two following main characteristics are preserved in order to assure a "neurotic normality" of the offspring. The two main characteristics are: the preservation of the Father as the owner of knowledge, as a way to guarantee his place in the family hierarchy, as well as his dignity, keeping the symbolic distance between generations and the preservation of a solid oppositive difference between fatherhood and motherhood. The identificatory distortions of the child with his/her parents are worsened when there is not a clear oppositive difference between the male and female roles in the couple. There are, also, some considerations regarding the failures of the male and female roles and how this is related with pathology among the children. At the end, the author examines the importance of psychoanalysis in the maintenance of a family organization that respects an ethics based on the difference so fundamental for the subjective development of the individual. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Ronald Mincy B., Helen Oliver and Washington Urban Inst. DC. Age, race, and childrens living arrangements: Implications for TANF reauthorization. assessing the new federalism: An urban institute program to assess changing social policies. series B. 2003. pp. 9.

This brief presents new information on the variations in family structure or living arrangements of poor children, by age and race, and analyzes the implications for current policy decisions. Data from the 1999 NSAF indicate that about half of poor children have two highly involved parents. This is the norm for poor infants but is less likely to be true for older children. Nearly two-thirds of poor infants have two highly involved parents because they are born into married or fragile families. Parents of poor teenagers are more likely than parents of poor young children to be divorced or separated. About half of poor teenagers live with single mothers, and divorced visiting becomes a significant arrangement for maintaining contact with their fathers. More than one-third of poor children are born into fragile families, with visiting the dominant arrangement for father-child contact. At no age are the majority of poor children living with a single mother and uninvolved father. Black children are much less likely than nonblack children to live with both of their natural parents because so few of their parents marry or cohabit. Fragile- visiting families are a uniquely important arrangement by which poor black children have frequent contact with both parents. Parents of older versus younger black children are much less likely to maintain their visiting arrangements. (Contains 15 references.) (SM).

Shumon Miura and Sarada Tamako. Chichi to musume no parasaito shinguru. Social Science Japan Journal, 2003. 6(2), pp. 261-265.

David Robert Moore. Interpersonal processes, relationship satisfaction, and father involvement among young parenting couples: A longitudinal study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 64(3), pp. 1501-1501.

relationship satisfaction: father involvement: interpersonal processes: behavior patterns: interpersonal behavior: Behavior: Fathers: Involvement: Couples: Interpersonal Interaction: Parenting Style

This study examined the relationships between interpersonal patterns of behavior among young parents, concurrent and longitudinal relationship satisfaction, and the level of father involvement when the child was 12-15 months old. Interpersonal processes were assessed using the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, relationship satisfaction was assessed using the Quality of Relationship Inventory, and the level of father involvement with his partner and child was assessed based on mother's report of father involvement. The interpersonal patterns examined in the study were operationalized as the correspondence between different expressions of control and autonomy behaviors observed during a conflict task. Findings indicated that hostile expressions of control and autonomy (i.e., Demand-Withdraw interactions) assessed before the baby was born were associated with poor concurrent relationship satisfaction as well as slightly increased risk for paternal disengagement. Nurture-Disclose interactions, marked by warm expressions of control and autonomy, predicted higher perceived relational quality before the baby was born. The strongest predictors of relationship satisfaction at 1-year follow-up were previous measures of satisfaction, and fathers with higher sustained relationship satisfaction were less likely to disengage from their partners and children. Post-hoc tests clarified the differences in strength of associations between interpersonal behavior and relationship satisfaction at pre- and postbirth assessments, revealing substantial declines in relationship satisfaction among young parenting couples during the transition to parenthood, particularly among couples marked by initially high levels of Nurture-Disclose interactions. Results help clarify risks and protective factors associated with adolescent pregnancy, highlighting potentially important targets of intervention designed to help young couples negotiate the transition to parenthood and prevent future interpersonal and parenting problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

M. R. Moore. Socially isolated? how parents and neighbourhood adults influence youth behaviour in disadvantaged communities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2003. 26(6), pp. 988-1005.

William Julius Wilson's model of adult joblessness, community disorganization and their effects on youth problem behaviour de-emphasizes the range in children's outcomes across socially disorganized communities, and says little about the factors that influence this variation. It also does not address the processes by which family structure and relationships affect the wellbeing of African-American and poor youth. My work is part of a larger research agenda that has begun to address these issues by focusing on the differential rates of sexual activity among youth living in disadvantaged environments, and developing models to explain this variation. This work suggests that units of socially cohesive, stable adults exist among the social networks of successful children and families in poor neighbourhoods. It also points to the existence and functioning of alternative two-parent family structures and offers hypotheses for how family environment interacts with neighbourhood context to influence youth behaviour.

Trevena Moore. Review of handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 2003. 24(4), pp. 292-293.

father involvement: demography: child development: sociological & anthropological & evolutionary & economic perspectives: social policy: intervention: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Involvement: Parental Investment: Anthropology: Childhood Development: Demographic Characteristics: Economics: Policy Making: Sociology: Theory of Evolution

This book (see record 2002-01958-000) is intended to whet the appetite for those who may have even a remote interest in father involvement. The book's subtitle, "Multidisciplinary Perspectives," holds true to form. It provides a necessary framework for understanding key theory concerning research and policy in various scientific disciplines from demography to public policy and everything in between. The book is divided into 6 sections: (1) The Demography of Fathers, (2) Father Involvement and Child Development, (3) Father Involvement: Sociological and Anthropological Perspectives, (4) Father Involvement: Evolutionary Perspectives, (5) Father Involvement: Economic Perspective, and (6) Father Involvement: Social Policy and Intervention. Each section contains several chapters that focus on a specific aspect of the overall section topic, which are written by experts in various disciplines. This book was easy to read and was not peppered with a lot of specialized jargon. Although the reviewer enjoyed this book, he points out that 2 topics that received little, if any, attention: fathers who are single parents and religious influences on father involvement. It is hoped consideration will be given to including these topics in the next edition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Jacqueline V. Morgan, S. A. Wilcoxon and Jamie F. Satcher. The father-daughter relationship inventory: A validation study. Family Therapy, 2003. 30(2), pp. 77-94.

validation study: father-daughter relationship: Father-Daughter Relationship Inventory: Daughters: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Inventories: Test Validity

The article starts with a review and integration of relevant professional literature and features a discussion of a validation study to develop an empirically sound instrument for assessing father-daughter relationships. The initial development effort for the Father-Daughter Relationship Inventory (FDRI) is then addressed, followed by a summary of outcome findings from the validation study. A discussion of these results as well as recommendations for future study using the FDRI is also offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Robert Morrell, Dorrit Posel and Richard Devey. Counting fathers in south africa: Issues of definition, methodology and policy. Social Dynamics, 2003. 29(2), pp. 73-94.

Fathers: Single Fathers: Caregivers: Parent Child Relations: Family Research: Methodology (Data Collection): South Africa

Current national databases in South Africa do not reveal the number or profile of fathers in the country. It is only possible to derive an estimate of fathers by making a series of inferences from other information contained in these data sets. In this paper, we argue that it is important for national surveys to directly identify which men are fathers. Internationally, research shows that engaged forms of fatherhood benefit children, fathers themselves, & domestic relationships. In South Africa, research on fathers is limited. A major explanation for this is that, until recently, the interests of children were considered inseparable from those of the mother. The context of childcare in South Africa is changing. The legal framework is paying more attention to the rights of fathers & the numerous parental AIDS deaths are confronting fathers with more caregiving responsibility than ever before. Fathers are a potential resource to children but this is currently underappreciated & not properly tapped. A start to remedying this situation is for national surveys to gather information on fathers. 4 Tables, 61 References. Adapted from the source document.

S. R. Murphy. AFRICA IN THE AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE review of michael G. schatzberg's political legitimacy in middle africa: Father, family, food. Review of Politics, 2003. 65(PART 1), pp. 157-160.

A. K. Mushi, J. R. M. A. Schellenberg, H. Mponda and C. Lengeler. Targeted subsidy for malaria control with treated nets using a discount voucher system in tanzania. Health Policy and Planning, 2003. 18(2), pp. 163-171.

During the last decade insecticide-treated nets have become a key strategy for malaria control. Social marketing is an appealing tool for getting such nets to poor rural African communities who are most afflicted by malaria. This approach usually involves subsidized prices to make nets and insecticide more affordable and help establish a commercial market. We evaluated a voucher system for targeted subsidy of treated nets in young children and pregnant women in two rural districts of southern Tanzania. Qualitative work involved focus group discussions with community leaders, male and female parents of children under 5 years. In-depth interviews were held with maternal and child health clinic staff and retail agents. Quantitative data were collected through interviewing more than 750 mothers of children under 5 years during a cluster sample survey of child health. The voucher return rate was extremely high at 97% (7720/8000). However, 2 years after the start of the scheme awareness among target groups was only 43% (45/104), and only 12% of women (12/103; 95% CI 4-48%) had used a voucher towards the cost of a net. We found some evidence of increased voucher use among least poor households, compared with the poorest households. On the basis of these results we renewed our information, education and communication (IEC) campaign about vouchers. Discount vouchers are a feasible system for targeted subsidies, although a substantial amount of time and effort may be needed to achieve high awareness and uptake - by which we mean the proportion of eligible women who used the vouchers - among those targeted. Within a poor society, vouchers may not necessarily increase health equity unless they cover a high proportion of the total cost: since some cash is needed when using a voucher as part-payment, poorer women among the target group are likely to have lower uptake than richer women. The vouchers have two important additional functions: strengthening the role of public health services in the context of a social marketing programme and forming an IEC tool to demonstrate the group at most risk of severe malaria.

Paul A. Nakonezny, Joseph Lee Rodgers and ?. F. Nussbaum. The effect of later life parental divorce on adult-child/older-parent solidarity: A test of the buffering hypothesis. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2003. 33(6), pp. 1153-1178.

Suzanne M. Nangle, Michelle L. Kelley, William Fals-Stewart and Ronald F. Levant. Work and family variables as related to paternal engagement, responsibility, and accessibility in dual-earner couples with young children. Fathering, 2003. 1(1), pp. 71-90.

paternal engagement: dual earners couples: paternal responsibility: paternal accessibility: Dual Careers: Family Work Relationship: Father Child Relations: Parental Investment: Responsibility: Fathers

Fathers and mothers (N = 75 dual-earner couples) of preschool-aged children completed questionnaires that examined work and family variables as related to paternal involvement in three areas: engagement (i.e., directly interacting with the child), responsibility (i.e., scheduling activities and being accountable for the child's well-being), and accessibility (i.e., being available to the child but not in direct interaction). Fathers' reports of responsibility and accessibility were significantly predicted by structural variables and beliefs; however, fathers' reports of engagement were not predicted by work and family variables. Mothers' reports of work and family variables did not predict their reports of father involvement. These findings suggest that for fathers of young children, parental involvement appears mainly self-determined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Trudi Newton and Gill Wong. A chance to thrive: Enabling change in a nursery school. Transactional Analysis Journal, 2003. 33(1), pp. 79-88.

preschool students: severe behavior difficulties: emotional development: school staff: development stages: developmental affirmations: positive changes: fathers: schools: multicornered contract: Behavior Contracting: Behavior Disorders: Classroom Behavior: Nursery Schools: Preschool Teachers

Presents the case of the preschool experiences of a boy (aged 3.8 yrs) with severe behavior difficulties. His emotional development was supported by nursery school staff through an understanding of stages of development and required developmental affirmations. During a 7-mo period significant positive changes occurred for the child, as well as for his father, the school, and others engaged in a multicornered contract. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Jalani A. Niaah. Absent father(s), garvey's scattered children & the back to africa movement. 2003. (2), Social Movements: Rastafarians: Pan-Africanism: Blacks: Diaspora: Fathers: Black Family: Role Models: Garvey, Marcus Moziah: Father Absence

This paper provides an introductory discussion of the leadership of the Back to Africa Movement in the African diaspora. Concentrating on the experiences of the Rastafari Movement in Jamaica, it demonstrates the connections between Marcus Garvey's Back to Africa Movement & the Rastafari Movement, particularly in terms of a quest for renewal, wholeness, & for the redemptive power of a reconnection with the Father as a corrective for the dysfunctional families that proliferate as a result of the experience of enslavement in the African diaspora. Through an examination of the idea of Father in the work of the Rastafarian teacher, the foundation logic of this multilayered concept is engaged in order to determine the extent to which the Rastafari Movement has successfully tackled the problematic developed in the West concerning fatherhood & male leadership in general. The conclusion is that in light of the Movement's work & given its operational context, both the problem of male leadership & fatherhood can best be viewed through Mortimo Planno's analysis. It is argued that Mortimo Planno's reading constitutes a New Faculty of Interpretation that is committed to the project of African Redemption. 30 References. Adapted from the source document.

D. B. Nicholas, T. McNeill, G. Montgomery, C. Stapleford and M. McClure. Communication features in an online group for fathers of children with spina bifida: Considerations for group development among men. 2003. 26(2), pp. 65-80.

Group Dynamics: Internet: Group Formation: Information Dissemination: Interpersonal Communication: Fathers: Self Help Groups: Empowerment: Social Interaction: Narratives

Following a six-month online group for fathers of children with spina bifida, the verbatim text of group interaction was reviewed & coded through an open & axial coding strategy. Themes constituted dialogical features by which fathers appeared to support one another & appropriate the benefits of an online group for men. Specific observed features comprised: the use of a story genre, information-sharing as a means of group formation & sustainability, empowerment through information-sharing, affect expression following information exchange, humor as an affect-modulating device, & affirmation with an apparent aim of instilling hope. Each feature is described & implications are discussed. 1 Table, 12 References. Adapted from the source document. COPIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM: HAWORTH DOCUMENT DELIVERY CENTER, The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

David B. Nicholas. Participant perceptions of online group work with fathers of children with spina bifida. 2003. pp. 227-240.

online group: participant perceptions: children with spina bifida: fathers: Group Counseling: Internet: Parental Attitudes: Participation: Computer Mediated Communication: Spina Bifida

This chapter identifies participants' perceptions of an online group specifically for fathers of children with spina bifida. Fathers participated in an electronic mail-based group in which group dialogue was conveyed through e-mail messages posted to the entire group. A sample of participants was subsequently interviewed about their perceptions both of the impact of the group and the technology/online format used by the group. This chapter presents interview findings and implications regarding online groups for fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter).

Steven L. Nock. Marriage and fatherhood in the lives of african american men. 2003. pp. 30-42.

Black Americans: Nuptiality: Males: Fathers: Parenthood: Marriage: Benefits

Following a discussion of the benefits of marriage for men in general, longitudinal interview data from 1,355 black men are drawn on to examine how marriage & fatherhood have impacted them. Black men who have children outside of marriage have lower marriage rates than comparable men who do not become fathers & have a much higher rate of cohabitation. In terms of the affects of delayed or foregone marriage on achievement, it is found that premarital fatherhood decreases total earnings, educational attainment, & employment, while enhancing the chances for poverty. Marriage is found to ameliorate many of these negative consequences of premarital fatherhood. Why, despite the benefits, there is the perception that men avoid marriage is attributed to the redefinition of the marriage institution. 3 Tables, 17 References. J. Zendejas.

Torunn Stene Novik and May-Britt Solem. Family distance matters. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2003. 8(2), pp. 261-271.

family distance: treatment strategies: child coping: perceptions: family relationships: figure placement: Kvebaek Family Sculpture Technique: mothers: fathers: adolescents: cohesion: family therapy: Coping Behavior: Family Relations: Group Cohesion: Psychotherapeutic Techniques: Adolescent Attitudes: Child Attitudes: Family Members: Family: Parental Attitudes

In child psychiatric work, strategies for engaging the family in strengthening the child's coping should be included as part of the treatment plan. As family members experience the reality of the family differently, information from each family member provides a broader picture of the family. Clinicians can help the family achieve insights into relationships and roles by using a figure placement technique, the Kvebaek Family Sculpture Technique (KFST). The authors examined distances in KFST figure placements made by mothers, fathers and adolescents in order to explore closeness and distance, or family cohesion. It was found that families often perceived changes in the perception of distance between family members following family therapy. Assessments by family members, as well as by clinicians, are needed to catch the complexity of family cohesion. A dialogue with the family about the various perspectives presented by family members contributes to a new understanding of family interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Megan O'Bryan. Where did they learn to think that way? parental modeling of dysfunctional and constructive thinking. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 63(11), pp. 5551-5551.

dysfunctional thinking: thinking style: constructive thinking: early experiences: parental thinking style: emotional coping: behavioral coping: Cognitive Style: Coping Behavior: Parent Child Relations: Simulation: Thinking: Fathers: Mothers

Negative or dysfunctional thoughts have been shown to play a significant role in the development of internalizing disorders (Blackburn & Eunson, 1989), however, they are not specific to just clinical populations. Normal populations also experience dysfunctional thoughts, but not to the extent or severity of clinical populations (Kumari & Blackburn, 1992). Although these dysfunctional thoughts are common to the general and clinical populations, the etiology of these thoughts has received little empirical attention. Dysfunctional thoughts are generally assumed (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979) and have been empirically found (Stark, Schmidt, & Joiner, 1996) to be formed from early experiences in the family. Constructive thinking is the opposite of dysfunctional thinking and refers to thinking in ways that solve problems and reduces stress (Epstein, 2000). The present study examined the constructive and dysfunctional thoughts of adolescents and their parents via the Constructive Thinking Inventory. In this study mothers' thinking style was found to be related to the adolescents' thinking style for both dysfunctional and constructive thinking. In particular, mothers' constructive thinking was related to the adolescents' in the areas of "emotional coping", the absence of negative thinking, and "behavioral coping", thinking in ways that promote effective action, and in the dysfunctional areas of "naive optimism" and "esoteric thinking". Fathers' constructive and dysfunctional thinking was related to the adolescents' thinking only in the area of "esoteric thinking". The parents were found to have equal influence on the adolescent females and males in most areas. However, mothers were found to have a greater impact on daughters' global constructive thinking. The overall finding that mothers were influential was expected and is consistent with the modeling literature. However, the finding that the fathers were not influential was not expected. The differential impact of fathers and mothers is attributed to mothers' tendency to model dysfunctional thoughts (Stark et. al., 1996) and engage in a discussing style of parenting to a greater extent than fathers (Dadds, Atkinson, Turner, Blums, & Lendich, 1999) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Tawana Renee Offer. Perceived paternal involvement and attachment security as predictors of anger expression, depression and disruptive behaviors in african american adolescent females. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 63(10), pp. 4966-4966.

