DEALING WITH DARWIN: PLACE, POLITICS AND RHETORIC IN RELIGIOUS ENGAGEMENTS WITH EVOLUTION by David N. Livingstone
Using place, politics, and rhetoric as analytical tools, historical geographer David N. Livingstone investigates how religious communities sharing a Scots Presbyterian heritage engaged with Darwin and Darwinism at the turn of the twentieth century. His findings, presented as the prestigious Gifford Lectures, transform our understandings of the relationship between science and religion.
The particulars of place—whether in Edinburgh, Belfast, Toronto, Columbia, or Princeton—shaped the response to Darwin's theories. Were they tolerated, repudiated, or welcomed? Livingstone shows how Darwin was read in different ways, with meaning distilled from his texts depending on readers' own histories—their literary genealogies and cultural preoccupations. That the theory of evolution fared differently in different places, Livingstone writes, is "exactly what Darwin might have predicted. As the theory diffused, it diverged."
Dealing with Darwin shows the profound extent to which theological debates about evolution were rooted in such matters as anxieties over control of education, the politics of race relations, the nature of local scientific traditions, and challenges to traditional cultural identity. In some settings, conciliation with the new theory, even endorsement, was possible—demonstrating that attending to the specific nature of individual communities subverts an inclination to assume a single relationship between science and religion in general, evolution and Christianity in particular.
Livingstone concludes with contemporary examples to remind us that what scientists can say and what others can hear in different venues differs today just as much as they did then.
MAPPING MEDIEVAL GEOGRAPHIES: GEOGRAPHICAL ENCOUNTERS IN THE LATIN WEST, 300-1600 edited by Keith D. Lilley
'Mapping Medieval Geographies' explores the ways in which geographical knowledge, ideas and traditions were formed in Europe during the Middle Ages. Leading scholars reveal the connections between Islamic, Christian, Biblical, and Classical geographical traditions from Antiquity to the later Middle Ages and Renaissance. The book is divided into two parts: Part I focuses on the notion of geographical tradition and charts the evolution of celestial and earthly geography in terms of its intellectual, visual and textual representations; whilst Part II explores geographical imaginations; that is to say, those 'imagined geographies' that came into being as a result of everyday spatial and spiritual experience. Bringing together approaches from art, literary studies, intellectual history and historical geography, this pioneering volume will be essential reading for scholars concerned with visual and textual modes of geographical representation and transmission, as well as the spaces and places of knowledge creation and consumption.
THE WILEY-BLACKWELL COMPANION TO CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY edited by Nuala C. Johnson, Richard H. Schein and Jamie Winders
Combining coverage of key themes and debates from a variety of historical and theoretical perspectives, this authoritative reference volume offers the most up-to-date and substantive analysis of cultural geography currently available.
This significantly revised new edition traces the historical evolution of cultural geography through to the very latest research. It covers a number of new topics such as biotechnology, rural, food, media and technology, borders and tourism, whilst also reflecting developments in established subjects including animal geographies. An accessible thematic structure features section on topics such as identities, nature and culture, and flows and mobility. The Companion is edited and written by the leading authorities in this fast-developing discipline, and features a host of new contributors to the second edition. Together they provide an international and interdisciplinary perspective, reflecting the advancing academic traditions of non-Western institutions, especially in Asia.
PORTRAIT OF AN INDUSTRIAL CITY: 'CLANGING BELFAST', 1750-1914 by Stephen Royle
Clanging Belfast in its industrial pomp must have been noisy: shipyards manipulating sheets of metal, the constant riveting being only one source of racket; the endless clatter from linen mills, the screeching of trams on unyielding rails, sirens and hooters marking time at the factories. There were steam trains and steam engines in addition to horses' hooves beating on the streets. The rumbustious, often riotous, eternally spirited Belfast people packed into the terraced houses as well as the alleys would have added their din, especially around the drinking dens. The noise is gone, one aspect of the urban past that cannot be recreated. However, the industrial city has left other remembrances, from many buildings which still grace the post-industrial city, to the humdrum details of citizens' lives revealed in newspapers, to more formal sources such as the corporation's minute books, the deliberations of the Linen Merchants' Association and the sometimes shocking revelations in parliamentary reports. Utilising where possible contemporary materials, this book details Belfast's development from the eighteenth century market town, where only hindsight can discover the seeds of industrial greatness, to the titanic city - in every respect - of the period prior to Great War, whose horrors were to usher in such changes. Belfast was a success: its unparalleled growth, its might in textiles, shipbuilding and other industries. However, the book cannot, does not, shy away from the darkness that imbued the clanging city, from the health problems of mill workers to the poverty behind the well-lit main streets a 'charnel house breaking in upon the gaiety and glitter of a bridal' as one description inelegantly had it. Then there were, of course, the 'intestine broils', the sectarian conflicts that blighted Belfast in the nineteenth century, as they were to do in the twentieth.
GEOGRAPHIES OF NINETEENTH-CENTURY SCIENCE by David N. Livingstone and Charles W. J. Withers (eds)
In Geographies of Nineteenth-Century Science, David N. Livingstone and Charles W. J. Withers gather essays that deftly navigate the spaces of science in this significant period and reveal how each is embedded in wider systems of meaning, authority, and identity. Chapters from a distinguished range of contributors explore the places of creation, the paths of knowledge transmission and reception, and the import of exchange networks at various scales. Studies range from the inspection of the places of London science, which show how different scientific sites operated different moral and epistemic economies, to the scrutiny of the ways in which the museum space of the Smithsonian Institution and the expansive space of the American West produced science and framed geographical understanding. This volume makes clear that the science of this era varied in its constitution and reputation in relation to place and personnel, in its nature by virtue of its different epistemic practices, in its audiences, and in the ways in which it was put to work.
NATURE DISPLACED, NATURE DISPLAYED: ORDER AND BEAUTY IN BOTANICAL GARDENS by Nuala C. Johnson
From their origins in the Renaissance to their apogee in the nineteenth century, botanical gardens brought together in a single space the great diversity of the earth’s flora. They displaced nature from forest, foothill and countryside and rearranged it in their enclosed spaces to reveal something of the scientific principles underpinning the apparent chaos of the wild. Nature was tamed in order to divulge its hidden secrets and re-displayed in a fashion which heightened a sense of curiosity and wonderment but reassured that order could be disclosed. Nuala Johnson’s engaging study explores three botanical gardens – the University of Cambridge botanical garden, the Royal Dublin Society botanical garden, and the Belfast botanical garden – to show how the presentation and display of such gardens was influenced by place and how aesthetics, science, entertainment and ideas of empire all played important roles in the final outcome.The result is an outstanding work of scholarship that says much about the spatiality of scientific knowledge and embraces many of the key themes in contemporary historical geography.
'Nuala Johnson's masterful ethnography of three sites where the canons of science and aesthetics are refracted and blurred demonstrates why a geographical imagination matters. This is comparative history at its best.' James S. Duncan, University of Cambridge.
SAGE HANDBOOK OF GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE
The SAGE Handbook of Geographical Knowledge is a critical inquiry into how Geography as a field of knowledge has been produced, re-produced, and re-imagined.
It comprises three sections on Geographical Orientations, Geography's Venues, and Critical Geographical Concepts and Controversies. The first provides an overview of the genealogy of "geography". The second highlights the types of spatial settings and locations in which geographical knowledge has been produced. The third focuses on venues of primary importance in the historical geography of geographical thought.