Glossary

Algorithm
An algorithm can be defined as a step-by step method of solving a problem. In the context of HaBio, a diagnostic algorithm is a mathematical equation which describes the relationship between biomarkers that distinguish patients with bladder cancer from those who do not have bladder cancer. 

AUC
Area under the Curve (see ROC).

Diagnostic biomarkers
A diagnostic biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of whether or not an individual has a disease.

Benign
Relatively harmless condition if appropriately treated.

Benign prostate hyperplasia
A non-neoplastic enlargement of the prostate gland.

Biopsy
A piece of tissue removed for diagnosis.

Classifier
In the context of HaBio, a classifier is a model that accurately determines to which subgroup a new patient belongs.

Computerised Tomography (CT)
Computerised tomography utilises X-rays and contrast to provide good anatomical resolution.  This imaging technique is involved in the diagnosis and localisation of urinary tract obstruction.

Cystectomy
Removal of the bladder.

Cytology
Cytology is the assessment of the features of cells that are contained in body fluids, such as urine.

Cystoscopy
Under general anaesthesia a small tube with a light and camera on the end is inserted through the urethra (the tube which extends from the bladder to the external outlet) into bladder.  The surface of the bladder is assessed and if any areas look irregular small samples will be taken for further examination.  There may be some discomfort.

Diagnostic biomarkers
Are characteristics that can be objectively measured and evaluated as indicators of the underlying cause of disease.

Haematuria
Haematuria means blood in urine. 

Immunohistochemistry
Immunohistochemistry, the localisation of proteins or antigens in tissue samples, is carried out by exploiting antibody-antigen reactions.  The localisation of the protein/antigen is visualised by labelled antibodies.  

Invasion
The ability of malignant cells to infiltrate normal tissues and enter lymphatics or blood vessels.

Malignant
A condition characterised by a relatively high risk of morbidity or mortality.

Papilloma
Benign neoplasm of non glandular epithelium.

Pleomorphic
Variation in size or shape.

Random Forest
Random Forest is an ensemble method that consists of many decision trees which, taken together, can be used to assign each patient into either the disease free or disease state category.

ROC curves
Receiver operating curves are plots of sensitivity against 1-specificity, i.e. the curve is the true positives plotted against the false positives using each value of the test as a cut-off point.

Sensitivity
The proportion of patients who have the disease who are correctly diagnosed by a positive test result, i.e. the true positives.

Specificity
The proportion of disease-free patients who are correctly identified as disease negative by a negative diagnostic test result.

TURB
Transurethral resection of the bladder.

USS
Ultrasound scan can identify dilitation of the urinary tract.  It has the advantage that it avoids the use of ionising radiation.