paternal involvement: attachment security: predictors: anger expression: depression: disruptive behaviors: adolescent females: delinquency: violence: behavior problems: Adolescent Development: Anger: Blacks: Childhood Development: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Involvement: Mother Child Relations

There has been tremendous growth in the rate of delinquency and violence among youth over the last several decades especially with respect to young females. The faster rate of growth in behavior problems among young females, suggests that something unique may be occurring. The role of parents in the social and psychological development of their children has been elaborated on in much of the developmental research. Research investigating the impact of fathers on children's development has historically been Underrepresented, and most often related to the development of boys. The literature is only sparsely populated with studies investigating the influence of father factors on female behavioral problems. This study examined the relationship between perceived paternal involvement, perceived paternal attachment security and selected psychological, emotional and behavioral variables in African American adolescent females. Participants were members of a local community organization. A sample of 56 participants resulted from a solicitation of volunteers. Five self-report assessment tools, completed by youth participants, and one behavior checklist completed by parents, were used in this study. Demographic information was collected by self-report from participants and parents on a form designed by the researcher. The assessment tools included the Child Behavior Checklist(CBCL)/4-18; CBCL Youth Self Report (YSR); Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II; Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA)/Father & Mother Scales; State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI); and the Parental Support and Involvement Scale (PSIS). Nine research hypotheses were tested to examine the patterns of prediction for perceived paternal attachment security and perceived paternal involvement on anger expression, depression and disruptive behaviors; the differences among these participants when controlling for levels of perceived paternal involvement and perceived paternal attachment security; and the differences among participants when controlling for grade and for age. In addition, a con4arison was made of the relative impact of perceived attachment to father and perceived attachment to mother. Finally, participants' scores were compared to their parents' scores on equivalent forms of a behavior checklist. Results of the study found that when Multiple Regression Analysis were carried out on the sample at large, no significant relationships were apparent between the independent and dependent variables. Perceived attachment most often accounted for the greater portion of the variance observed and was thus the stronger the predictor. The variable most often predicted significantly by paternal attachment was depression at early and late adolescent stages. Paternal involvement most often predicted anger in later adolescent stages. The results of this study showed that when the investigation controlled for grade and age, new and significant relationships between the independent and dependent variables were revealed. Depression was the variable most often significantly predicted or related to the independent variables for both grade level and age level groups. Perceived attachment to father accounted for more of the variance in depression than perceived paternal involvement in the sample at loge as well as among the two grade and age levels. Overall, these findings highlight the differential influence of perceived paternal attachment and perceived paternal involvement in the lives of adolescent females at different stages of development. Limitations of this study included limited sample size, use of a convenient sample, focus on one ethnic population and restriction to a particular geographical area. Each of these factors could affect the generalizability of the results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Joann Margaret O'Leary. The meaning of parenting during pregnancy: A descriptive phenomenological study of parenting a subsequent baby following a perinatal loss. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(11), pp. 4109-A.

Pregnancy: Attachment: Coping: Grief: Mothers: Fathers

While there is an abundance of literature speaking to the effect of perinatal loss on parents there is little research on the subsequent pregnancy, in spite of pregnancy rates of 59 to 86% being reported (Cordel & Prettyman, 1994; Cuisinier, Janssen, de Graaus, Bakker, & Hoogduin, 1996). This study explored the meaning of parenting a subsequent baby during pregnancy following a previous perinatal loss. The research question was: What is it like to be a parent to the current baby (subsequent child)? Separate interviews were done with nine mothers and six fathers. Verbal data were collected using an audiotaped unstructured interview format. Guided by a phenomenological method, data were analyzed within a lifeworld perspective. After the transcriptions and analysis of each participant's data, three major themes were developed: We are changed people; The fathers' story (It affects me too); and The current baby (They didn't ask to be born after a loss). The findings of this study provide insight and meaning to how the parents' previous loss impacts the current pregnancy and that grief and attachment are occurring simultaneously. Parents move into a "protective" role, describing a hypervigilence in response to the physiology of pregnancy and the baby's movements. The findings support the need for research in the area of prenatal attachment and further investigation of parenting the subsequent child. The findings also demonstrate the need for more research on the role of fathering and a collaborative effort between education and health to provide therapeutic/educational intervention for families in a pregnancy that follows a perinatal loss.

M. O'Leary. From paternalism to cynicism: Narratives of a newspaper company. Human Relations, 2003. 56(6), pp. 685-704.

This article examines the stories told by employees in a 160-year-old newspaper production and publishing company, the Courier. Over 100 interviews with employees of the newspaper company (past and present) were carried out over a six-year period during which the Courier was undergoing major change, including the move from a local to a national newspaper In this article, I organize these stories into four narrative constructions ('paternalism', 'profit', 'career and 'cynicism') which represent different ways of thinking about organizations, variously emphasizing family and community, competition and prohibition, publicity and success, and injustice and deception.

Rose-May Olin and Elisabeth Faxelid. Parents' needs to talk about their experiences of childbirth. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 2003. 17(2), pp. 153-159.

childbirth: parents experiences: mothers: fathers: postpartum talk: communication: Expectant Mothers: Life Experiences: Birth

The purpose was to describe parents' experiences of childbirth and their views about having a postpartum talk. Questionnaires. were distributed to parents (350 mothers and 343 fathers) in maternity wards in one hospital in Stockholm during a 4-week period in 1999. Questionnaires from 251 mothers and 235 fathers were analysed. Preparation for childbirth, care received during delivery, and experiences of labour and delivery are described and analysed against whether a postpartum talk was wanted or not. Comparisons between first-time mothers/fathers and multiple-time mothers/fathers were made. The results show that 66% of first-time mothers, 74% of multiple-time mothers, 58% of first-time fathers, and 30% of multiple-time fathers wanted to talk about the delivery. The issues, which the parents considered should be included in such a postpartum talk were the birth process, normal/complicated delivery, feelings of failure, pain and pain relief. Parents mainly wanted to talk to the midwife who delivered the woman and the best time for the postpartum talk seems to be at the maternity ward before discharge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

K. Olsson. Maria bullon-fernandez, fathers and daughters in gower's `Confessio amantis': Authority, family, state, and writing. Modern Language Review, 2003. 98(PART 1), pp. 160.

Sylvia O'Neill. Michael, part two: Crisis and resolution in the transference. Journal of Social Work Practice, 2003. 17(1), pp. 25-34.

Children: Behavior Problems: Fathers: Parent Child Relations: Transference (Psychology): Oedipal Complex: Client Relations

This is the second of two linked papers seeking to trace certain processes in a social worker/family relationship. 'Michael, Part One: A Boy of Twelve in Conflict with the School Authorities' recounted two discussions of a case presented to a practice seminar led by the author. This paper describes a third seminar presentation & discussion of 'Michael.' Michael's central problem of an insecure, unstable, & ambivalent relation to his father, to which he reacted with difficult behavior, was repeated when the social worker was inadvertently embroiled in the family's interactive strategy. In the ensuing crisis, the boy was excluded from school. The social worker contained the crisis & paved the way for a deeper understanding of the central problem when she acknowledged that something had gone wrong in the relationship with herself. The view that limited unwitting collusion with the central problem & subsequent acknowledgement of the error is potentially facilitating, in the context of otherwise steady consistency, accords well with Mattinson & Sinclair's (1979) research. Conceptually, the author draws also on Oedipal & transference theory. The 'third position' aspect of Oedipal theory is applied variously to the function of the father, the social worker, & the seminar. 20 References. Adapted from the source document.

Halise Devrimci Özgüven, Çigdem Soykan and Hü Yazar. Bir yasak-sevi 0lgusuna yaklasim ve karsilasilan güçlükler. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 2003. 14(4), pp. 311-318.

incest: sexual harassment: father-daughter relationship: crisis intervention: Daughters: Fathers

Incest is one of the most difficult issues to be discussed and studied. The experience of sexual harassment is not only hard for the victim, but also for the rest of the family. Sexual harassment experienced in a family, especially in the father-daughter relationship, is an enormously difficult and traumatic event. In this situation, the fundamental needs of trust and protection of the child are violated by the parent who is supposed to be responsible for establishing them. It is essential for the victim to receive immediate professional help, to be able to disclose his/her experiences, and to receive support from his/her environment. It is apparent that intensive intervention immediately after trauma is important in decreasing the effects of the trauma. This report presents a 16-yr old female that applied to the Crisis Intervention Center of Ankara University who was sexually abused by her father. The patient and other family members, except her father, were treated by an intense crisis intervention technique. It is noted that all of the family members involved in treatment gained some benefit. This paper presents how effective and functional it may be to utilize crisis intervention. The negative consequences of neglecting the abuser due to countertransference are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

K. Pafkova. In child's best interest - new role of fathers in the families. Sociologia, 2003. 35(2), pp. 171-173.

Katarina Pafkova. In the child's best interest -- new role of fathers in the family. 2003. 35(2), pp. 171-173.

Children: Divorce: Family Roles: Fathers: Father Absence: Sweden: Slovak Republic

One of the problems that confronts the academic community is the issue of how to communicate with the broader public. In one recent event in Bratislava, a gallery exhibition of the work of Swedish photograph Ulla Lember was accompanied by a roundtable discussion on children & divorce, in which two Swedes & two Slovaks participated: Lena Nyberg, ombudsman for children's issues in Sweden; Tomas Wetterberg, project leader for a study on parent equality in childrearing; Katarina Pafkova of the Slovak International Center for the Study of the Family, & Peter Guran, of the Slovak Ministry of Labor. Topics discussed included the effects of high divorce rates on children (20% of all Swedish children live apart from their fathers). A. Siegel.

Timothy Page and Inge Bretherton. Representations of attachment to father in the narratives of preschool girls in post-divorce families: Implications for family relationships and social development. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 2003. 20(2), pp. 99-122.

Attachment: Preschool Children: Females: Fathers: Divorce: Narratives

This study used the Attachment Story Completion Task-Revised (ASCT-R) (Bretherton, Ridgeway, & Cassidy, 1990), a representational measure of attachment security, to examine characteristics of preschool-aged girls' narratives associated with portrayals of attachment to the father. The children's (n = 27) parents had been divorced or legally separated for at least 2 years, & they lived in the primary custody of their mothers. We had previously discovered that girls' responses to the ASCT-R differed from those of boys in unexpected ways. Whereas boys' representations of child-father attachment varied positively with teacher ratings of social behavior in child care settings, the opposite was the case for girls. Girls who portrayed children's attachment to the father more frequently were rated lower in social competence, contrary to expectations. A more detailed analysis of responses to the ASCT-R suggests that girls' representational attachment behavior toward the father was associated with narrative representations of both parents as unavailable, family instability, & concerns for the father's well-being. 2 Tables, 2 Appendixes, 38 References. Adapted from the source document.

V. Paiva, E. V. Filipe, N. Santos, T. N. Lima and A. Segurado. The right to love: The desire for parenthood among men living with HIV. Reproductive Health Matters, 2003. 11(22), pp. 91-100.

Drug regimens and procedures now exist that will prevent parents from transmitting HIV to infants, and the ethical and legal obligation to promote and protect the reproductive rights of those living with HIV should form port of training for HIV/AIDS care and prevention. This paper reports a study that investigated issues of sexuality and reproduction with 250 Brazilian men living with HIV in Sao Paulo. We asked whether they wished to have children and whether health professionals in HIV/AIDS treatment clinics that they attended were supportive of their wishes. Health professionals were not considered by most participants to be supportive enough or even impartial about HIV-positive people having children, and paid little attention to men's fathering role. 80% of the men had sexual relationships, and 43% of them wanted children, especially those who had no children, in spite of expectations of disapproval. Few of the men received information about treatment options that would protect infants, however. In previous studies with HIV-positive women attending the some clinics, by comparison, greater knowledge about prevention of perinatal HIV transmission was reported, but women had fewer sexual relationships, fewer desired to have children, and they expected even more disapproval of having children from health professionals. We conclude that the rights of those with HIV to found a family depend as much on curing the ills of prejudice and discrimination, including among health professionals, as on medical interventions. (C) 2003 Reproductive Health Matters. All rights reserved.

Rob Palkovitz. Involved fathering and men's adult development: Provisional balances. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 2003. 65(3), pp. 766-767.

Glen Palm and Rob Palkovitz. Review of all men are sons (video). Fathering, 2003. 1(2), pp. 185-186.

intergenerational relationships: fathers: father child relations: emotional complexities: bridgemaking process: Intergenerational Relations: Sons

Reviews the video "All Men Are Sons," directed by John Badalment and produced by Chad Grochowski. This is a 55-minute video that vividly portrays the experiences of a diverse group of five young men ages 18 to 32 in their intergenerational relationships with their own fathers and their children. The premise of the film is that "each man serves as a bridge" between the generation of his father and his children. The video begins with an introduction of each man in a professionally facilitated discussion group. Interactions between the key participants and their fathers and clips of the men with their partners and children provide glimpses into the emotional complexities of this bridge-making process. Another important theme that emerges in the video is the child's tendency to idealize fathers as powerful and dominant people in their lives. The high expectations fathers pass on to their sons are often mirrored back to them as sons begin to evaluate their fathers. The film would be a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate programs in family studies, communication, family or counseling psychology, and social work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Daniel Paquette, René Carbonneau, Diane Dubeau, Marc Bigras and Richard E. Tremblay. Prevalence of father-child rough-and-tumble play and physical aggression in preschool children. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 2003. 18(2), pp. 171-189.

physical aggression: father-child play: preschool children: personal characteristics: social variables: rough-and-tumble play: Aggressive Behavior: Childhood Development: Childhood Play Behavior: Family: Father Child Relations: Epidemiology: Fathers: Parental Characteristics: Psychosocial Factors

Three samples of Francophone subjects from Quebec are used to establish the prevalence of parent-child rough-and-tumble (RTP) according to different personal, social and family variables, and to verify if children who engage in more RTP with their father exhibit less physical aggression towards other children and are more competitive without resorting to aggression. Our results showed that 24% to 43% of fathers engaged in RTP with their children on a daily basis, and only 4% to 16% of fathers never do. Moreover, personal characteristics such as the age and sex of the participants seemed to have a greater influence on the frequency of parent-child RTP than variables related for example to work, socioeconomic conditions, or the living environment. The hypothesis that children who engage in more RTP with their fathers display less physical aggression towards their peers is invalidated here. We have concluded that it is important that not only RTP frequency, but also and especially indicators of RTP quality be used. Future observational studies of father-child RTP are required in order to do so. Finally, certain preliminary results support the hypothesis that father-child RTP fosters the development of the competition skills in children without using aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Ross Parke and Armin Brott. Yes, fathers really matter! 2003. pp. 182-186.

fathers: fatherhood: father child relationship: childhood development: Father Child Relations

This chapter originally appeared in Throwaway Dads, pp. 3-13. The authors argue that children benefit developmentally from the special ways their fathers interact with them. It is stated that active fathering clearly benefits children, mothers, and fathers themselves. Encouraging fathers to be involved--and supporting them in their efforts to do so--is an investment that could yield important social dividends for all. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the create).

M. J. Paschall, C. L. Ringwalt and R. L. Flewelling. Effects of parenting, father absence, and affiliation with delinquent peers on delinquent behavior among african-american male adolescents. Adolescence, 2003. 38(149), pp. 15-34.

This study examined the effects of different aspects of parenting, father absence, and affiliation with delinquent peers on delinquent behavior in a cohort of Aftican-American male adolescents. One round of survey data was collected from the youths' mothers or mother surrogates (N = 175) and two rounds of survey data were collected from the adolescents themselves. Analyses revealed that mothers' perceived control of sons'behavior was a deterrent of delinquent behavior, while other aspects of parenting (e.g., mother-son communication and relations) were not. The effect of mothers' perceived control was not mediated by adolescents' affiliation with delinquent peers. The effects of mothers' parenting variables and peer affiliation did not vary significantly by family structure, but socioeconomic disadvantage was more strongly associated with delinquent behavior in father-absent families. Though parenting effects were modest, this study suggests that African-American male adolescents are less likely to engage in delinquent behavior if they are closely monitored and supervised by their parents.

