Malachy Carey CV

Professor Malachy Carey

Work Address

School of Management and Economics, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland, BT7 1NN.
Tel: +44 (0)28 9097 5133. Email:

Home Address

111 South Parade, Belfast, BT7 2GN.
Tel: +44 (0)2890 203 659. Email:

Academic Qualifications

  • B.Sc. Economics, Queen's University, Belfast.
  • M.Soc.Sc. University of Birmingham, England.
  • Ph.D. Industrial Economics, University of Birmingham, England.

Current Employment

  • From 2003–present. Professor of Management Science, Queen's University Belfast.

Previous Employment

  • 1996–2003. Professor of Management Science,
    University of Ulster.
  • 1991–1996. Senior Lecturer in Management Science / Operations Management.
    Faculty of Business and Management, University of Ulster.
  • 1988–91. British Rail /Fellowship of Engineering, Senior Research Fellow.
    Department of Statistics, University of Oxford.
  • 1978–88. Assistant & then Associate Professor of Operations Research and Economics:
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • 1977–78. Visiting Assistant Professor of Operations Research and Statistics:
    University of Texas, Austin, Texas.
  • 1975–77. Research Fellow:
    University of Birmingham (and University of Aston), England.

Current Research Interests

  • Predicting, optimisating, controlling and pricing of traffic flows on road networks, especially when travel demands and traffic flows are varying over time (dynamic traffic assignment).
  • Scheduling, timetabling and reliability of public transport, especially for passenger train services for busy lines and stations

Grants and Awards Since 1990

Was Principal Applicant/ Principal Investigator on the following grants.

  • "Capturing time-varying link flows and their properties in road traffic network modelling". £161,565 grant (GR/R/70101) from the EPSRC for three years, Nov. 2001 – Nov. 2004.
  • “A more flexible framework for modelling time-varying traffic on road networks.” £127,040 grant (GR/L/80904) from the EPSRC for three years, Feb 1998 – Aug 2001
  • “Track access planning and scheduling.” £132,000 grant (GR/K/75798) from the EPSRC for three years, Jan 1996 – July 1999.
  • “Dynamic modelling for congestion pricing, and related strategies.” £84,395 grant (GR/J/53171) from the EPSRC for three years, July 1994 – July 1997
  • “Interactive scheduling and rescheduling of trains for major stations and junctions.” £77,806 grant (GR/H/48033) from the SERC. 21/12/92 – 20/12/95.
  • “Developing measures of punctuality and performance for bus systems”. £5,000 from N.I. Development Res. Three months in 1994.
  • “Investigation of policies to reduce traffic congestion”. £6,689 from European Social Fund. June–Dec. 1993. (With W.E. McAleer).
  • “From performance monitoring to timetable design: more reliable efficient timetables for railways.” £28,397 (£21,915 + £6,482 indirect) grant (GR/H/50432) from the SERC. 1/11/91 – 30/6/93
  • “Adaptive and reliable scheduling and control: rail transportation with advanced IT.” £14,675 grant (GR/H/50449) from the SERC. 1/12/91 – 30/6/92.
  • “From performance monitoring to timetable design: more reliable efficient timetables for railways.” £16,155 grant (GR/F/91407) from the SERC. 1/12/90 – 31/10/91. (With two co-investigators.)
  • “Adaptive and reliable scheduling and control: rail transportation with advanced IT.” £43,704 grant (GR/F/90318) from the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC). 1/7/90 – 31/10/91. (With two co-investigators.)

Teaching Experience

  • Has taught on a wide range of courses in, operations research, economics, optimization, and quantitative methods
  • University of Ulster. Taught Management Science in Operations, Problem Solving in Management, and various modules and part modules in quantitative methods, materials management, risk analysis.
  • Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh. Taught PhD level Extremal Methods (optimization models, methods and theory) and Applied Microeconomics. At masters level, taught Operations Research/ Operations Management, and various group project courses.
  • University of Texas at Austin. Taught Statistics for Business and Economics at undergraduate and masters level, and Econometrics at masters level, in the Business School

Research Supervision and Examining

  • Research student supervision. Supervised or jointly supervised doctoral students, several of whom are now in university teaching and research posts. Also supervised masters dissertations in business and management and in operations research
  • Supervising Research Assistants. Supervised several full-time and part-time research assistants employed on research grants from SERC, EPSRC, US Dept. of Transportation, and the ESF.
  • External examining. In recent years been external examiner on PhD theses at the universities of York, Leeds, Manchester (UMIST), Birmingham and Delft.