Joshua T. Payton. Effective fathering and the quantity and quality of time spent with children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 64(5), pp. 2443-2443.

fathering: parenting quality: father-child relationship: Father Child Relations: Parental Characteristics: Parenting Style: Time: Fathers

Research into fathers' parenting is relatively new. New measures have been developed to assess the style and effectiveness of fathering. Many questions remain about the salient elements of effective fathering. The present study was focused on the quantity and quality of time that fathers spend at home and in contact with their children. The primary research questions were (a) What is the relationship between the quantity of time spent with children and the quality of time spent with children? (b) What is the relationship between effective fathering attributes and the quantity of time spent with children? and (c) What is the relationship between effective fathering attributes and the quality of time spent with children? To the end of addressing these research questions, a sample of fathers responded to questions regarding quality and quantity of time spent with their children. Their responses were compared to their ICAN scores (Roid & Canfield, 1994). No relationship was shown between quantity of time spent with children and qualitative items. Results indicated statistically significant relationships between effective fathering and qualitative attributes. No relationship was demonstrated between effective fathering and time spent with children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Jessica Pearson and Lanae Davis. Serving fathers who leave prison. Family Court Review, 2003. 41(3), pp. 307-320.

child support: formerly incarcerated noncustodial parents: released & paroled offenders: multiservice assistance program: employment: family reconnection: reentry programs: fatherhood: Institutional Release: Parent Child Relations: Parole: Psychosocial Rehabilitation: Employment Status: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Prisoners

This article describes characteristics, service experiences, and outcomes for 350 ex-offenders with minor-aged children who were served at the John Inman Work and Family Center (WFC), a multiservice program offering assistance with employment, child support, and family reconnection. Following their visit to the WFC, fathers had higher rates of employment and child support payment. They also returned to prison at lower rates than the general offender population. Although the findings suggest that parents who leave prison benefit from a collaborative facility that offers multiple services, more rigorous research over longer periods of time is needed to reliably assess the effectiveness of reentry programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Diane Pelchat, Hé Lefebvre and Michel Perreault. Differences and similarities between mothers' and fathers' experiences of parenting a child with a disability. Journal of Child Health Care, 2003. 7(4), pp. 231-247.

disabled child parenting: mothers experience: fathers experience: Childrearing Attitudes: Disabilities: Human Sex Differences: Parent Child Relations: Parental Attitudes: Fathers: Mothers: Stigma

This qualitative study used focus groups to identify the differences and similarities in the experiences of parents of children with a disability. Two main themes emerged, showing the ways in which the mothers and fathers are alike or different. One concerns roles, actual and expected, in the various subsystems of family life. The other concerns the normalization and stigmatization that arise because of the child's problem. Mothers tend to score better in terms of interpersonal and group communications. It would seem that the fathers' expectations are harder to fulfil than the mothers'. The fathers' expectations are attuned to the outer world; the actual day-to-day tasks related to the child's care are not their priority. The mothers are less demanding and their expectations are more self-focused. Interestingly, these families are similar to families of children without a disability; however, the difficulties they experience are accentuated by the presence of a child with a problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Andrew Peterson and Catherine B. Jenni. Men's experience of making the decision to have their first child: A phenomenological analysis. The Family Journal, 2003. 11(4), pp. 353-363.

reproductive decisions: expectant fathers: mens experience: first child: decision making process: dialectical structure: Decision Making: Fathers

Men's experience of making the decision to have their first child was examined through a phenomenological analysis of unstructured interviews with expectant fathers. Analysis revealed a dialectical structure to men 's decision-making processes. Men who had made a conscious decision to become a father were shown to be emotionally invested in reproductive decisions, participating actively in this complex process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

C. Petersson, K. Petersson and A. Hakansson. General parental education in sweden: Participants and non-participants. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 2003. 21(1), pp. 43-46.

Objective - To study factors of importance for participation in parental education within routine child health care. Design - All parents of children born during 1 year were invited by the district nurse to participate in parental education; their participation during the infant year was registered. Setting - Catchment area of two health centres in Vaxjo, Sweden. Subjects - 221 infants and their parents. Main outcome measures - Number of educational sessions for mothers and fathers. Results - 63% of mothers and 20% of fathers attended at least one session. These mothers attended a mean of 5.7 (SD 2.2) sessions and these fathers a mean of 2.8 (SD 2.3) sessions. Logistic regression analyses showed that the only variable of significance for participation was being a first-time parent (odds ratio 3.9 for the mothers and 3.7 for the fathers). Odds ratios above 2.0 (non-significant) were found for married mothers and Swedish mothers, as well as for Swedish fathers. Conclusion - It is still a considerable problem to get certain groups involved in routine parental education in Swedish child healthcare programmes.

Lars Plantin, Sven-Axel Månsson and Jeremy Kearney. Talking and doing fatherhood: On fatherhood and masculinity in sweden and england. Fathering, 2003. 1(1), pp. 3-26.

fatherhood: masculinity: fatherhood formation: intimate relationships: involved father: childcare: culture: Fathers: Parental Investment: Parenting Style: Interpersonal Relationships: Child Care: Sociocultural Factors

This article draws on empirical data from interviews with men and their partners in Sweden and England to explore how fatherhood formation takes place within intimate relationships and in the context of wider structural factors. The research illustrates the influence of the contemporary discourse of the "involved father" in both countries and shows that the ways in which this affects men's practices is dependent on a wide range of factors including economic circumstances, social policies, political history, and the emotional relationship between partners. The influence of class is of particular significance in the English context, while it is less of a factor in Sweden. It is argued that, although the process is uneven, men's practices as fathers are shifting toward more involvement in childcare and household labor and that this process can be assisted by structural changes and social policy initiative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Anastasia H. Prokos. A new kind of father?: Progressive fathers and gender differentiation. 2003. Fathers: Childrearing Practices: Social Reproduction: Sex Role Orientations: Sex Role Attitudes

Using a unique dataset of fathers who in principle seek to rear children in a gender-neutral way, I examine how these fathers nevertheless reproduce traditional gender distinctions in talking about fatherhood. A reaction against their own fathers, who were relatively uninvolved fathers, along with support from communities of like-minded women & men, drove these men's commitment to involved parenting. The 14 fathers I interviewed hoped to reshape dominant ideologies about the roles of fathers & mothers into a more neutral ideal of parenting, one that includes nurturing & caring from both parents. Despite fathers' desire for levels of involvement greater than their own fathers' & their wish to avoid stereotypical behavior, their beliefs about gender differences were nevertheless stereotypical. I argue that enforcement mechanisms (Walzer 1998) account for these fathers' tendency to espouse an ideology of gender differentiation, although, importantly, not one of gender inequality.

Marsha Kline Pruett, Tamra Y. Williams, Glendessa Insabella and Todd D. Little. Family and legal indicators of child adjustment to divorce among families with young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 2003. 17(2), pp. 169-180.

paternal involvement: psychological symptomatology: parent-child relationship: divorce: separation: parental conflict: adaptive behavior: behavior problems: children: attorney involvement: gatekeeping: Marital Conflict: Marital Separation: Parent Child Relations: Attorneys: Fathers: Involvement: Symptoms

This research used structural equation modeling to examine relations among family dynamics, attorney involvement, and the adjustment of young children (0-6 years) at the time of parental separation. The article presents baseline data (N = 102 nonresidential fathers and N = 110 primary caretaking mothers) from a larger longitudinal study. Results showed that the effects of parental conflict on child outcomes were mediated by paternal involvement, the parent-child relationship, and attorney involvement. A scale assessing parental gatekeeping yielded two significant factors: Spouse's Influence on Parenting and Positive View of Spouse. Paternal involvement was related to children's adaptive behavior, whereas negative changes in parent-child relationships predicted behavior problems. Mothers who experienced greater psychological symptomatology were less likely to utilize an attorney, which in turn predicted greater internalizing problems in their children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Anne Quéniart. (Fatherhood and youth). Nouvelles Pratiques Sociales, 2003. 16(1), pp. 59-75.

ABSTRACT IN FRENCH: Les choses ont-elles changé en matière de conceptions et de pratiques paternelles? Telle est la question à l'origine de ce texte. À partir d'une analyse de certaines dimensions du vécu de jeunes pères (moins de 25 ans), qu'elle met en perspective d'après les résultats de recherches effectuées il y a une dizaine d'années, l'auteure y répond par l'affirmative. En ce qui a trait aux représentations de ce qu'est un père ou une mère, la plupart des jeunes pères s'attribuent un rôle à multiples facettes, souvent identique à celui de leur conjointe. Selon les jeunes pères, la paternité est une expérience qui demande à la fois une présence au quotidien et une projection dans l'avenir et qui est faite de moments de tendresse, de soins, d'éducation au sens strict et, surtout, de partage avec la conjointe. De plus, l'implication professionnelle est examinée en regard même de l'implication auprès de l'enfant; elle est mise en « compétition », pourrait-on dire, avec la présence auprès de l'enfant, ce qui dénote des changements par rapport aux générations précédentes. Enfin, en ce qui concerne le partage des tâches parentales, le modèle qui domine aujourd'hui leurs pratiques est celui de « partenaire parental » et non celui du pourvoyeur et de la ménagère ni même celui du « conjoint aidant ».; ABSTRACT IN ENLGISH: Have things changed all that much in terms of how fatherhood is conceptualized and exercised in daily life? That is the question underlying this article. The author compares the findings of a recent analysis on certain aspects of the lived experiences of young fathers (under 25 years of age) with the results of studies undertaken over the past ten years, and replies in the affirmative. First of all, when considering the representations held of fathers or mothers, most of these young fathers believe that their role is a multi-faceted one, and that it is often identical to that of their spouse. According to young fathers, fatherhood is a dual experience that requires them to be present on a daily basis while also casting their eye on the future. This is an experience that is constructed out of affectionate moments, child-care duties, education in the literal sense, and especially out of shared experiences with their spouse. In addition, they question the degree to which involvement in a career should take precedence over involvement in their child's life. In other words, the former 'competes' with their ability to be present in their child's daily life, which denotes a change from the attitudes of previous generations. Lastly, in terms of sharing parental duties, the model that governs young fathers' child-care practices nowadays is that of the 'parental partner', not that of the provider and homemaker or that of the 'helpful spouse'.; Reprinted by permission of Nouvelles pratiques sociales, Université du Québec à Montréal.

Anne Queniart. Presence and affection: The experience of fatherhood among youth. 2003. 16(1), pp. 59-75.

Fathers: Young Adults: Adolescent Fathers: Family Roles: Parent Child Relations: Childrearing Practices: Marital Relations: Sexual Division of Labor

Have things changed all that much in terms of how fatherhood is conceptualized & exercised in daily life? That is the question underlying this article. The author compares the findings of a recent analysis on certain aspects of the lived experiences of young fathers (under 25 years of age) with the results of studies undertaken over the past 10 years, & replies in the affirmative. First of all, when considering the representations held of fathers or mothers, most of these young fathers believe that their role is a multifaceted one, & that it is often identical to that of their spouse. According to young fathers, fatherhood is a dual experience that requires them to be present on a daily basis while also casting their eye on the future. This is an experience that is constructed out of affectionate moments, child care duties, education in the literal sense, & especially out of shared experiences with their spouse. In addition, they question the degree to which involvement in a career should take precedence over involvement in their child's life. In other words, the former "competes" with their ability to be present in their child's daily life, which denotes a change from the attitudes of previous generations. Lastly, in terms of sharing parental duties, the model that governs young fathers' child care practices nowadays is that of the "parental partner," not that of the provider & homemaker or that of the "helpful spouse.". 25 References. Adapted from the source document.

Anne Queniart and Jean-Sebastien Imbeault. The building of intimate spaces in the case of young fathers. Sociologie Et Societes, 2003. 35(2), pp. 183-201.

Family Structure: Fathers: Intimacy: Parent Child Relations

How is the statement made by many people about the central place of emotional & relational dimensions in the contemporary family expressed in young fathers? How does what De Singly (1993) called the "relative closing of the domestic circle" function? In short, how is intimacy lived out? These are the questions that the authors intend to answer by using data from a qualitative study on the experience of fatherhood at a young age. Assuming from the start that the entry into fatherhood can be interpreted as a building of friendship, they next focus on demonstrating it. Two dimensions of intimacy brought to light by Neuburger (2000) are examined in detail: the physical space (the day-to-day display of fatherhood) & the psychological space (the feelings & beliefs that form the personal awareness of fatherhood). 38 References. Adapted from the source document.

Robert J. Quinlan. Father absence, parental care, and female reproductive development. Evolution and Human Behavior, 2003. 24(6), pp. 376-390.

father absence: parental care: female reproductive development: evolutionary life history: parental separation: menarche: sexual behavior: family environment: parental investment: divorce: separation: Human Females: Psychosexual Behavior: Sexual Reproduction: Family: Fathers: Marital Separation: Parent Child Relations

This study examines female reproductive development from an evolutionary life history perspective. Retrospective data are for 10,847 U.S. women. Results indicate that timing of parental separation is associated with reproductive development and is not confounded with socioeconomic variables or phenotypic correlations with mothers' reproductive behavior. Divorce/separation between birth and 5 years predicted early menarche, first sexual intercourse, first pregnancy, and shorter duration of first marriage. Separation in adolescence was the strongest predictor of number of sex partners. Multiple changes in childhood caretaking environment were associated with early menarche, first sex, first pregnancy, greater number of sex partners, and shorter duration of marriage. Living with either the father or mother after separation had similar effect on reproductive development. Living with a stepfather showed a weak, but significant, association with reproductive development, however, duration of stepfather exposure was not a significant predictor of development. Difference in amount and quality of direct parental care (vs. indirect parental investment) in two- and single-parent households may be the primary factor linking family environment to reproductive development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Eleanor Race and Ann Brand E. Parental personality and its relationship to socialization of sadness in children. 2003. pp. 12.

The relationship between parental personality traits and how parents socialize their children's emotions is largely unexplored. This study examined the association of personality traits such as Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and emotion traits such as Anxiety and Trait Depression to the strategies parents use to socialize their children's sadness, as well as how these personality and emotion traits and socialization methods relate to adolescents' experiences of sadness. The sample included 110 adolescents (51 females), ranging in age from 11 to 16, and their parents. Measures included parent and youth reports on emotion socialization, measures of parental personality and emotion traits, and checklists on adolescent sadness. Findings indicated that mothers' personality and emotion traits were related to their perceptions of how they socialized sadness in their youth. Fathers' traits were related to their perceptions of socialization, but to a lesser degree than mothers'. Specifically, maternal Neuroticism, Anxiety, and Trait Depression were related to negative strategies of socializing sadness, while maternal Agreeableness was correlated with positive socialization strategies. Parents' personality and emotion traits did not correlate with adolescents' perceptions of parents' socialization of sadness. Maternal personality and strategies of socializing sadness were associated with adolescents' experiences of internalizing problems and sadness, as reported by both mothers and youth. Specifically, mothers who were high in Neuroticism had adolescents who experienced more sadness. Mothers who used more Punishing and Magnifying or fewer Reward or Overriding strategies for socializing sadness had adolescents who experienced more internalizing problems and sadness. In addition, youth reports of parental socialization were associated with adolescents' experiences of internalizing problems and positive mood traits, as reported by both adolescents and their fathers. (Author/HTH).

Arnold Wm Rachman. Freud's analysis of his daughter anna: A confusion of tongues. 2003. pp. 59-71.

Sigmund Freud: psychoanalysis: Anna Freud: daughter: father child relations: psychotherapeutic processes: Freud (Sigmund): Psychoanalytic Theory: Daughters: Fathers: Psychoanalysts

This chapter is concerned with the maintenance of the Psychoanalytic Movement by both Sigmund and Anna Freud against criticism and dissidence. Arnold Wm. Rachman explores the various implications of one of the best kept secrets in psychoanalysis, only surfacing after 1965, that Sigmund was his daughter Anna's analyst. He makes a distinction between Freud's desire to analyze his daughter Anna, and his actually performing the analysis. It can be an act of love to entertain the fantasy to help your child by offering your expertise. It is not an act of love to actually analyze your child, no matter how well intentioned you are. The author believes Freud's analysis of his daughter, although well intentioned, was born of a desire to fulfill narcissistic needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the book).

M. E. Radina. Daughters of childhood parental divorce and their relationships with their fathers in adulthood: Four typologies. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 2003. 38(3), pp. 61-81.

father-daughter relationship: divorce: children of divorce: parent-child typologies: Daughters: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Taxonomies

In-depth qualitative interviews regarding daughters' relationships with their fathers in adulthood were conducted with 13 women who had experienced parental divorce prior to adolescence and who subsequently maintained residence primarily with their mothers until adulthood. Qualitative analysis revealed four typologies of the father-adult daughter relationship: Father-Daughter, Friends, Ambivalence, and Anger. Defining characteristics of these typologies include: daughters' perceived support from fathers, control of the relationship, closeness of the relationship. The identification of these four typologies provide a model for understanding the diverse influence of parental divorce on the father-daughter relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Hannu Räty. The significance of parents' evaluations of their own school for their educational attitudes. Social Psychology of Education, 2003. 6(1), pp. 43-60.

parent evaluations: school evaluations: educational attitudes: vocational education: academic education: prediction: secondary education: Educational Aspirations: Educational Program Evaluation: Parent Educational Background: Parental Attitudes: Fathers: Mothers: Undergraduate Education

Examined parents' evaluations of the school they had attended and the role of these evaluations in the formation of parental attitudes towards education. A group of vocationally educated (N = 343; 55% mothers and 45% fathers, mean age 37 yrs) and a group of academically educated (N = 231; 65% mothers and 35% fathers, mean age 39 yrs) parents evaluated the functioning of their own primary school; they were also requested to indicate their opinions on a set of attitude statements and to predict their preschool-aged child's future direction in secondary education. The parents' evaluation of their schools averaged at "satisfactory'. The critical educational attitudes corresponding to the educational position of the academically educated parents were enhanced if their evaluation of their own school was negative, whereas the positive educational attitudes corresponding to the educational position of the vocationally educated parents were enhanced if their evaluation of their own school was positive. With the vocationally educated parents, their school evaluation also organized their prediction of their child's secondary education: a positive evaluation raised and a negative evaluation lowered the likelihood of vocational education as the predicted alternative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

E. Remor, S. Ulla, J. L. Ramos, P. Arranz and F. Hernández-Navarro. La sobreprotección como un factor de riesgo en la reducción de la autoestima en niños con hemofilia. Revista Psiquis, 2003. 24(4), pp. 37-42.

overprotection: children: self esteem: well being: haemophilia: parent son interaction: self perception: Family: Hemophilia: Parent Child Relations: Parenting Style: Fathers: Risk Factors

Parent's overprotection makes the child with haemophilia feel useless, fearful and incapable to take care of himself. To address this question a correlation study was carried out asking children about their perceptions of overprotection from their parents and how they feel when this occurred. The participants of the study were 20 children with severe haemophilia A, between 8 to 16 years, treated in the same Comprehensive Haemophilia Care Centre. We asked each child if in the last month he had felt that his mother and father (separately) had protected him too much, and if in the last month he had felt himself as a common boy at the same age. The results showed that those children that felt that their mother had protected them too much felt the same attitude from their father. In addition, those children who felt that their mother had protected them too much felt different from other boys at the same age. The feelings related to the father were similar, but did not achieve significance levels. Children with inhibitor have been missed more school days. Learning to cope with problems begins at an early age and grows with the parents-son interaction. The way that parents perceive their child will set the tone for the child's own self-perception and, therefore, his self esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Kimberly Renk, Rex Roberts, Angela Roddenberry, et al. Mothers, fathers, gender role, and time parents spend with their children. Sex Roles, 2003. 48(7), pp. 305-315.

mothers: fathers: gender role: parents: time spent with children: Parent Child Relations: Sex Roles: Time

To examine the relationships among the sex of the parent, gender role, and the time parents spend with their children, 272 parents (aged 19-54 yrs) completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, a questionnaire about the time spent with their children, and a demographics questionnaire. Analyses indicated that neither the sex of the parent nor gender role was predictive of the amount of time parents were spending in direct interaction with or being accessible to their children. The sex of the parent, qualified by earning status, was predictive of the level of responsibility parents had for child-related activities. Further, the sex of the parent, qualified by femininity, was predictive of parental satisfaction with level of child-related responsibilities. These results emphasize the importance of examining parental characteristics in relation to the time parents spend with their children and their levels of responsibility for child-related activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

K. W. Rhodes, J. G. Orme and M. McSurdy. Foster parents' role performance responsibilities: Perceptions of foster mothers, fathers, and workers. Children and Youth Services Review, 2003. 25(12), pp. 935-964.

Different expectations of foster parents' roles can create problems for children, families, and agencies. This study examined role expectations among 161 foster/adoptive family applicants (157 mothers and 103 fathers) and 67 workers. The Foster Parent Role Performance (FPRP) scale was used to measure perceived responsibility. Results indicated agreement about the paramount importance of parenting, and agreement among married couples. Within each group there was disagreement about responsibility for working with the agency, and disagreement between workers and parents about responsibility for working with the agency and parenting. African-American mothers and workers believed that parents had more responsibility. Parents who had more education and workers who did foster parent training believed that parents had less responsibility.

Mah Nazir Riaz. Perceived parental acceptance-rejection, control, and personality characteristics of adolescents. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies, 2003. 19(1), pp. 7-17.

parental acceptance-rejection: children perception: father: mother: control: parenting style: child personality: Child Attitudes: Parent Child Relations: Personality: Fathers: Mothers

The present study aims at an investigation of relationship among perceived parental acceptance-rejection, control and personality characteristics of children. A sample of 100 families was selected from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. From each family three members were included in the sample, viz. father, mother, and a minor child (male/female) between 10 to 16 years of age. Parental Acceptance-Rejection scales developed by Rohner at Child Study Center were used after translation into Urdu language. These scales included Child Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire/Control (PARQ) including both Mother and Father Version, and Child Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ). Reliability and validity data of all these scales obtained in an earlier study (Riaz, 2003), demonstrate well that the instruments are psychometrically sound. No gender differences were found. Results reveal that children perceive their fathers to be significantly more neglecting whereas, mothers are perceived as more accepting than fathers. Parents appear to be moderate in controlling children's behavior, which adds to their perception of parental warmth and acceptance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

H. Ricaud-Droisy and Chantal Zaouche-Gaudron. Interpersonal conflict resolution strategies in children: A father-child co-construction. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 2003. 18(2), pp. 157-169.

interpersonal conflict resolution: strategies: interpersonal relations: early paternal involvement: Conflict Resolution: Early Childhood Development: Father Child Relations: Interpersonal Interaction: Fathers: Involvement

The interpersonal conflict gives an opportunity to learn living together and to accept differences. We consider the interpersonal conflict resolution strategies as an indicator of the socialization and as such of the autonomisation and social integration. If, at the earliest age, the child has the advantage of a differentiated and early paternal involvement, he would use a larger variety of adjustment mechanisms when he will be in conflictual situations. Indeed, the father facilitates and stimulates the subjectivation process which integrates the appearing premises of self-consciousness, around 3-4 years old, in the conducts of initiative and consciousness, self affirmation; the father introduces and consolidates the process which integrates the opening to wider interpersonal relations, which notably appears in collaboration conducts and more especially resolution interpersonal conflict. In order to evidence the paternal influence on resolution strategies of interpersonal conflicts, we will develop some results of a comparative study conducted among girls and boys (aged from 3 to 5), and their fathers... (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

L. A. Ricci and Robert M. Hodapp. Fathers of children with down's syndrome versus other types of intellectual disability: Perceptions, stress and involvement. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 2003. 47(4), pp. 273-284.

down's syndrome: positive personality traits: parenting stress: child rearing: intellectual disability: involvement: Childrearing Practices: Downs Syndrome: Mental Retardation: Parental Investment: Stress: Fathers: Personality Traits

Background: The present study examined fathers' perceptions of, stress relating to and involvement with children with Down's syndrome (DS) (n = 30) versus those with other types of intellectual disability (ID) (n = 20). The ages of children in both groups ranged from 3 to 22 years, with average ages of 10-11 years in each group. Methods: Fathers and mothers completed questionnaires about their children's personalities and maladaptive behaviours, their own parenting stress, and the fathers' level of involvement. Results: Both fathers and mothers rated their children with DS as having more positive personality traits and fewer maladaptive behaviours. Possibly because of these positive perceptions, fathers of children with DS also reported less child-related stress, particularly in the areas of acceptability, adaptability and demandingness. The two groups of fathers were very similarly involved in child rearing. The personality, age and maladaptive behaviours of the children related to stress levels in the fathers of children with DS, while maladaptive behaviours, gender and the fathers' education levels related to stress levels in the fathers of children with other types of ID. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

K. Riebel and I. M. Smallegange. Does zebra finch (taeniopygia guttata) preference for the (familiar) father's song generalize to the songs of unfamiliar brothers? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2003. 117(PART 1), pp. 61-66.

Karen Ann Rolf. Exceptional children and everyday jobs: The effect of caring for a child who has a chronic illness or a disability on parents' work hours. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 64(1), pp. 288-A.

Learning Disabilities: Handicapped: Chronic Illness: Parent Child Relations: Fathers: Working Mothers: Family Work Relationship: Working Hours: special needs children

Caring for any child presents significant challenges to a family. When the child has special needs, because of a disability or chronic illness, however, those challenges may be substantially greater. This dissertation examines the decisions made by parents regarding the number of hours they supply to the labor market. It considers the role of caring for a child with special needs in that decision. Using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the study assesses the impact of the presence of a child with a disability or chronic illness on the decisions by mothers and fathers to work full-time, part-time, or at all, and the impact on the number of hours worked. The impact for single mothers is actually greater in some cases than the impact of caring for an additional child who does not have a disability or chronic illness. The effect for married mothers is somewhat smaller. For all females, those lower in the income distribution experience a larger negative effect on the probability of working full-time, part-time, or at all, and on the number of hours worked per week. The observed effect for fathers is to increase their share of total household working hours. These findings have substantial implications for the formulation of policies to assist families that care for children who have disabilities or chronic illnesses. They suggest that the health of children should be an important consideration in setting benefit levels and work requirements. They also suggest that even families above the poverty level may require additional assistance to allow them to participate fully in the labor market.

Kevin Roy. Review of involved fathering and men's adult development: Provisional balances. Fathering, 2003. 1(2), pp. 179-182.

involved fathering: men's adult development: Adult Development: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Involvement

Reviews the book "Involved Fathering and Men's Adult Development: Provisional Balances" by Rob Palkovitz (see record 2002-01956-000). In this empirical study of the experiences of 40 fathers with diverse backgrounds, the author offers new evidence that links dynamic fathering experiences to perceived changes in men's maturity and sense of self. He draws upon rich traditions in social theory and suggests intriguing new directions for the study of men and families. The volume can potentially inform the work of developmental psychologists, family scholars, adult and human developmentalists, marital and family therapists, scholars of men's studies, and even policymakers. The book begins with a "foundational" section, which includes a helpful distillation of the research on fatherhood's effect on adult development; a description of the study design; a short historical discussion of changing father roles; related findings from the 40 men in the study; and a short chapter on the life course of fathers, in which men retrospectively reflect on their personalized paths through parenthood. The book concludes with a "cost-benefit analysis" and a summary of the concept of "provisional balances." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Margo Russell, Debbie Budlender, Robert Morrell, et al. Households and families in southern africa. Social Dynamics, 2003. 29(2), pp. 5-233.

Jenna Ryckebusch Lyn, Heather Miller, Kimberly Fulmer, et al. Single versus dual paycheck: Married parents' attitudes about maternal employment. 2003. pp. 25.

This study examines attitudes about maternal employment by comparing the responses of married parents from single versus two-paycheck families. Participants in this study were 138 mothers and 120 fathers given the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children Scale (BACMEC), which assesses views about maternal employment. Among the fathers surveyed, significant differences emerged in both the Cost and Benefits summary scales. Fathers from two-paycheck families perceived greater benefits associated with maternal employment than did fathers from single paycheck families. Fathers from two-paycheck families perceived fewer costs associated with maternal employment than did fathers from single paycheck families. Mothers' responses yielded a significant group difference on the benefits summary scale. Mothers from two-paycheck families perceived greater benefits associated with maternal employment than did mothers from single paycheck families. The results of the analysis indicate that participants' attitudes about maternal employment are generally congruent with their chosen lifestyles. In addition, on many of the BACMEC items, the responses from men whose wives did not work reflected the most negative attitudes about maternal employment. (Contains 49 references.) (Author).

Colette Sabatier. Review of hanbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2003. 34(6), pp. 750-751.

father involvement: father investment: child upbringing: multidisciplinary perspectives: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Involvement: Parental Investment

This book addresses in depth and breadth the question of the involvement or investment of fathers in the upbringing of the child. Its initial ideas emanated from the Early Head Start (EHS) Father Studies Work Group, funded by various American agencies as a national project. The approach is truly multidisciplinary. Six sections cover different domains of expertise: demography, developmental psychology, social anthropology, evolutionism, economy, and policy makers. Each has been edited by a specialist in the field. The various chapters are theoretically driven and not just descriptive, rather they test specific hypotheses. Various methodologies are presented but also questioned. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

F. Sahin, U. Beyazova and A. Akturk. Attitudes and practices regarding circumcision in turkey. Child Care Health and Development, 2003. 29(4), pp. 275-280.

Background In Turkey, circumcision is a necessity for boys to gain a masculine identity. In contrast to Western societies, where circumcision is performed in the neonatal period, it is performed at older ages in our population, and the timing may affect the psychosocial well-being of males. The person who performs the operation, a physician or a traditional circumciser, may affect their health as well. Objective To provide some information about the practice of circumcision in Turkey, such as timing, by whom and why it is performed in our country, and relation of their fathers' past emotions about their own circumcision to this current practice. Methods Questionnaires were filled out in face-to-face interviews with parents of 1235 male children under 16 years of age who attended well-child clinics of Gazi University Hospital and 10 different primary health care centres throughout Ankara, Turkey. Results Median age of circumcision was found to be 6 years. Only 14.8% of children were circumcised before 1 year of age. The main reasons for circumcision were religious and traditional. The medical benefits of the procedure outweighed the traditional reasons for only 15.2% of the families. The operation was carried out by a traditional circumciser in 13.3% of the children. Most of the fathers who could remember their own emotions about circumcision confessed that they had been frightened. They remembered the procedure as painful. Indeed, the mean age of their sons' circumcision was close to their own circumcision age. Conclusions Traditions still play an important role in the timing of circumcision and by whom and why it is performed in Turkey. Changing times and educational levels do not seem to affect the traditional approach to circumcision.

Michelle Angela Sallee. Single fathers raising children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 64(5), pp. 2403-2403.

single father: educating psychologists: self-in-relation theory: developmental theories: clinical interventions: gender role strain: psychoeducation: Parenting Style: Single Fathers: Psychologists

With the single father population increasing at a rapid rate, it becomes important to research the needs of single fathers in America with the intention of educating psychologists on appropriate clinical interventions for this population. Gender Role Strain theory and Self-in-Relation theory were reviewed and applied to the single father population in an effort to offer psychologists a framework with which to understand this population. Based on research of the major problem areas for single fathers and an application of these two developmental theories a brochure for single fathers was developed. Feedback obtained from 5 single father research participants for this APA Division 42 format Brochure was obtained. The brochure is written for single fathers offering them support, psychoeducation on what psychologists can offer them, and convenient resources and contact information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

T. Saloviita, M. Italinna and E. Leinonen. Explaining the parental stress of fathers and mothers caring for a child with intellectual disability: A double ABCX model. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 2003. 47pp. 300-312.

Background Twenty variables based on the Double ABCX Model of adaptation and selected on the basis of previous research were chosen to explain the parental stress of the mothers (n=116) and fathers (n=120) of children with an intellectual disability (age range=1-10 years). Methods Principal component analysis, rotated into varimax-criterion, was done separately for mothers and fathers. The solution containing eight factors was considered best for both groups. They accounted for more than 70% of the total variance of the original variables. These eight orthogonal components were then entered into a stepwise regression analysis that was done separately for mothers and fathers. Results The multiple regression equations obtained explained 72% of the variance in maternal stress and 78% of the variance in paternal stress. The equations for mothers and fathers contained six and seven components, respectively. Conclusion The variables used in the present study were highly successful in accounting for parental stress. The results confirm the importance of intervening factors in explaining the stress. The single most important predictor of parental stress was the negative definition of the situation. In mothers, the negative definition was associated with the behavioural problems of the child while, in fathers it was connected with the experienced social acceptance of the child.

Rachel Seginer and Sami Mahajna. "Education is a weapon in women's hands": How israeli arab girls construe their future. Zeitschrift Fur Soziologie Der Erziehung Und Socialisation/Journal for Sociology of Education and Socialization, 2003. 23(2), pp. 184-198.

Academic Achievement: Future Orientations: Adolescents: Females: Arab Cultural Groups: Israel: Life Plans: Fathers: Educational Attainment

This study analyzed future orientations regarding higher education of Israeli Arab girls in the context of (1) father's level of education, (2) fathers' beliefs about education & marriage, & (3) future orientation regarding marriage & family. Results of data collected from 11th-grade girls (N = 90) indicated no significant effect of fathers' level of education. Empirical estimation of a future orientation path model was partly corroborated, showing (A) direct links between education future orientation & academic achievement, & (B) the pivotal role of family future orientation in linking perceived fathers' beliefs & education future orientation, as well as having a direct link to academic achievement. These results are discussed in relation to human agency & the perceived instrumentally of academic achievement for valued goals. 1 Table, 1 Figure, 47 References. Adapted from the source document.

Adam Shapiro. Later-life divorce and parent-adult child contact and proximity: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Family Issues, 2003. 24(2), pp. 264-285.

Divorce: Parent Child Relations: Adult Children: Mothers: Fathers: Elderly: United States of America

This study explores how parental divorce that occurs after children have reached adulthood affects parent-adult child contact & proximity. Data are from two waves of the National Survey of Families & Households (NSFH) & include 1,463 respondents. The findings suggest that divorce affects parent-child contact & proximity differently for mothers & fathers. Compared with stably married fathers, fathers who divorced were more likely to experience a decline in coresidence & weekly contact with at least one adult child. However, divorced mothers were more likely than stably married mothers to report an increase in weekly contact with an adult child. At the same time, the data intimate that divorce may slightly increase mothers' likelihood of little or no contact with an adult child. 4 Tables, 38 References. [Copyright 2003 Sage Publications, Inc.].

Bahira Sherif-Trask. Review of the package deal: Marriage, work and fatherhood in men's lives. Fathering, 2003. 1(3), pp. 303-306.

American fatherhood: anthropological approach: family: work: marriage: fathers role: Anthropology: Fathers: Occupations

Reviews the book, "The Package Deal: Marriage, Work and Fatherhood in Men's Lives," by Nicholas W. Townsend (2002). The book examines several taken-for-granted assumptions about contemporary American fatherhood from the perspective of a comparative social anthropologist. It is a real pleasure to see an anthropological approach being applied to research on family and fatherhood issues. It is a unique and critical contribution to a discourse that links an anthropological approach to the sociological/psychological study of families and fatherhood. The author examines aspects of the contemporary debate about the meaning of fatherhood and the roles of fathers in contemporary American society. His research is based on interviews and participant observation of middleclass men from the same graduating high school class of a small town in northern California. The basic thesis of his argument is that these men see their lives and measure their success in terms of a cultural ideal that he terms "the package deal," in which having children, being married, holding a steady job, and owning a home are four interconnected elements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

R. Shimoni, David Este and Dawne E. Clark. Paternal engagement in immigrant and refugee families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 2003. 34(4), pp. 555-568.

Fathers: Refugees: Immigrants: Cultural Values: Parenthood: Parent Child Relations: Social Services: Canada: Latin American Cultural Groups: Asian Cultural Groups: Slavic Cultural Groups: Southeast Asian Cultural Groups: South Asian Cultural Groups

Paternal disengagement has been identified as a key risk factor for Canadian children. Prior to this study, the specific barriers to paternal engagement facing immigrant & refugee fathers had not been studied or identified, nor had strategies been developed to ensure that the needs of this population are met in new & existing services. The design of specialized services for immigrant & refugee fathers, as well as the successful integration of immigrant & refugee fathers into existing services, requires that practitioners gain an understanding of fatherhood from a cross-cultural perspective. The intent of this study was to explore the values, strengths, & difficulties faced by new Canadian fathers as they negotiate a variety of Canadian experiences while coping with the struggles associated with migration. Implications of these findings for the development & implementation of programs intended to support families will be discussed. 22 References. Adapted from the source document.

Akira Shinohara. Interdisciplinary study of fatherhood ideals and styles: The trinitarian god concepts and the conceptualization of fatherhood. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(10), pp. 3756-A.

Fathers: Parenthood: Religious Doctrines: Christianity: God (Judeo-Christian): Psychoanalytic Interpretation: Theology

This study explores the implications of the concept of God as a Trinity for reconstructing the ideals and styles of fatherhood in a way that is sensitive to both theological and sociocultural understandings. More specifically, it pursues the integration of current sociological and psychological notions of fatherhood with trinitarian concepts of God within a five-fold framework: called "trinitarian perspectives of fatherhood." These trinitarian concepts (relatedness, personhood, compassion, involvement, and authority) are further developed in fifteen theses. The contribution of this study to fatherhood studies lies in proposing a Christian perspective of fatherhood that is based on relations between the persons of the Trinity while taking into account the findings of sociocultural investigations. The outline of this study is as follows: In chapter 2, the contemporary sociocultural debates on the uniqueness of fatherhood are surveyed. In chapter 3, different voices calling for the father, based on the psychoanalytic literature of Freud and Lacan, are heard and evaluated. In chapter 4, a hermeneutical framework is developed by critically assessing and borrowing the methodologies of David Cunningham, Colin Gunton, and Miroslav Volf. In chapter 5, the implications of the trinitarian concept of God for fatherhood are developed, as the latter is described in the contemporary literature on the Trinity. In chapter 6, a "trinitarian perspective of fatherhood" is put forward in terms of five key concepts. Chapter 7 suggests areas for further research. This research demonstrates that it is possible to construct a trinitarian perspective of fatherhood, one that affirms the significance and uniqueness of fatherhood while avoiding associations with authoritarianism and oppression. In addition, this study concludes that fatherhood is an eschatological and, therefore, teleological concept from a trinitarian perspective. If the idea and practice of fatherhood are lost, not only children but also adults will lose their way into the future. The father is a unique personality who must be relationally self-giving, personifying, compassionate, involving, and virtuous in order for his children to live in freedom. The trinitarian perspectives provide a constructive framework for reconceptualizing fatherhood for the personal, social, and spiritual lives of children, both now and going forward.