Editorial and Refereeing

  • Associate Editor of Transportation Research B, Since 2005. (Member of the Editorial Advisory Board of Transportation Research B, 1994 to 2005).
  • Area Editor and member of the Editorial Board of Networks and Spatial Economics (A refereed leading international research journal, started 2001 and published by Kluwer). Guest Editor on Special Issue 3(3), 2003.
  • Member of the Peer Review College of the EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Science Research Council) 1994-2003
  • Invited panel member for the ESRC/ EPSRC/ NERC "Seminars and Transdisciplinary Seminars Scheme."
  • Referee for journals in operations research, transportation, and economics (including Transportation Research, Transportation Science, Operations Research, Management Science, J. of the Operational Research Society, European J. of Operational Research). Regularly referee research proposals for the Research Councils and other bodies.


Published Papers [1] (peer reviewed)

  1. CAREY, M. “Integrability and mathematical programming models: a survey and a parametric approach,” Econometrica 45(8), pp. 1957–76, November 1977.
  2. CAREY, M. “Optimal allocation and pricing when consumer behavior is suboptimal,” Metroeconomica 29, pp. 55–71, 1978.
  3. CAREY, M., S. C. LITTLECHILD, P. G. SOLDATOS, K. VAIDYA and D. BASU, “The Birmingham Energy Model: A Long-Run Programming Model of the British Energy Sector,” Economics of Planning 15(1), pp. 18–50, 1979.
  4. CAREY, M. “Stability of competitive regional trade with monotone demand/supply functions,” Journal of Regional Science 20(4), pp. 489–501, 1980.
  5. CAREY, M., C. HENDRICKSON and S. KRISHNASWAMI, “A method for direct estimation of origin/destination trip matrices,” Transportation Science 14(1), pp. 32–49, 1981.
  6. CAREY, M. “Mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive properties of demand functions,” Economica, 48, pp. 407–415, 1981.
  7. CAREY, M. “A Survey of Energy Models,” Ch. 2, pp. 21–52, in Energy Strategies for the UK, by S. C. Littlechild et al., London: Allen and Unwin, 1982.
  8. CAREY, M. “The Birmingham Energy Model,” Ch. 4, pp. 62–87, in Energy Strategies for the UK, by S. C. Littlechild et al., London: Allen and Unwin, 1982.
  9. CAREY, M. and S. KRISHNASWAMI, “Simultaneous estimation of travel demand functions, trip distribution and trip assignment,” Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Modeling and Simulation Conference, University of Pittsburgh, pp. 1481–1489, 1982.
  10. CAREY, M. and C. HENDRICKSON, “Bounds on the expected performance of networks with unreliable links,” Networks 14, 439–456, 1984.
  11. CAREY, M. "The dual of the traffic assignment problem with elastic demands," Transportation Research 19B(3), 227–237, 1985. (Abstract)
  12. CAREY, M. and P. K. ELSE, “A reformulation of the theory of optimal congestion taxes,” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 18, 1985.
  13. CAREY, M. “A constraint qualification for a dynamic traffic assignment model,” Transportation Science 20(1), 1986
  14. CAREY, M. and R. REVELLI, “Constrained estimation of direct demand functions and trip matrices,” Transportation Science 20(3), 143–152, 1986.
  15. CAREY, M. and S. C. LITTLECHILD, “Intertemporal benefit functions,” Economic Letters 23, 1986.
  16. CAREY, M. “Optimal time-varying flows on congested networks,” Operations Research 35(1), 56–69, 1987.
  17. CAREY, M. "Network Equilibrium: Optimization formulations with both prices and quantities as variables," Transportation Research 21B(1), 69–77, 1987. (Abstract)