Tick N. Sim. The father-adolescent relationship in the context of the mother-adolescent relationship: Exploring moderating linkages in a late-adolescent sample in singapore. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2003. 18(4), pp. 383-404.

Fathers: Mothers: Young Adults: Parent Child Relations: Academic Achievement: Sports Participation: Self Esteem: Singapore: Undergraduate Students

This study examined father & mother linkages in relation to adolescent academic & athletic competence & self-worth. A total of 140 Singapore undergraduates reported on themselves & their parents. Results indicate that some links between father characteristics & adolescent attributes exist only when mother characteristics are considered. The link between father responsiveness & athletic competence existed only when mother responsiveness was high, & that link between father acceptance of individuation & athletic competence existed only when mother acceptance of individuation was moderate or high. Results also indicate that father characteristics moderate links between mother characteristics & adolescent attributes. The link between mother responsiveness & self-worth became stronger as father responsiveness increased. These findings demonstrate the need to consider both parents' characteristics together rather than independently or exclusively. 3 Tables, 53 References. [Copyright 2003 Sage Publications, Inc.].

Ilina Singh. Boys will be boys: Fathers' perspectives on ADHD symptoms, diagnosis, and drug treatment. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 2003. 11(6), pp. 308-316.

drug treatment: diagnosis: ADHD symptoms: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: perspective of fathers: sons with ADHD: mothers: Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: Fathers: Involvement: Parental Attitudes: Treatment: Drug Therapy: Father Child Relations: Human Sex Differences: Sons: Symptoms

Fathers tend to be largely absent from research and clinical settings related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as from public forums related to ADHD, such as deficit/educational conferences and parent support groups. Because of these absences, little is known about fathers' perspectives on ADHD symptoms, diagnosis, and drug treatment. This article presents findings from a qualitative study involving 39 mothers and 22 fathers of boys with ADHD. In-depth interviews were conducted using a picture-based method that elicited detailed narratives. Results of this study suggest that fathers' perspectives on ADHD behaviors, diagnosis, and drug treatment can be categorized along two dimensions: "reluctant believers" and "tolerant non-believers." Across these two dimensions, several related factors are relevant to fathers' perspectives: resistance to a medical framework for understanding their sons' behaviors; identification with the sons' symptomatic behaviors; and resistance to drug treatment with stimulants. These factors may help to explain, in turn, fathers' absences from clinical evaluations of their sons' behaviors. The study affirms the importance of fathers' perspectives to the clinical evaluation and treatment of boys' symptomatic behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Mark Smith. What about the dads? issues and possibilities of working with men from a child and youth care perspective. Child & Youth Services, 2003. 25(1), pp. 149-167.

child care: youth care workers: fathers: children's upbringing: Child Care Workers: Parent Child Relations

The importance of fathers in their children's upbringing is increasingly recognised in child and youth care practice. Yet professional interventions in families often focus on men as problems. The experiences of fathers in community settings are applied to a child and youth care context. Workers are challenged to consider the role fathers play in their children's lives and how CYC principles might provide a basis for including men in their thinking about their work with children, youth, and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Robert James Snow. Nonresidential father-child involvement: Fathers' and mothers' perspectives in acrimonious divorce relationships. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(9), pp. 3359-3359.

paternal involvement: parental role: nonresidential fathers: divorce: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Involvement: Parental Characteristics: Mothers: Social Casework: Social Work Education

Divorce has affected more than 1,000,000 children each year. Within two years of their parents' divorce, roughly 50% of children will have contact with their father less than twice per year. Using a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework, the purpose of this study was to expand the conceptualization of father-child involvement from the perspectives of divorced parental dyads and to identify the origins and mechanisms that promote and discourage paternal involvement. A convenience sample of nonresidential fathers was recruited from the state chapter of a national organization that promotes shared parenting. Mothers were recruited after the fathers agreed to participate. Seven matched parental dyads were interviewed separately on three occasions using the methodology of Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory and Lincoln and Guba's naturalistic inquiry. Applying the method of constant comparative analysis, the data were coded and categorized, themes and properties were identified and attached to categories, and working hypotheses were developed into grounded theory. Trustworthiness of the data was demonstrated through triangulation of the data, peer debriefing, and auditing of the data. Father-child involvement was a function of the interactive processes between parental definitions of self and other and the accompanying role expectations. Parental identity was formulated in the family of origin, supported by their social support network, and implemented with their children. Performance of their parental role without interference allowed them to formulate a "good parent identity" (GPI). Conflict arose when parents had disparate definitions and expectations of the other parents' role performance. Obstructions or threats to the enactment of the GPI created conflict between the parental dyads. Conflict escalated when parents saw themselves as victims of the other parents' behavior and they were unable to act in the best interest of their children. Parents maintained their GPI with various strategies including litigation, parent-child alliance building, parental alienation, and parental abduction of their children. These findings have strong implications at both the micro and macro levels of social work practice. Social workers can increase father-child involvement by protecting the GPI of both parents. Zealous advocacy of a parent may produce further harm to the client and the children involved by creating a threat to the other parent's GPI. Parents will employ extreme strategies to minimize intense threats to their GPI. Macro level interventions include the recommendations for parental and professional educational programs and policy development that will enhance GPI. Suggestions for social work education and further research are discussed. Findings from this study are limited to the context from which they were derived. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

P. Solis-Camara, M. D. Romero, E. B. Reyna and N. G. Arellano. Developmental expectations and discipline and nurturing practices of married couples with children with special needs. Salud Mental, 2003. 26(2), pp. 51-58.

In this study, the term children with special needs is used to refer to children who comprise a population at risk for various medical and psychological disorders. Studies of parenting practices compare families with children with special needs not sharing a specific disability to parents of average children. Moreover, studies usually compare white middle class mother-child pairs. It is acknowledged that too much about these families is unknown, particularly with Latinamerican families. Therefore, research on parenting children with special needs is essential. A logical starting point would be to test appropriate assessment materials for this population. The present study analyzes the usefulness of an instrument, the ECMP, developed to assess parenting of young children. The main concern relates to how mothers and fathers of children with special needs differ from parents of average children on discipline and nurturing practices as well as on developmental expectations. Research has suggested that parents perceptions of their children's behavior as problematic may increase the distress of parents. This study also examines mothers' and fathers' perceptions of child deviance. We administered to parents a health scale for children (ESN) as a measure of children's psychosocial adjustment. We wanted to identify first mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their child deviant behaviors; and, secondly we wanted to know if such perceptions were related to developmental expectations and parenting practices. The study sample included 166 families with at least one child between the ages of 12 and 56 months (44 boys, 36 girls). Families with a child with special needs (FNES) included 80 mothers and 80 fathers. Of the children's sample, 6.2% had cerebral palsy, 16.2% psychomotor retardation, 6.2% Down syndrome, 11.2% brain damage, 8.7% language handicapped, 8.7% respiratory disorders, 5% other syndromes, 27.5% multiple diagnosis, and 15% had no specific disorder. Families with an average child (FNOR) were drawn from the normative population of the ECMP. This sample included 86 fathers and 86 mothers; there were 46 boys and 40 girls. Both samples completed a socio-cultural questionnaire and the ECMP. FNES also completed the ESN. MANOVAs were conducted for the three ECMP scales, between mothers and fathers and child's sex for FNOR and also for FNES. There were no main effects or interactions. To determine if significant differences existed by children's age two separate two-way (scales x age) MANOVA were conducted. ANOVAs were significant for expectations and discipline scores of FNOR. There was an increase of expectations with child's age; parents' expectations of 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old children differed significantly. For the discipline scale, parents of 1-year-olds differed significantly from the parents of 1, 2, 3-, and 4-year-old children. For FNES, ANOVAs were also significant for expectations and discipline. For both scales, the parents of 1-year-olds differed from the parents of 2, 3, and 4-year-old children. Comparisons between families indicated a significant effect for group and gender. ANOVAs indicated that FNOR had higher expectations and discipline scores than FNES. The gender effect,vas found for nurturing scores; mothers scored hi her than fathers. 9 A significant interaction effect for the expectations scale was found. FNOR housewives scored higher than both FNOR and FNES employees, and also than FNES housewives. FNOR mothers with a professional occupation also had higher expectations than FNES housewives. For fathers no significant effects were found. A cut-off score of five points was suggested by the authors of the ESN as the criterion to identify psychosocially disadvantaged children. Applying this criterion to the scores of FNES allowed us to identify three groups of parents: those who perceived their child as functional (NES-F: < 5 points, 21%), or dysfunctional (NES-D: double right arrow 5, 51%), and those whose spouse showed no agreement on the health status of the child (NES-NC, 28%). A three-way MANOVA (scales X group X gender) indicated a main effect for group. ANOVAs were significant for expectations, nurturing and the ESN. For the expectations scale, post-hoc tests indicated NES-D families scored lower than NES-F families, and these last families scored higher than NES-NC families; for the nurturing scale, NES-D families scored lower than NES-F, and NES-NC families; for the ESN scale, NES-F families scored lower than the other two groups. Analyses of the socio-cultural variables of these FNES groups indicated significant effects for expectations, discipline, and nurturing. For each scale, scores were higher for families with a single child compared with families with more than one child. Also when both mother and father took care of the child, their reported expectations and nurturing were higher than when the mother was the sole responsible of the child. To determine if significant differences existed between FNES groups and FNOR in regard to their ratings of parenting, a two-way MANOVA (scale X groups: NES-F, NES-D, NES-NC, FNOR) was conducted. Higher scores were found for the three ECMP scales for FNCR than for NES-D. Pearson product-moment correlations were computed from the mothers' and fathers' scores on the ECMP and the ESN. A different pattern of significant relationships were found between the scores by groups: FNCR and NES-D mothers, and FNOR and NES-D fathers. A stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that the expectations scale discriminated FNOR and FNES. Separated analyses for mothers and fathers from FNOR and NES-D indicated a different picture. For mothers, the expectations scale and also this scale plus the discipline one discriminated between them. For fathers, both expectations and nurturing scales discriminated between them. In the groups of mothers, 65 out of 86 (76%) FNOR children were correctly classified and 28 out of 41 (68%) NES-D children were correctly predicted. In the groups of fathers, 64 out of 86 (77%) FNOR children were correctly classified and 30 out of 41 (73%) NES-D children were correctly predicted. The present study, found similar parenting practices and developmental expectations within families. Developmental expectations increased with child's age for FNOR but not for FNES; this result may reflect that the child's inability could become more evident as he/she gets older forcing parents to adjust their expectations to the child's actual capacity. Comparisons between families indicated that FNOR had significantly higher developmental expectations and discipline scores than FNES. Previous comparisons of Mexican mothers and fathers have indicated that discipline and nurturing scores are higher for mothers than for fathers from different families; in the present study, a similar gender effect was found only for nurturing between married couples. The children with special needs were rated by their parents as having lower or higher psychosocial problems. The higher scores of NES-D families may reflect the parents' sensitivity to their children's health conditions and a tendency to presume their children may be experiencing social problems. Parents may compensate for this perception by lowering their developmental expectations and discipline practices. Another interpretation of the lower expectation scores may be that some of the ECMP items were specifically related to the child's inability and were truly beyond the child's capacity. The present study also found that nurturing practices differ between FNOR and NES-D. This result and the reported correlations suggest that lower child functional ability is associated with less nurturing practices. In general, these results, as well as the discriminant analyses, indicate that comparisons of parenting practices between these families are strongly influenced by parents' perceptions of their child's deviant behaviors. This research expands the presently limited knowledge base regarding the child with special needs in the context of the family. The data support the usefulness of the assessment tools for psychologists working with families with young children. There are several limitations of the study that should be noted. First, the heterogeneous disabilities of the children, and secondly, the small samples by children's age, and by socio-cultural variables. Consequently, our findings and conclusions require additional research to examine child and parent factors through the use of more specific criteria.

R. Sood, S. A. Wingenfeld and A. W. Love. A mediated model of the role of maternal and paternal depression in child adjustment. Australian Journal of Psychology, 2003. 55pp. 213-213.

P. Splendore. "No more mothers and fathers": The family sub-text in J.M. coetzee's novels. Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 2003. 38(PART 3), pp. 149-162.

J. Stamps. Behavioural processes affecting development: Tinbergen's fourth question comes of age. Animal Behaviour, 2003. 66pp. 1-13.

Interest in relationships between behaviour and development has been spurred by research on related topics, including phenotypic plasticity, parental effects, extragenetic inheritance, individual differences and trait syndromes. Here, I consider several emerging areas of research in the interface between behaviour and development, with a focus on behavioural processes that are likely to affect the development and maintenance of interindividual variation in a wide array of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits. Using a norm of reaction approach, I introduce and illustrate the complexities of phenotypic development. Next, I consider the implications of environmental selection and niche construction for phenotypic development, and consider why these behavioural processes are likely to encourage the development and maintenance of repeatable, stable individual differences and trait syndromes. Parental effects involving behaviour also affect the development of a wide array of phenotypic traits; differential allocation is a currently underappreciated type of parental effect, by which males can affect the development of their offspring via nongenetic means, even if those males have no contact with their young. Behavioural parental effects also contribute to extragenetic inheritance, and recent studies suggest that this phenomenon may be more widespread than previously suspected. The effects of behavioural processes on phenotypic development have interesting implications for problems in related disciplines (e.g. ecology, evolution and conservation biology), providing additional impetus for future research on the effects of behavioural mechanisms on the development of behavioural and other traits. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Mary Jo Stein. Relationships between family communication and adolescent involvement in consumer activities of fathers and their middle-school-age sons. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(11), pp. 4109-A.

Consumerism: Parent Child Relations: Fathers: Sons: Interpersonal Communication: Adolescents: Junior High School Students

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between father and son perceptions of communication and adolescent involvement in consumer activities. The specific objectives were to explore: (a) son perceptions of communication, (b) father perceptions of communication, (c) son perceptions of adolescent consumer activities, and (d) father perceptions of adolescent consumer activities. This study was restricted to father-son pairs where the son was of middle-school age, 6th through 8th grades, at the beginning of the fall 2001 school year and living in the same household as the father. A convenience sample of 82 father-son pairs were given the "Father-Son Communication (for Fathers)" and the "Father-Son Communication (for Sons)" questionnaires. Fifty-six complete and usable pairs of questionnaires were returned to the researcher for a 68.3% rate of return. Three research questions formed the basis for the study. They were: (1) How does father-son communication relate to adolescent consumer activities? (2) How do family structure, level of income, and number of children influence son adolescent consumer activities? and (3) How do family structure, level of income, and number of children influence mean differences in father and son perceptions of adolescent consumer activities? The eleven hypotheses were analyzed using Pearson correlation methods for Hypotheses 1-5; a 5X 4X5 Factorial ANOVA for Hypotheses 6-8; and a 5X 4X5 Mixed Design ANOVA which allowed the utilization of paired data between fathers and sons for Hypotheses 9-11. No relationships were found between father and son communication and adolescent consumer activities. Hypotheses 1-5 were accepted showing no significant relationships. Additional t tests were analyzed to test differences in communication scores of fathers and sons; adolescent consumer activities scores of fathers and sons; and father and son total scores (communication and adolescent consumer activities). Fathers and sons communication scores were significantly different with fathers reporting higher communication scores. Total scores were also significantly different while adolescent consumer activities scores did not show significant differences between fathers and sons. Family structure, level of income, and number of children did not significantly relate to son adolescent consumer activities. Hypotheses 6-8 were accepted showing no relationship between family structure, level of income, or number of children and son adolescent consumer activities. Family structure, level of income, and number of children had little relation to the mean differences in father and son perceptions of adolescent consumer activities. Family structure and number of children resulted in no significant relationship between mean differences in father and son adolescent consumer activities scores. One factor of the level of income ANOVA resulted in significant differences. This is taken with caution as sampling error could have produced these results.

Susan D. Stewart. Nonresident parenting and adolescent adjustment: The quality of nonresident father-child interaction. Journal of Family Issues, 2003. 24(2), pp. 217-244.

Fathers: Absence: Parent-Child relationships: Child rearing: Practice: Adolescents: Adjustment: USA

Aside from providing financial support, exactly how nonresident fathers benefit children remains unclear. This article assesses whether the quality of the interaction between nonresident fathers and their children is related to adolescent adjustment, net of visitation frequency. Results suggest that participating in leisure activities with nonresident fathers does not influence children's well-being. Results provide mixed evidence as to whether children benefit from nonresident fathers' involvement in authoritative parenting. Whereas talking to nonresident fathers about 'other things going on at school' is consistently positively related to adjustment, other measures of authoritative parenting are not. Closeness to nonresident fathers, although negatively related to emotional distress, does not mediate the effect of father involvement. Results suggest that we should continue to examine nonresident fathers' involvement in specific aspects of authoritative parenting, as opposed to leisure and recreational activities more typical of nonresident father-child contact. 4 Tables, 65 References. [Copyright 2003 Sage Publications, Inc.].

Susan D. Stewart, Wendy D. Manning and Pamela J. Smock. Union formation among men in the U.S.: Does having prior children matter? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 2003. 65(1), pp. 90-104.

United States of America: Fathers: Remarriage: Cohabitation: Child Support: Child Custody: Visitation

Our study investigates whether fatherhood, & specifically involvement with nonresident children, influence men's entrance into marital & cohabiting unions. Using the National Survey of Families & Households, our findings suggest that neither resident nor nonresident children affect men's chances of entering a new marriage, but nonresident children have a positive effect on cohabitation. The positive association between nonresident children & men's union formation is not uniform; instead, we find that it is involvement with nonresident children, specifically visitation, that enhances men's chances of forming new unions. Whereas women's obligations to children from prior unions represent a resource drain that lowers their chances of union formation, our analysis suggests that involved nonresident fathers are more likely to enter subsequent unions than other men. 4 Tables, 79 References. Adapted from the source document.

Cynthia A. Stifter. Child effects on the family: An example of the extreme case and a question of methodology. 2003. pp. 79-89.

infant negative emotionality: infant colic: infant temperament: maternal well being: maternal behavior: parental behavior: emotion regulation: paternal behavior: marital & co-parental relationships: Crying: Emotionality (Personality): Infant Development: Mother Child Relations: Well Being: Developmental Psychology: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Marital Relations: Mothers: Personality

In this chapter, the author comments on the review by S. Crockenberg and E. Leerkes (see record 2003-02704-005) on infant negative emotionality, caregiving, and family relationships and presents data on the effects of excessive crying in early infancy, often referred to as infant colic, on maternal behavior and consequently on the mother-infant relationship. The findings are consistent with many of the studies reviewed by Crockenberg and Leerkes, that maternal sensitivity does not appear to be affected by either infant difficult temperament, or excessive crying, a characteristic of difficult temperament. In discussing these findings, the methods for observing and coding maternal behavior were questioned and suggestions were made. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter).

Eric A. Storch, Erica A. Bravata, Jason B. Storch, James H. Johnson, Deborah A. Roth and Jonathan W. Roberti. Psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood: The role of childhood teasing and father support. Child Study Journal, 2003. 33(3), pp. 153-163.

psychosocial adjustment: early adulthood: childhood teasing: father support: psychosocial distress: depressive symptomatology: general anxiety: loneliness: Distress: Emotional Adjustment: Fathers: Psychosocial Development: Teasing: Anxiety: Major Depression: Parent Child Relations: Social Support

In this study we examined the relationships among recalled childhood teasing and father support, and current psychosocial distress in 226 undergraduate students. Participants were administered the Revised Teasing Questionnaire, Father Support Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait Version, Brief-Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, and UCLA Loneliness Scale. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that childhood father support was negatively related to current depressive symptomatology, general anxiety, and loneliness in adulthood, as well as the frequency of and distress related to childhood teasing. The frequency of childhood teasing and distress related to such teasing was positively associated with current depressive symptomatology, general anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and loneliness. Contrary to our hypothesis, father support did not moderate the relationships between teasing and psychosocial adjustment indices. The role of childhood father support and teasing in healthy psychosocial development is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Anne Dopkins Stright and Stephanie Stigler Bales. Coparenting quality: Contributions of child and parent characteristics. Family Relations, 2003. 52(3), pp. 232-240.

coparenting: parental education: parental personality: family of origin: child temperament: child gender: preschool children: mothers: fathers: family interaction: Parent Child Relations: Parental Characteristics: Parenting Skills: Personality: Human Sex Differences: Marital Relations: Offspring: Parent Educational Background

Child gender, age, and temperament; parents' personality and education; and coparenting quality in the parents' families of origin were used to predict the quality of coparenting during family interactions. Forty predominantly White families (father, mother, and preschool child) participated in the study. Mothers and fathers were aged 24-42 and 24-46 yrs, respectively. The children (24 boys and 16 girls) were aged 3-5 yrs. Both parents completed a battery of measures concerning child, parent, and family variables. Additionally, family triads were videotaped in their homes for 10 minutes while playing with toys (chosen to provide a variety of parenting challenges) to provide a sample family interaction. Families with college-educated mothers had high levels of supportive coparenting during family interactions regardless of the quality of coparenting in the mother's family of origin. In contrast, in families with high school-educated mothers, the more supportive the coparenting relationship in the mother's family of origin had been, the more supportive the couple was during the current family interaction. Couples with less educated and adjusted mothers were likely to be unsupportive during the family interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Anne Dopkins Stright and Carin Neitzel. Beyond parenting: Coparenting and children's classroom adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2003. 27(1), pp. 31-39.

coparenting: children's classroom adjustment: parent rejection: family interactions: fathers: mothers: Adjustment: Classroom Behavior: Family: Parent Child Relations: Classroom Environment

Examined the role of coparenting for predicting children's classroom problems after controlling for parent rejection during family interactions. Fathers, mothers, and their children (52 families) were observed in their homes the summer before the child entered third grade. The parents' rejection of their child's efforts and supportive coparenting were coded as the parents helped their child with three difficult problem-solving tasks. Children's adjustment in their third-grade classrooms was assessed the following school year using year-long observations and teacher report. Parents' rejection of their children's efforts when problem solving predicted children's social problems, attention problems, and grades the next year in third grade. After controlling for child gender and parents' rejection, supportive coparenting predicted children's later attention problems, passivity/dependence, and grades. There were significant interactions between parents' rejection and supportive coparenting for predicting children's attention, passivity/dependence, and grades. Parents' rejection played a particularly important role for predicting children's attention, passivity/ dependence, and grades when supportive coparenting was low. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

David L. Strug and Carolyn K. Burr. Service needs of male caretakers of HIV-infected and affected children: Policy and practice implications. 2003. 38(2), pp. 73-92.

Fathers: Caregivers: Children: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Social Programs: Health Care Services Policy: Health Planning: Delivery Systems: Pediatrics

The number of male caretakers (biological fathers & other men) of HIV-infected & affected children is substantial & may increase in the US & elsewhere as more women become infected. Little information exists about the needs these men have for support services to help them better perform their parenting roles as male caretakers (MCs). This paper discusses the service needs of MCs at Ryan White CARE Act Title IV programs, the challenges providers at these programs face in serving MCs, & the strategies they have found effective in working with MCs. Providers report that MCs have specific service needs including the need for emotional support. Title IV programs meet these needs in a limited way because they are organized primarily around the needs of female rather than male caretakers. We discuss how Title IV programs can tailor existing service delivery & implement organizational change to facilitate MCs' service access & utilization. Further research directly with MCs is necessary to learn more about their service needs & the barriers MCs face in accessing services. 3 Tables, 1 Figure, 28 References. Adapted from the source document. COPIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM: HAWORTH DOCUMENT DELIVERY CENTER, The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

David Strug and Rozetta Wilmore-Schaeffer. Fathers in the social work literature: Policy and practice implications. 2003. 84(4), pp. 503-511.

Single Fathers: Fathers: Parenthood: Social Work: Social Work Research

Fatherhood is a topic of national conversation that is receiving considerable media attention. The number of single & noncustodial fathers is on the rise, & social workers will have increased contact with these men in the future. It is important for social work professionals to learn more about fatherhood, given the growing relevance of this topic. The social work literature is an important source of information where social workers can gather information about fatherhood. In this article, the authors examine how the social work literature describes fathers, especially noncustodial fathers. They note gaps in information about fatherhood in this literature & discuss policy & practice issues related to fathers. They also note that fatherhood has received comparatively little attention in the social work literature & that social workers need more information about fatherhood to develop policy & to implement programs to assist fathers. Information for this article comes from 118 articles about fathers that appeared in 25 social work journals. 98 References. Adapted from the source document.

Jeffrey L. Stueve and Joseph H. Pleck. Fathers' narratives of arranging and planning: Implications for understanding paternal responsibility. Fathering, 2003. 1(1), pp. 51-70.

fathers: paternal involvement: arranging: planning: father-child interactions: fathers responsibility identity: Father Child Relations: Parental Investment: Responsibility

This study examines 40 fathers' narratives of arranging and planning for young children from Midwest and Southwest U.S. samples. Arranging and planning is seen as an aspect of the responsibility component of Lamb, Pleck, Charnov, and Levine's (1985) widely used three-part conceptualization of paternal involvement. Based on four themes observed, different types of paternal "responsibility identities" are distinguished: 1) deferred-responsibility identity, 2) conjoint-responsibility identity, 3) mixed deferred/conjoint-responsibility identity, and 4) contextualized solo-responsibility identity. The importance of understanding fathers' responsibility identity and considerations for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

E. K. Svavarsdottir and M. K. Rayens. American and icelandic parents' perceptions of the health status of their young children with chronic asthma. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2003. 35(4), pp. 351-358.

Purpose: To identify factors that influence American and Icelandic parents' health perceptions among families of infants or young children with asthma. Design: A cross-sectional research design of 76 American families and 103 Icelandic families. Data were collected mainly in the Midwest of the United States (US) and in Iceland from August 1996 through January 2000. Method: Parents in these two countries who had children aged 6 or younger with chronic asthma completed questionnaires regarding family demands, caregiving demands, family hardiness, sense of coherence, and health perceptions. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and t tests were compiled. Multiple regression analysis was used to test path models and for mediation. Findings: American parents differed from their Icelandic counterparts in family hardiness. In both countries, significant differences were found in caregiving demands and health perceptions between mothers and fathers. Illness severity and caregiving demands affected health perceptions of both mothers and fathers. Sense of coherence mediated the relationship between family demands and parents' perceptions for both parents. For mothers only, family hardiness mediated the relationship between family demands and health perceptions. Conclusions: The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation was useful for building knowledge on parents' health perceptions in two Western cultures for families of young children with asthma. Interventions emphasizing family and individual resiliency and strengths have the potential to affect parents' views of their children's health.

Vicky C. W. Tam and Rebecca S. Y. Lam. Parenting style of chinese fathers in hong kong: Correlates with children's school-related performance. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 2003. 15(1), pp. 51-62.

parenting styles: fathers: school-aged children: Hong Kong: school-related performance: Child Attitudes: Parenting Style

This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 primary three to five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. There is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in schoolwork, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

H. R. Tenenbaum and C. Leaper. Parent-child conversations about science: The socialization of gender inequities? Developmental Psychology, 2003. 39(1), pp. 34-47.

This study investigated the family as a context for the gender typing of science achievement. Adolescents (N = 52) from 2 age levels (mean ages = 11 and 13 years) participated with their mothers and fathers on separate occasions; families were from predominantly middle-income European American backgrounds. Questionnaires measured the parents' and the child's attitudes. Each parent also engaged his or her child in 4 structured teaching activities (including science and nonscience tasks). There were no child gender or grade-level differences in children's science-related grades, self-efficacy, or interest. However, parents were more likely to believe that science was less interesting and more difficult for daughters than sons. In addition, parents' beliefs significantly predicted children's interest and self-efficacy in science. When parents' teaching language was examined, fathers tended to use more cognitively demanding speech with sons than with daughters during one of the science tasks.

Simon D. R. Thomas. Talking man to man: Transference-countertransference difficulties in the male same-gender analytic dyad. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 2003. 19(3), pp. 335-347.

transference: countertransference: psychoanalysis: male same-gender analytic dyad: male-male relations: mutual recognition: fathers: sons: psychoanalytic theory: Dyads: Human Males: Psychotherapeutic Transference

The traditional psychoanalytic focus on the father's primary role in assisting separation from mother in the pre-oedipal phase, and in disidentifying from mother in the oedipal stage of development, is criticized in this paper as being too narrow to comprehensively explain difficulties in male-male relating. It is argued instead that the father has a role to play in his own right as an object of identificatory love for his son, and the process of "mutual recognition' (J. Benjamin, 1995) is introduced from intersubjective theory as an explanatory framework for this. Failure or breakdown in the process of mutual recognition between father and son is seen as contributing to difficulties in intimacy between men, which are then re-enacted in the male same-gender analytic dyad. Three case vignettes describing transference and countertransference difficulties in a male-male therapy couple are used to clinically illustrate the different theoretical issues discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

T. P. Thornberry, A. Freeman-Gallant, A. J. Lizotte, M. D. Krohn and C. A. Smith. Linked lives: The intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2003. 31(2), pp. 171-184.

There is a strong assumption of intergenerational continuity in behavior patterns, including antisocial behavior. Using a 3-generation, prospective study design, we examine the level of behavioral continuity between Generation 2 (G2) and Generation 3 (G3), and the role of economic disadvantage and parenting behaviors as mediating links. We estimate separate models for G2 fathers and G2 mothers. Data are drawn from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 during G2's early adolescence (n = 1,000), which has collected prospective data on G2, their parents (G1), and now their G3 children. Results show that intergenerational continuity in antisocial behavior is evident, albeit somewhat modest. Parenting styles and financial stress do play a mediating role, although their effects vary by G2's gender. In general, adolescent delinquency plays a larger role in linking the generations for G2 fathers, whereas parenting behaviors and financial stress play a larger role for G2 mothers.

Linda Beth Tiedje and Cynthia Darling-Fisher. Father-friendly healthcare. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 2003. 28(6), pp. 350-357.

father-friendly healthcare: Fathers: Health Care Services

Fathers are taking a more active role in their children's lives and healthcare; consequently, healthcare providers need to be more aware of and attentive to fathers in clinical encounters. The literature on healthcare provider inclusion of fathers is sparse. The focus has been mainly on exhortations to include fathers, or has documented treatment of fathers as invisible in healthcare settings. While not overtly hostile to fathers, healthcare providers occasionally marginalize or ignore them. The purpose of this article is to help healthcare providers: (1) become aware of and assess their interactions with fathers and (2) be more intentional in their interactions with them. To that end, this article includes a self-assessment of one's practice, including the following components: introductions, body language, eye contact, obtaining/giving information, and beliefs about the role of fathers. Intentional interactions for developing more father-friendly healthcare are discussed including both small and large changes, guided by the PLISSIT model. Finally, best practices, challenges, issues, and resources related to father inclusion in healthcare are described. The major issue for providers is to no longer question whether to include fathers, but how. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Michael George Till. Teaching my son to be a father: The plight of unmarried adolescent african american fathers. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 64(2), pp. 664-664.

unmarried adolescent African American fathers: fatherhood: manhood perception: Adolescent Attitudes: Adolescent Fathers: Single Parents: Sons: Blacks: Teaching

A quantitative research design was utilized to examine and understand the perceptions of fatherhood and manhood held by unmarried African American adolescent fathers. In face-to-face 60-90 minute interviews using a semistructured interview guide developed by the researcher, participants were asked open-ended questions to provide these young men with a voice and an opportunity to express their needs, support, neglect, understanding, and perception of how society views them and its impact on the functioning of the family unit. Using purposeful sampling, 10 unmarried African American adolescent fathers, located in the southwestern area of Michigan, were interviewed for data collection. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparison (grounded theory) technique. Themes and patterns were identified, which could contribute to knowledge of unmarried African American adolescent fathers regarding the study. Findings indicated the following: (a) unwed African American adolescent fathers are more involved than they are often given credit for; (b) given the same opportunities, resources, and support systems, paternal involvement may compete with that of maternal involvement; (c) the lack of knowledge and awareness of opportunities may influence the self-esteem and involvement of African American fathers; (d) how African American men evaluate themselves is often a result of how they have been evaluated; (e) environmental experiences with relationships and family may influence how young African American males regard parenting and marriage; (f) more influence for self-regard may be obtained from outside sources and experiences; (g) obstacles and barriers persist for men in general, and for African American males specifically, in terms of services and programs to assess and address their needs; (h) a healthy self-regard is influenced by the presence and involvement of a father or father figure in the lives of young black children in general, and young Black men specifically; (i) society continues to lag behind in terms of adequately identifying and addressing the needs of African American males. The study concluded with discussions and recommendations on how to improve the quality and quantity of service delivery for men in general, young fathers primarily, and African American male fathers specifically. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Angelika Tolke and Martin Diewald. Insecurities in employment and occupational careers and their impact on the transition to fatherhood in western germany. 2003. 9Family Work Relationship: Fathers: Parenthood: Fertility: Federal Republic of Germany: fertility, Germany, men, professional career, Western Germany

This paper examines the relationship between work & family among men in Western Germany. We investigate the extent to which a difficult start in working life & insecurities during the working life affect men's transition to fatherhood, & how this effect is influenced by characteristics of the family of origin & the respondents' own relationship history. We use proportional hazards models to analyze data of the third "Familiensurvey" conducted by the German Youth Institute in 2000. In accordance with the spillover hypothesis which assumes that labor market success (or failure) leads to success (or failure) in family behavior as well, we found that under difficult &/or insecure circumstances in their career, men delay their transition to fatherhood. In particular, the delay was related to being unemployed, being self-employed or working part-time. On the other hand, a successful career development increases the propensity to have a child soon after the career step. Contrary to a hypothesis of individualization, the social status & the composition of the family of origin still have an impact on the fertility behavior of men in adulthood. In particular, the transition rate to fatherhood was higher if the man grew up with at least one sibling, while losing a parent through death decreased it. Both employment career & parental home influence the formation of steady relationships, which explains part of their effect on the transition to fatherhood. 2 Tables, 39 References. Adapted from the source document.

S. S. Townsend. Fatherhood: A judicial perspective: Unmarried fathers and the changing role of the family court. Family Court Review, 2003. 41(PART 3), pp. 354-361.

Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay. How do fathers see this conciliation? 2003. 62(3-4), pp. 70-86.

Fathers: Family Work Relationship: Working Hours: Sex Differences: Labor Policy: Personnel Policy

Our article highlights the fact that "work-family balancing measures" are relatively rare in organizations & that they are differently used by men & women. Men use working time flexibility measures often to participate in social & leisure activities, or training & study, less often for family reasons. Social attitudes & behaviors may explain this & the qualitative part of the paper highlights these attitudes & perceptions of men & firms. Indeed, firms still often consider that it is a mother's responsibility to take care of the children. Even if both parents work in the same organization, fathers are less demanded for family reasons. The repetition of such behavior leads fathers to consider that for family reasons arrangement or reduction demands are less "legitimate." This apparent "illegitimate" character leads to an under-utilization of the measures & to a certain "auto-censure." The situation is apparently less difficult in environments where there are more female workers. 4 Tables, 16 References. Adapted from the source document.