  18. CAREY, M. and A. SRINIVASAN, “Congested traffic networks: time-varying flows and start-time policies,” European Journal of Operational Research 36, 227–240, 1988. (Abstract)
  19. CAREY, M. “Estimating Nonparametric concave functions using gradient data,” European Journal of Operational Research 41(1), 73–85, 1989. (Abstract)
  20. CAREY, M. “Extending and solving a multiperiod congested network flow model”, Computers and Operations Research 17(5), 495–507, 1990. (Abstract)
  21. CAREY, M. "Nonconvexity of the dynamic traffic assignment problem", Transportation Research 26B(2), 127–133, April 1992. (Abstract)
  22. CAREY, M. and A. SRINIVASAN, “Externalities, average and marginal costs, and tolls on congested networks with time-varying flows,” Operations Research 41(1), 217–231, Jan. 1993
  23. CAREY, M. and A. SRINIVASAN. "Solving a class of network models for dynamic flow control.” European Journal of Operational Research 75(1), 151–170, May/June 1994.
  24. CAREY M. and A. KWIECI'NSKI. "Stochastic approximations to the effects of headways on knock-on delays of trains.” Transportation Research 28B(4), 251-267, Aug. 1994.
  25. CAREY, M. "A model and strategy for train pathing with choice of lines, platforms and routes.” Transportation Research 28B(5), 333-353, Oct. 1994.
  26. CAREY, M. "Extending a train pathing model from one-way to two-way track.” Transportation Research 28B(5), 395-400, Oct. 1994.
  27. CAREY, M. "Reliability of interconnected scheduled services.” European Journal of Operational Research 79(1), 51-72, Nov. 1994.
  28. CAREY, M. and A. KWIECI'NSKI. "Swapping the order of scheduled services to minimize expected costs of delays.” Transportation Research 28B(6), 409–428, Dec. 1994.
  29. CAREY, M. and A. KWIECI'NSKI. "Properties of expected costs and performance measures in stochastic models of scheduled transport.” European Journal Operational Research 83(1), 182–199, May 1995.
  30. CAREY, M. "Dynamic Congestion Pricing and the Price of FIFO". Pages 333–350 of Urban Traffic Networks, N. H. Gartner and G. Improta (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995. ISBN 3-540-59073-0. [A refereed selection of papers from the Second International Seminar on Urban Traffic Networks, Capri, Italy, July 1992.]
  31. CAREY, M. and D. LOCKWOOD. “A model, algorithms and strategy for train pathing”. Journal of the Operational Research Society 46B(8), 988–1005, Aug. 1995. [Awarded the Operational Research Society medal (Goodeve Medal) 1996 for the best paper in the Journal of the Operational Research Society in 1995.]
  32. CAREY, M., A. SRINIVASAN and R. P. STRAUSS, “Optimal consolidation of municipalities: an analysis of alternative designs.” Socio-economic Planning Sciences 30(2), 103–119, August 1996.
  33. CAREY, M. "Optimizing scheduled activity times, allowing for behavioural response.” Transportation Research B 32(5), 329–342. June 1998.
  34. CAREY, M., "Ex ante heuristic measures of schedule reliability.” Transportation Research B 33(7), 473-494. September 1999.
  35. CAREY, M. and E. SUBRAHMANIAN, “An approach to modeling time-varying flows on congested networks.” Transportation Research B 34(3), 157-183, March 2000.
  36. CAREY, M. and S. CARVILLE, "Testing schedule performance and reliability for train stations.” Journal of the Operational Research Society 51(6), 666 - 682, June 2000.
  37. McCARTNEY, M. and M. CAREY, “Modelling traffic flow: solving and interpreting differential equations”. Teaching Mathematics and its Applications 18(3), 115-121, 1999. (A journal of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA).)
  38. McCARTNEY, M. and M. CAREY, “Modelling traffic flow; interpreting roots and applying summations”. Teaching Mathematics and its Applications 19(1), 21-29. 2000.
  39. McCARTNEY, M. and M. CAREY, “Follow that car! Investigating a simple class of car following model”. Teaching Mathematics and its Applications 19(2), 83-87. 2000.
  40. McCARTNEY, M. and M. CAREY, “Comparing mathematical models of traffic flow”. Teaching Mathematics and its Applications 19(4), 183-187. 2000.
  41. CAREY, M. “Dynamic traffic assignment with more flexible modelling within links.” Networks and Spatial Economics 1(4), 349-375. Sept. 2001. (Special issue on “Foundations of Dynamic Traffic Assignment”).
  42. CAREY, M. and M. McCARTNEY, “Behaviour of a whole-link travel time model used in dynamic traffic assignment.” Transportation Research 36B(1), 83-95, Jan. 2002.
  43. GE. Y.E. and M. CAREY (2002). Link outflow rate computing under continuous dynamic loads.” Pages 770–777 in Traffic and Transportation Studies, Proceedings of ICTTS2002, July 23-25, 2002, Guilin, China. Edited by K. C. P. Wang, G. Xiao, L.Nie and H. Yang, published by ASCE, Virginia.
  44. WIE, B.-J., R.L. TOBIN and M. CAREY, “The existence, uniqueness and computation of an arc-based dynamic network user equilibrium formulation.” Transportation Research 36B(10), 897-918, Dec. 2002.
  45. CAREY, M, Y.E. GE and M. McCARTNEY, “A whole-link travel-time model with desirable properties.” Transportation Science 37B(1), 83-96, 2003.
  46. CAREY, M. and S. CARVILLE, “Scheduling and platforming trains at busy complex stations.” Transportation Research 37A(3), 195-224, 2003.
  47. CAREY, M. and M. McCARTNEY, “Pseudo periodicity in a travel-time model used in dynamic traffic assignment.” Transportation Research 37B(9), 769-792, 2003.
  48. CAREY, M. and Y. E. GE, “Comparing whole-link travel time models used in DTA.” Transportation Research 37B(10), 905-926, 2003.
  49. CAREY, M. and D. WATLING,  Introduction to a Special Issue on dynamic traffic assignment,” Networks and Spatial Economics 3(3, 403-406, 2003. (Due to a printing error, appears in Issue 3(4) of the journal.)
  50. CAREY, M. and M. McCARTNEY, “An exit-flow model used in dynamic traffic assignment.” Computers & Operations Research 31, 1583-1602, 2004. 
  51. CAREY, M. "Link travel times I: desirable properties" Networks and Spatial Economics 4(3), 257-268, 2004.
  52. CAREY, M. “Link travel times II: properties derived from traffic-flow models.” Networks and Spatial Economics 4(4), 379-402, 2004.
  53. CAREY, M. and Y.E. GE, "Efficient discretisation of link travel time models used" Networks and Spatial Economics 4(3), 269-290, 2004.
  54. CAREY, M. and Y.E. GE, “Convergence of whole-link travel time models used in DTA.” Transportation Science 39(1), 25-38, Feb 2005.
  55. CAREY, M. and Y.E. GE, “Alternative conditions for a well-behaved travel-time model.” Transportation Science 39(3), 417–428, Aug 2005.
  56. CAREY, M. and I. CRAWFORD, “Scheduling trains on a network of busy complex stations”.  Transportation Research Part B 41(2), Feb 2007, 159-178.  Special Issue on Advanced Modelling of Train Operations in Stations and Networks.
  57. CAREY, M. and Y. GE,  “Retaining desirable properties in discretising a travel-time model”.  Transportation Research Part B(41), 540-553, 2007.


  • Other papers in progress or under review
  • More than 30 Research Reports not listed

The journal articles are in refereed international journals. Longer versions of some of these also appeared as Research Reports, but for brevity I have not listed these reports in this CV.

Scheduling trains on a network of busy complex stations