Christina M. Treutler and Catherine C. Epkins. Are discrepancies among child, mother, and father reports on children's behavior related to parents' psychological symptoms and aspects of parent-child relationships? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2003. 31(1), pp. 13-27.

child reports: mother reports: father reports: child behavior: psychological symptoms: parents: parent-child relationships: Childhood Development: Father Child Relations: Mother Child Relations: Psychiatric Symptoms: Self Report: Behavior Problems: Fathers: Mothers

Examined whether parents' symptoms and qualitative and quantitative aspects of parent-child relationships make unique contributions to mothers' and fathers' reports of, and mother-child, father-child, and father-mother discrepancies on, children's behavior. Participants were 100 children, aged 10-12, and their mothers and fathers. Parents' symptoms and parent-child relationships made unique contributions to both parents' ratings of externalizing behavior. Although parent-child relationship variables were related to both parents' ratings of internalizing behavior, only parents' symptoms made unique contributions. On mother-child and father-child discrepancies, differences emerged between mother and father, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Both fathers' and mothers' symptoms contributed to father-mother discrepancies on both behavior types, with parent-child relationships contributing unique variance to discrepancies on internalizing behavior. Results highlight the importance of each informant's symptoms and relationship variables in understanding informant discrepancies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

J. Trosbach, M. C. Angermeyer and K. Stengler-Wenzke. Between assistance and opposition: Relatives' coping strategies with obsessive-compulsive patients. Psychiatrische Praxis, 2003. 30(1), pp. 8-13.

Objective and Method: The aim of this study was to investigate the coping strategies of relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 22 narrative interviews were analysed by a Grounded Theory approach. Results: While parents in our investigation often try to educate their ill children, spouses focus on ressources of the patient. Children seem to take a parent-role in interaction with the ill father or mother. Discussion: Family members try to support patients in dealing with the illness. Therefore, different strategies to cope with OCD are developed, ranging between assisting in rituals and opposition to the symptoms.

Frederick Willis Troutman. The lived experience of fathers following the death of a child: A study of managing inflicted change. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 64(5), pp. 2445-2445.

interpersonal relationships: bereavement counseling: bereavement experience: lived experience: death: self-perception: philosophy of life: loss: self reliance: strong: independence: Fathers: Grief: Interpersonal Interaction: Life Experiences: World View: Death and Dying: Experiences (Events): Independence (Personality): Self Perception

This descriptive qualitative study investigated the lived experience of fathers who have undergone the death of a child at least 5 years prior. The purpose of the study was to give voice to their lived experience through their stories and to examine the themes that emerged about the effects and impact of that death on their lives. Through the use of narrative interviews two primary research questions were examined: What stories do fathers tell about their lived experience following the death of a child, and what meaning does the death of a child have in the life of the father? Additional data were obtained through the use of a pre- and post-interview questionnaire. Men were selected for this study because men's stories of loss are mostly untold. The 16 men who participated in the study included both those who had sought bereavement counseling and those who had not. The theoretical basis of this study came from a constructivist self development theory (CDST) by McCann and Pearlman (1990), Pearlman and Saakvitne (1995), and Saakvitne, Tennen, and Affleck (1998). The interviews were analyzed for expressions of posttraumatic growth that included changes in self-perception, changes in interpersonal relationships, and changes in philosophy of life. Two additional themes were considered: the effect of socially implied gender responsibility of men who are bereaved and the effect of bereavement on the participant's life-span development. Most of the men expressed thoughts, feelings, and actions that were consistent with the common bereavement experience. One of the unexpected outcomes of the study was the strength of the perceived gender role in determining how these men managed their loss. Remaining strong, independent, self-reliant, and frequently silent was important to most of the participants. A second unanticipated outcome was the participants' recognition of the extent their lives change following the death of their child or children. Many of the men in this study had not told their personal story often or at all, nor had they heard the stories of other bereaved fathers. As they attempted to describe their experience, they often struggled for words for which they had no vocabulary. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

B. Trute. Grandparents of children with developmental disabilities: Intergenerational support and family well-being. Families in Society-the Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 2003. 84(1), pp. 119-126.

Mothers and fathers separately assessed grandparent support in family situations involving grandchildren with developmental disabilities. There was high consistency in mother and father independent views of grandparent support with the maternal grandmother identified by both as the most available and supportive. Grandparent emotional support appeared to be more salient to parent psychological adjustment and parenting stress than was grandparent instrumental support (practical help). Mothers and fathers appeared to be most sensitive to the support offered by their own mother. Overall family functioning was not directly related to level of grandparent emotional or instrument support. Findings encourage multigenerational interventions with parents and grandparents in family practice involving situations of childhood disability.

C. J. Tucker, S. M. McHale and A. C. Crouter. Dimensions of mothers' and fathers' differential treatment of siblings: Links with adolescents' sex-typed personal qualities. Family Relations, 2003. 52(1), pp. 82-89.

We explored mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (PDT) of their adolescent offspring in five domains (privileges, chores, affection, discipline, and temporal involvement) and examined how siblings' personal qualities were associated with PDT Participants were 188 families with first- and secondborn adolescents. Equal treatment was the modal parental style except for privileges and discipline. Even where equal treatment was normative a substantial proportion of parents reported differential treatment. Further, the similarity of the nature of parents' differential treatment varied by domain. Sex was associated with parents' differential temporal involvement. Sex-typed personal qualities were related to parents' differential discipline. Both sex and sex-typed personal characteristics were linked to differential affection. Privileges and chores were associated with age and birth order.

Corinna Jenkins Tucker, Susan M. McHale and Ann C. Crouter. Conflict resolution: Links with adolescents' family relationships and individual well-being. Journal of Family Issues, 2003. 24(6), pp. 715-736.

conflict resolution: adolescence: parent-child relationships: sibling relationships: well-being: sex differences: Family Relations: Human Sex Differences: Psychosocial Development: Well Being: Adjustment: Fathers: Mothers: Parent Child Relations: Siblings

This study examined (a) sex differences in adolescents' conflict resolution with mothers, fathers, and siblings; (b) how adolescents' personal qualities and the nature of their family relationships relate to effective conflict resolution with family members; and (c) the direct role of conflict resolution in adolescents' adjustment and the moderating role of conflict resolution in the relationship between conflict with family members and adolescents' adjustment. Participants were 92 girls and 93 boys (mean age = 14.5 years) and their parents and siblings. Findings indicated that girls and boys used less effective conflict resolution strategies with siblings than with mothers or fathers and that adolescents' personal qualities were linked with effective conflict resolution. Effective conflict resolution was generally linked to better adjustment. Evidence for the role of conflict resolution effectiveness as a moderator was limited. Findings are discussed in terms of similarities and differences in adolescents' relationships with mothers, fathers, and siblings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

L. Unzner. Fathers and children - long-term studies on paternal care and the social and emotional development of children. Praxis Der Kinderpsychologie Und Kinderpsychiatrie, 2003. 52(5), pp. 361-362.

Laurie A. Van Egeren. Prebirth predictors of coparenting experiences in early infancy. Infant Mental Health Journal, 2003. 24(3), pp. 278-295.

Prebirth predictors: maternal ego development: child rearing: coparenting experiences: child-rearing philosophy: parenthood: couples: parental motivation: infancy: Birth: Childrearing Practices: Fathers: Infant Development: Mothers: Ego Development: Father Child Relations: Mother Child Relations

The aim of the current research was to identify prebirth predictors of coparenting experiences during the transition to parenthood. Questionnaires were used to assess 101 couples during the third trimester and one, three, and six months after the birth of the first child. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated different predictors of coparenting level, linear change, and fluctuation for mothers and fathers. For mothers, coparenting experiences were associated with age, paternal education, concerns around child rearing, differences in child-rearing philosophy, and reactance, whereas for fathers, coparenting experiences were related to occupation, maternal ego development, coparenting in the family of origin, and both parents' motivation to raise children. There were indications that mothers may drive the development of the coparenting relationship for both parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Mark Van Ommeren and Itzhak Levav. Mortality in parents after death of a child: Comment. Lancet, 2003. 361(9370), pp. 1747-1747.

excess mortality: mortality rate: bereavement: death of child: natural causes: unnatural causes: parents: mothers: fathers: Death and Dying: Grief

This letter to the editor comments on "Mortality in Parents after Death of a Child in Denmark: A Nationwide Follow-up Study" by Li et al (see record 2003-01456-001). Li et al found that the death of a child is associated with increased mortality in mothers and increased early mortality from unnatural causes in fathers. This finding differs from that observed by one of the comment authors in a study of bereaved parents of adult sons in Israel, which showed no increased parental mortality. The Danish study shows that only three of six analyses on maternal mortality were significant, and that only one of six analyses on paternal mortality was significant. The Israeli study involved adult sons, whereas the Danish study included boys and girls younger than 18 years. The Israeli study only addressed the sudden, unexpected death of a child, whereas the Danish study included unexpected and other causes of death. The Danish authors do not state whether they included mortality during the first year of bereavement when grief is greatest--an ideal time to investigate the health consequences of bereavement. They suggest that there may be increased relative risk of parental mortality after the death of a child. However, the absolute risk seems small and may only be partly caused by the stress of bereavement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

K. Vanfraussen, I. Ponjaert-Kristoffersen and A. Brewaeys. Family functioning in lesbian families created by donor insemination. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2003. 73(1), pp. 78-90.

The quantitative and qualitative data of this study on family functioning in lesbian donor insemination families reveal that according to both parents and children, the quality of children's relationship with the social mother is comparable to that with the biological mother. Unlike fathers in heterosexual families, the lesbian social mother is as much involved in child activities as is the biological mother. Furthermore, the lesbian social mother has as much authority as does the father in heterosexual families.

Doris Vasconcellos. Devenir père: Crise identitaire recherche-pilote. Devenir, 2003. 15(2), pp. 191-209.

fatherhood: male experience: birth: fathers-to-be: identity crisis: psychological conflicts: fatherhood model: traumatic experience: virile identity: culture: bonding effects: Fathers: Psychological Reactance: Wives

Many authors have insisted on fathers' presence at birth to support wife's labor as well as for bonding effects to their newborn. This assignment became a prescribed behavior which has not been probed from the viewpoint of specific male gender identity conflicts. The aim of this research is to provoke new explorations on men's experience on becoming fathers. Sample: Participated to this pilot-research ten fathers during the pregnancy of their wives (between the 4th and the 8th month). Six of them had already children and five had already attended to the previous birth. The researchers used a 45 minute semi-structured interview and two projective tests - Rorschach and T.A.T. (Thematic Aperception Test). The results showed evidence of psychological conflicts that prevent some men to adhere to the participant fatherhood model expected in our culture today. Some men who are not psychologically prepared to attend to birth go through a traumatic experience in order to protect their virile identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Mary Jo Puglisi Vasquez. A comparison study of fathers: Parenting stress, psychological distress and coping in a sample of fathers caring for HIV-infected children and fathers caring for children with cancer. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 63(7), pp. 3486-3486.

parenting stress: psychological distress: coping: fathers: chronic illness: HIV infected children: pediatric cancer: Coping Behavior: Distress: HIV: Neoplasms: Father Child Relations

Numerous challenges facing the parents of a child with a chronic illness have been well documented in recent literature, yet little is known about the specific psychosocial factors associated with fathering an ill child (Sterken, 1996). The existing literature on parents of chronically ill children focuses predominantly on the maternal perspective, and literature searches reveal a paucity of information on fathers. Since families of children with chronic illnesses face increased burdens and challenges, fathers in these families play more integral roles with respect to parenting. As such, the father's role as a parent deserves careful attention and consideration. Despite this, very few investigations have focused on the paternal role in families with chronically ill children. HIV/AIDS and cancer have each been found to place severe psychosocial, financial, and practical stressors on the family. Both diseases are potentially life-threatening and require aggressive treatments that affect the day-to-day life of all family members. The objectives of the present investigation were twofold: first, it sought to address a void in the field by considering the unique experiences and coping mechanisms of fathers caring for a child with HIV or cancer. Second, this investigation examined the specific similarities and differences between the two samples of fathers. Data was collected from 45 fathers of children with HIV/AIDS or cancer who participated in clinical trials at The National Cancer Institute. Thirty-one fathers of children with HIV/AIDS and 16 fathers of children with cancer completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Parenting Stress Index, the Coping Health Inventory for Parents, and questionnaires designed specifically for this investigation. Results indicated that these fathers had significantly higher levels of psychiatric distress and parenting stress compared to male normative data. Results also revealed that the fathers in this sample were more likely to utilize social support coping resources compared to fathers of children with other chronic illnesses and compared to male normative data. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no significant differences between the fathers of children with HIV/AIDS and the fathers of children with cancer on measures of parenting stress, psychiatric distress, or social support coping mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Alexander T. Vazsonyi. Parent-adolescent relations and problem behaviors: Hungary, the netherlands, switzerland, and the united states. 2003. 35(3-4), pp. 161-187.

Mothers: Fathers: Parent Child Relations: Adolescents: Behavior Problems: Hungary: Netherlands: Switzerland: United States of America

The current investigation examined the predictive strength of mother/father-adolescent relations (closeness, support, & monitoring) & of low self-control for a variety of adolescent problem behaviors in samples from Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland, & the US. Based on data from over N = 6,900 middle & late adolescents, findings indicated the following: (1) each family process dimension was predictive of adolescent problem behaviors in all national contexts. And, despite some overlap between maternal & paternal measures of parent-adolescent relations, each measure had unique & additive explanatory power in adolescent problem behaviors; (2) family processes were predictive of all types of problem behaviors ranging from trivial school misconduct to more serious behaviors such as assault; (3) pairwise comparisons of partial regression coefficients of individual family process dimensions predicting problem behaviors indicated that they were largely identical cross-nationally; (4) final prediction models accounted for between 30% (Swiss youth) & 37% (American & Dutch youth) of the variance in problem behaviors. These findings provide further support for the idea of universal development processes. 6 Tables, 35 References. Adapted from the source document. COPIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM: HAWORTH DOCUMENT DELIVERY CENTER, The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

Robert A. Veneziano. The importance of paternal warmth. Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science, 2003. 37(3), pp. 265-281.

cross-cultural comparisons: paternal warmth: offspring behavior: affectionate paternal behavior: Standard Cross-Cultural Sample: Affection: Cross Cultural Differences: Father Child Relations: Fathers: Offspring

Cross-cultural and intra-cultural comparative research into the relationship between paternal behaviors and offspring development has tended to overlook the influence of paternal warmth by assessing only the physical availability of the father or by focusing on parental versus paternal and maternal warmth. Consequently, this article uses comparative methodology to explore the relationship between warm and affectionate paternal behavior and offspring behavior in diverse sociocultural contexts. Data was taken from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, a data set consisting of ethnographic information from 186 societies. Results show that paternal physical availability is a much less significant construct for predicting paternal influences on offspring functioning than is paternal warmth and that codes for paternal physical availability are not profitable or beneficial proxies for paternal warmth and affection. Finally, the findings indicate that paternal warmth is often a more significant predictor of youths' functioning than is maternal warmth. These cross-cultural comparative findings are consistent with multivariate studies done in the United States during the last decade. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Theresa K. Vescio and Monica Biernat. Family values and antipathy toward gay men. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2003. 33(4), pp. 833-847.

family values: antipathy: gay men: prejudice: gay fathers: straight fathers: parenthood: Family: Fathers: Homosexual Parents: Values: Heterosexuality: Homosexuality (Attitudes Toward): Male Homosexuality: Parental Characteristics

The role of family values in promoting prejudice toward gay men was examined. Participants high and low in support for family values were primed with family-relevant or neutral cues and were exposed to either a gay or a straight father who was described as a good or a bad parent. Both individual differences in family value support and situational primes of family values produced derogation of the gay father. Sympathy for the father in a child custody loss was also markedly low when family values were both endorsed and primed, and when the gay father was explicitly depicted as a bad parent. The findings have implications for Rokeach's (1972) belief congruence perspective, and for models that depict values as part of a mental associative network (Biemat, Vescio, & Theno, 1996; Feather, 1990). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Cheri Vogel A., Kimberly Boller, Jennifer Faerber, Jacqueline Shannon D, Tamis,LeMonda,Catherine,S. and Policy Research Mathematica. Understanding fathering: The early head start study of fathers of newborns. 2003. pp. 76.

Despite policymakers' increasing interest in how fathers and fathering affect the well-being of children, research into the roles of low- income fathers has not met the needs of policymakers, who could benefit from better understanding of the factors affecting fathers' continuing support of and engagement in relationships with their children. In an effort to advance understanding of these factors, Mathematica Policy Research was funded to conduct research on fathers of newborn babies in conjunction with the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. The study focused on answering questions about who the fathers are, their level of involvement with their families and children, and how and why involvement changes over time. Fathers were recruited through expectant mothers from Early Head Start and similar comprehensive, community-based programs. Findings are based on two interviews and associated observations with 108 men conducted within the first 14 months of their children's lives. Main findings were as follows: (1) fathers were present in their children's lives, with most living with their children at the time of the interview, and many married to the children's mothers; (2) fathers were involved in multiple ways with their children, including caregiving tasks; (3) fathers engaged their children in nurturing and supportive ways; and (4) fathers faced many stressors, particularly parenting stress, but also had many supports, including high levels of satisfaction and low levels of conflict in their current romantic relationships, someone else they could talk with about parenting, and positive past experiences with their own fathers. Based on findings, Mathematica suggested that Early Head Start and similar programs serving low-income families and their young children (1) recognize that many men are involved with their children and engage the men in program services as early as possible; (2) when possible, encourage fathers to become involved before the child is born; (3) develop ways to encourage mothers to support the men in their roles as fathers; and (4) be aware of the psychological changes and distress that men can experience during this time and, when necessary, link men with mental health services. (Appended are analyses of father-child interactions at 6 and 14 months, and lessons for data collection. Contains 32 references.) (Author/HTH).

Shannon L. Wagner. Emotional expression in adolescent-parent communication. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2003. 64(6), pp. 2963-2963.

emotional expression: adolescent-parent communication: Conversation: Dyads: Emotional States: Parent Child Communication: Daughters: Fathers: Mothers: Sons

Ninety-four adolescent-parent dyads (24 daughter/mother, 22 son/mother, 25 daughter/father, 23 son/father) were examined and analyzed for differences across dyad type with regards to conversational style, emotional expression, and the links between these two dependent variables. Middle-class, primarily Caucasian, adolescents (average age = 14.2 years) participated in a discussion regarding conflict issues with either their mother or their father. These discussions were subsequently coded for conversational behaviours (overlaps, simultaneous speech, and successful interruptions) and emotional expression (joy, affection, humor, interest, sadness, anger, whining, fear, disgust, neutral). Adolescent boys and girls used more overlaps than did their parents; they also used more simultaneous speech and successful interruptions when in conversation with their mothers. However, in conversation with their fathers, the only difference evident was sons using more successful interruptions than their fathers. With respect to emotional expression, adolescent produced higher rates of interest, humor, whining, and neutral, than did their parents. In contrast, parents produced higher rates of affection than did their adolescents. With regards to disgust, sons produced significantly higher rates than did their mother. In terms of linkages between conversational style and emotional expression, a model that uses differences in conversational styles and parent disgust to predict adolescent disgust, which in turn predicts adolescents' perceptions of relationship conflict, was presented and supported. Finally, reciprocity of negative affect (i.e., disgust) in the adolescent-parent relationship was evaluated using sequential analyses. When reciprocity of adolescents' and parents' expressions of disgust was considered without other predictors, the majority of dyads demonstrated negative affect reciprocity. In other words, there is evidence that negative affect reciprocity is present in many adolescent-parent interactions; however, it does not predict perceptions of conflict. Overall, the present research lends support to the hypothesis that differences in the conversational styles of adolescents and their parents may lead to increased negative affect, and consequently, to adolescents' increased perception of conflict within the relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Karin Wall. Single-parent families. 2003. (43), pp. 51-66.

Family Structure: Portugal: Single Parent Family: Single Mothers: Single Fathers: Demographic Change: Regional Differences

The article's main objective is to characterize single-parent families in Portugal in 2001, & to analyze their development during the last decade. There has been an increase, in absolute & relative terms, in the number of single-parent families & a contrast has emerged between a group of southern coastal regions, in which the high percentages of single-parent families with dependent children are to be seen, & other regions. As in the past, it is the single mothers who predominate & a high number of single mothers & fathers live in complex families. With respect to the changes involved, there has been a rise in educational levels & an increase in the number of single people, along with a fall in the relative representation of widows & widowers. 8 Tables, 2 Figures, 6 References. Adapted from the source document.

R. Warren. Parental mediation of preschool children's television viewing. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 2003. 47(3), pp. 394-417.

This study examines parental mediation of preschool children's television viewing. Becker's (1981) theory of parent-child relations is used to frame mediation in terms of parenting resources. A survey of 129 parents of preschool children (ages 1-5) reveals that when resources are in highest demand, attitudes toward television are a factor in deciding whether television mediation will benefit children. Demographic variables, parents' attitudes about television, and parents' involvement with children all significantly predicted restrictive and instructive mediation. The findings are discussed in light of young children's needs for mediation as a guide to television's novel set of technical and cultural codes.

J. H. Wayne and B. L. Cordeiro. Who is a good organizational citizen? social perception of male and female employees who use family leave. Sex Roles, 2003. 49(5-6), pp. 233-246.

In this study, we examined perceptions of the citizenship behaviors of male and female employees who took leave to care for a newborn, a sick child, a sick parent, or who did not take leave. In a 2 (employee gender) x 4 (reason for leave) x 2 (participant gender) experimental design, 242 undergraduate students read a mock personnel file and rated the employee on altruism and generalized compliance. Female employees were not rated differently whether they took leave or not. Male employees who took leave for birth or eldercare were rated less likely to be altruistic at work than their male counterparts who did not take leave and their female counterparts who took leave. There was also a bias against male leave takers for generalized compliance ratings, especially by male evaluators. Future research ideas and implications for organizational practice are discussed.

R. Webber. Making stepfamilies work: Step-relationships in singaporean stepfamilies. Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work, 2003. 13(2), pp. 90-112.

The project sought to identify the issues facing Singaporean stepfamilies. It involved 54 service providers who attended "Stepfamily Training" workshops organised by the Asian Women's Welfare Association (AWWA) and Family Resource and Training Centre (FRTC). Results indicate that stepfathers were more likely than stepmothers to adopt the roles of authority figure and acquaintance, while stepmothers were more likely than stepfathers to adopt the roles of confidant, rival and opponent.

C. Weber. The sins of the father: Colonialism and family history in diderot's le fils naturel. Pmla, 2003. 118(PART 3), pp. 488-501.

Peter M. Wehmeier, Nikolaus Barth and Helmut Remschmidt. Induced delusional disorder: A review of the concept and an unusual case of folie à famille. Psychopathology, 2003. 36(1), pp. 37-45.

shared paranoid disorder: induced delusional disorder: folie a famille: folie a deaux: mother: father: son: treatment: Delusions: Family: Folie A Deux: Fathers: Mothers: Sons

Induced delusional disorder (or shared paranoid disorder), also known as folie à deux, is a fairly uncommon disturbance characterized by the presence of similar psychotic symptoms in two or more individuals. Most often the symptoms are delusional. Usually the 'primary' case, i.e. the individual who first develops psychotic symptoms, can be distinguished from one or more 'secondary' cases, in whom the symptoms are induced. We discuss the concept of shared paranoid disorder and consider various aetiological, clinical and diagnostic issues related to the disturbance. We also describe a case of folie à famille, this condition being a type of shared paranoid disorder. The case involves a couple and their 12-year-old son. The boy's father is the 'primary' case, whilst the boy and his mother are both 'secondary' cases. The boy was admitted to our child and adolescent psychiatric unit for in-patient treatment. Treatment success was moderate in terms of improving the features of folie à famille in the three individuals involved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract).

Paul Wenner. Review of between fathers and sons: Critical incident narratives in the development of men's live. Fathering, 2003. 1(1), pp. 109-110.

fathers: sons: father-son relationship: narratives: personality development: social development: identity: emotional life: self understanding: Father Child Relations: Psychosocial Development: Emotional Development: Self Concept

Reviews the book "Between Fathers and Sons: Critical Incident Narratives in the Development of Men's Lives," (see record 2003-00562-000) edited by Robert J. Pellegrini and Theodore R. Sarbin. The book tells not only the stories of critical incidences in the relationships between fathers and sons but also the musings of the storytellers; the book supports the view that storytelling is the best way to understand the human condition. The tellers of the stories are psychologists, professionals who have listened to others' stories while trying to help them to better understand themselves. These psychologists were asked to remember interactions with their fathers and their sons that have special meaning for them. While the choice of psychologists as storytellers creates an added depth to the stories, it also disrupts the flow of the stories, because of the theoretical discussions that are added. At times, the tellers of the story are teaching about father/son relationships rather than telling the story. This can take the art out of the story, reduce the strength and magic of the story, and give a feeling of always stopping and starting. On the other hand, these disruptive theories are the reason this book would make a good text for courses on men's studies, developmental psychology, family studies, and narrative theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

N. E. Werner and R. K. Silbereisen. Family relationship quality and contact with deviant peers as predictors of adolescent problem behaviors: The moderating role of gender. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2003. 18(5), pp. 454-480.

This investigation examines how family relationship quality and contact with deviant peers (CDP) contributed to change in problem behaviors in a sample of German adolescents (M age = 14.6 years). In particular, the authors were interested in whether gender of the adolescent and parent moderated these associations, and whether individual differences in the average level and/or changes in family and peer risk factors predicted change in problem behaviors across a 12- to 18-month period. Two waves of data collected from 248 adolescents, mothers (N = 248), and fathers (N = 176) were analyzed using path analysis. Results revealed that CDP was directly associated with increases in problem behaviors, whereas family influence on problem behaviors was indirect and varied as a function of gender. Specifically, family cohesion and closeness with fathers were associated with females' CDP only. Findings are discussed in terms of theories positing females' sensitivity to family stress and the fathers' role for females' behavioral development.

C. Wewetzer, T. Jans, N. Beck, et al. Interaction, family environment, educational goals and childrearing practices in families with a child suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder. Verhaltenstherapie, 2003. 13(1), pp. 10-18.

Interaction, Family Environment, Educational Goals and Child-rearing Practices in Families with a Child Suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Objective: The study focuses on family interactions and the upbringing environment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The degree to which the family is involved in the child's OCD symptoms, the frequency and forms of its aggressive behavior toward family members, and features of family functioning were assessed. Patients and Methods: 23 boys and 19 girls with a mean age of 12,7 years suffering from OCD according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria, as well as 40 mothers and 35 fathers participated in the study. Assessments were carried out by means of structured interviews and questionnaires. Results: 85% of the parents reported that members of the family were involved in the OCD symptoms of the affected child. Most of the children and adolescents were verbally or physically aggressive, especially toward their mother. The general family environment was not disturbed except regarding interactions specifically related to the child's OCD symptoms. Parents and children did not report childrearing practices significantly different from the standardized values of the family inventory applied. The educational goals reported indicated a rather low educational engagement of the fathers, but again there were essentially no substantial differences compared to standardized values. Conclusions: Our study does not support reports in the literature which point to specific, undesirable educational practices of the parents of children with OCD. There were no features of upbringing indicating strict religiosity, extreme ambition, prevention of the development of the child's autonomy, conflict avoidance or tendency to isolation on the part of the family. The family members' significant involvement in the child's OCD symptoms and the vehemence with which the child demands this involvement must be taken into account in the therapy of childhood OCD.

Shawn D. Whiteman, Susan M. McHale and Ann C. Crouter. What parents learn from experience: The first child as a first draft? Journal of Marriage and Family, 2003. 65(3), pp. 608-621.

Siblings: Parent Child Relations: Adolescents: Childrearing Practices: Birth Order: Family Conflict: Mothers: Fathers: Pennsylvania

This study sought evidence for the proposition that experiences with earlier-born adolescents will improve parents' interactions with & parenting of later-born adolescents. Participants were mothers, fathers, & both first- & second-born siblings from 392 families participating in a longitudinal study. To collect information on siblings' family experiences, family members were interviewed individually in their homes. During the subsequent 2 to 3 weeks, 7 evening telephone interviews were also conducted, which focused on siblings' daily activities. Findings suggest that when parent-adolescent relationships were measured at the same age for both siblings, parents experienced less conflict with their second-born as compared with their firstborn adolescent offspring & exhibited greater knowledge of their second-born offspring's daily activities as compared with their firstborns' daily experiences. These results are consistent with the notion that parents may learn from their childrearing experiences. 4 Tables, 4 Figures, 33 References. Adapted from the source document.

Christopher Martin Wienke. Making responsible fathers out of troubled men: Self-change, family formation, and the U.S. fatherhood movement. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 64(1), pp. 299-A.

Fathers: Social Constructionism: Males: Social Movements: Parent Training: Parenthood

This dissertation analyzes the social construction of fatherhood in the current U.S. fatherhood movement, a broad-based national campaign seeking to reverse the growing trend of father absence and its presumed impact on children, families, and society at large. Using documentary materials, fieldwork observations, and in-depth interview methods, I examine the activities of several community-based fathering programs, one of the few sites where it is possible to study the fatherhood movement, its ideologies, and the target population simultaneously. Numbering more than 2,000 nationwide, these programs have the potential to change not only the lives of the men who participate in them and their children but also, and perhaps more importantly, the normative climate in society at large. The development of fathering programs in communities and institutions creates opportunities to shift the way we define, sanction, and organize men's relationship to fathering. Such programs also have implications for the construction, legitimation, and organization of motherhood, childhood, family, and gender. My study offers a lens through which to view the construction of fatherhood, both as ideology and a set of practices, and its relation to other social and cultural phenomena.

Georgiana Wilton. Raising a child with fetal alcohol syndrome: Effects on family functioning. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 2003. 63(11), pp. 4110-A.

Congenitally Handicapped: Family Relations: Parent Child Relations: Coping: Emotions: Mothers: Fathers: fetal alcohol syndrome

This study examined the functioning of families raising a child with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in terms of family distress and parental negative emotion. FAS is a condition caused by prenatal alcohol exposure and is characterized by physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments. Although there is a significant body of research that has focused on families raising children with various disabilities, the present study represents an initial inquiry into the functioning of families raising a child with FAS or related conditions. Participants in this study were 105 parents, 85 mothers and 20 fathers, raising a child who is diagnosed with any of the fetal alcohol related conditions (FAS, ARND, and ARBD) or who was suspected of having any of these conditions. Results from mothers indicated that there is a difference between the diagnostic categories of FAS, FAE and possible FASIE in measures of family distress and parental negative emotion. Families raising a child with FAS experienced significantly less family distress than those raising a child with FAE or possible FASIE. Similarly, families raising a child with either FAS or FAE experienced significantly less parental negative emotion than families raising a child with possible FASIE. In addition, there was a significant relationship between the family characteristic variable hardiness and both dependent variables family distress and parental negative emotion. As hardiness increased, both family distress and parental negative emotion decreased in mothers. Finally, the variables number of parents in the home, support level, and family hardiness did moderate the association between a child's diagnosis and parental negative emotion. Findings suggest that an appropriate diagnosis can positively affect family functioning, and that a particular family strength (e.g., hardiness) can also influence family functioning. Interventions should be designed to identify individuals affected by prenatal alcohol exposure and to strengthen families to minimize ineffective coping.

Daniel Fu Keung Wong, Debbie Oi Bing Lam and Sylvia Yuk Ching Lai Kwok. Stresses and mental health of fathers with younger children in hong kong: Implications for social work practices. International Social Work, 2003. 46(1), pp. 103-119.

parenting stress: Hong Kong fathers: mental health: demographic characteristics: sociocultural factors: parenting self-efficacy: Fathers: Parental Role: Self Efficacy: Stress: Parenting Skills

In examining mental health and stress in fathers in Hong Kong, and possible cultural, demographic, and mediating influences, this study asks the following research questions: (1) What are the types and levels of perceived parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy, and mental health conditions of the fathers, and how do they vary with different demographic characteristics? (2) What is the relationship between perceived parenting stress and fathers' mental health? (3) How does parenting self-efficacy intervene in perceived parenting stress and the mental health of fathers? The sample comprised 131 fathers of young children. Findings suggest that fathers experienced difficulties in parenting when they perceived their children to be demanding, not acceptable, and not reinforcing enough. Sociocultural factors such as traditional Chinese roles may have contributed to parenting difficulties experienced by these fathers. It was found that fathers who had children studying in primary schools had poorer mental health. In addition, the study confirmed that parents who have higher educational levels and family income have less parenting stress. Finally, perceived parenting self-efficacy appeared to moderate the effects of parenting stress on the mental health of these Chinese fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

R. L. Woodgate, L. F. Degner and R. Yanofsky. A different perspective to approaching cancer symptoms in children. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 2003. 26(3), pp. 800-817.

A sound and comprehensive knowledge base about symptoms in children experiencing cancer is necessary if health care professionals hope to effectively manage their symptoms. To date, there is still much to be discovered about how children with cancer and their families experience childhood cancer symptoms. Accordingly, a longitudinal qualitative study was undertaken between July 1998 and December 2000 to explore and describe the childhood cancer symptom course from the Perspectives of children and their families. The study was conducted in three settings: the participants' homes and both an inpatient and outpatient pediatric cancer unit located in Western Canada. Thirty-nine children (4 (1)/(2)- to 18-year-old males and females) with mixed cancer diagnoses and their families (parents and siblings) participated in the study. The majority of the children were diagnosed with either leukemia or lymphoma (72%), had siblings (87%), and two parents (87.2%), and remained in remission at the completion of the study (90%). All the children received chemotherapy either alone (56%) or in combination with surgery (18%), radiation (5%), radiation and bone marrow transplant (8%), radiation and surgery (10%), and surgery, radiation, and bone marrow transplant (3%). Multiple methods of data collection were used including open-ended formal interviewing and participant observation. Interview and participant observation data were analyzed by the constant comparative method of data analysis. The creation of illness narratives added to the understanding of children's and families' experiences. In addition to providing a description of how the symptoms affected children's and families' daily living, findings related to how to health professionals can better understand and approach children's cancer symptoms emerged. Men families, physicians, nurses, and other health professionals approached children's symptoms solely as side effects (e.g., nausea) or singular physical and psychological states, children provided minimal description of what they were actually experiencing. However, a greater understanding was achieved when the symptoms were approached as dynamic multidimensional experiences that occurred within a particular context. Children experienced symptoms as feeling states. Critical to children's feeling states were the meanings that children and their families assigned to the symptoms. Viewing cancer Symptoms in the context Of assigned meanings has implications for how symptoms are assessed and managed. The need to develop a children's symptom assessment tool based on assigned meanings is recommended. (C) 2003 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Robert Woods. Did montaigne love his children? demography and the hypothesis of parental indifference. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 2003. XXXIII(3), pp. 421-442.

C. H. Yeh. Psychological distress: Testing hypotheses based on roy's adaptation model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 2003. 16(3), pp. 255-263.

This study examined the relationships among social support, parenting stress, coping style, and psychological distress in parents caring for children with cancer The hypothesis that coping style plays a mediating role between social support and parenting stress, and psychological distress was tested for both mothers and fathers. In total, 246 mothers and 195 fathers of 270 children participated in the study. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis. The findings indicate that the hypotheses derived from the Roy adaptation model were supported for both mothers and fathers. A longitudinal study is suggested to examine the circular process of stimulus, coping process, and adaptation outcomes.

K. M. Yount. Gender bias in the allocation of curative health care in minia, egypt. Population Research and Policy Review, 2003. 22(3), pp. 267-295.

Research indicates that girls' disadvantage in 1-4 mortality is unusually high in Egypt, yet the relevance of intra-family differences in power for the distribution of health resources is debated. This analysis compares effects of the involvement of various family members on choice of provider, place of care, and total expenditures for curative care among 129 girls and boys with diarrhea in Minia, Egypt. Girls have lower odds than boys of visiting doctors versus lay providers and private versus informal facilities, and the involvement of fathers in prior discussions about care may be important to reduce this disparity. Median expenditures for curative care also are lower for girls than boys, particularly when fathers are never involved in choice of care. Future research should examine the extent to which these disparities in care reflect differences in the quality of care received.