# Physics - Level 2 Modules

**PHY2001 Quantum and Statistical Physics****(20 CAT Points)**

Pre-Requisites: PHY1001 and PHY1002, or MTH1001 and MTH1002

Lecturers: Dr Emma McBride, Dr Satya Kar, Dr Stuart Sim

Course Content:

Quantum Mechanics: Quantum history, particle waves, uncertainty principle, quantum wells, Schrödinger wave equation SWE

1D SWE Solutions: Infinite and finite square potential well, harmonic potential well, particle wave at a potential step, particle wave at a potential barrier, quantum tunnelling

3D Solutions of SWE: Particle in a box, hydrogen atom, degeneracy

Statistical Mechanics: Pauli exclusion principle, fermions, bosons, statistical distributions, statistical entropy, partition function, density of states. Examples of Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein distributions

Compulsory Element:

Assessment: Examination 60% Assignments 20% Lab Work 20%

**PHY2002 Physics of the Solid State (20 CAT Points****)**

Pre-Requisites: PHY1001 and PHY1002, or MTH1001 and MTH1002

Lecturers: Prof Marty Gregg, Dr Raymond McQuaid

Course Content:

Periodicity and symmetry, basic crystallographic definitions, packing of atomic planes, crystal structures, the reciprocal lattice, diffraction from crystals, Bragg condition and Ewald sphere. Lattice waves and dispersion relations, phonons, Brillouin zones, heat capacity, density of vibrational states, Einstein and Debye models of heat capacity, thermal conductivity and anharmonicity. Concepts related to phase transitions in materials such as: free energy, enthalpy, entropy, order parameter, classification of phase transitions, Landau theory. Bonding classification of materials, metals, insulators and semiconductors, Fermi energy and density of electron states, energy bands, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, donors and acceptors, carrier transport properties, p-n junction

Compulsory Element:

Assessment: Examination 60% Assignments 20% Lab Work 20%

**PHY2003 Astrophysics I****(20 CAT Points)**

Pre-Requisites: PHY1001 and PHY1002, or MTH1001 and MTH1002

Lecturers: Dr Meg Schwamb, Dr Peter Keys, Dr Ernst de Mooij

Course Content:

Introduction to Astronomy: Units of measurement, telescopes and detecting photons.

From planets to galaxies: Size and scale of the visible Universe, Stellar and galactic motion.

The Solar system:The Sun as a star*, *Newtonian gravity; basic concepts in orbital dynamics; planets andour solar system.

Stars – observational properties/characterization: Stellar luminosities, colours, the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, stellar classification, fundamental stellar properties, Stefan Boltzmann equation, mass-luminosity relations.

Stars – stellar structure: Equation of hydrostatic support (including use of mass coordinate), gravitational binding and thermal energy of stars, Virial theorem, energy generation, energy transport by photon diffusion, convection.

Stars – formation, stellar evolution, binary-star evolution, stellar death: single star evolution, post-H burning, binary-star evolution concepts and accretion, stellar end-states and compact objects

Compulsory Element:

Assessment: Examination 40%, Assignments 40%, Lab Work 20%

**PHY2004 Electricity, Magnetism and Optics****(20 CAT Points)**

Pre-Requisites: PHY1001 and, PHY1002 or MTH1001 and MTH1002

Lecturers: Prof Gianluca Sarri, Dr Fumin Huang, Dr Charlotte Palmer

Course Content:

Electrostatics and magnetostatics

Coulomb, Gauss, Faraday, Ampère, Lenz and Lorentz laws

Wave solution of the Maxwell’s equations in vacuum and the Poynting vector

Polarisation of E.M. waves and behaviour at plane interfaces

Propagation of light in media (isotropic dielectrics). Faraday and Kerr effects.

Temporal and spatial coherence of light. Interference and diffraction

Geometrical optics and matrix description of optic elements

Optical cavities and laser action

Compulsory Element:

Assessment: Examination 60% Assignments 20% Lab Work 20%

**PHY2005 Atomic and Nuclear Physics****(20 CAT Points) (2nd semester)**

Pre-Requisites: PHY1001 and, PHY1002 or AMA1020

Lecturers: Dr Stuart Sim, Prof David Riley

Course Content:

Atomic:

Hydrogenic quantum numbers, spin-orbit interaction, fine structure, central field approximation, LS coupling, Hund's rules, theory of the helium atom, selection rules, atomic spectra and transition probabilities, first order perturbation theory, Zeeman effect.

Nuclear:

Observation of nuclear properties, nuclear radius, mass (semi-empirical formula), inter-nucleon potential, radioactive decay mechanisms, fission and fusion, interactions of particles with matter.

Compulsory Element:

Assessment: Examination 60% Assignments 20% Lab Work 20%

**PHY2006 Mathematical Physics****(20 CAT Points) (1st semester)**

Pre-Requisites: PHY1001 and PHY1002, or MTH1001 and MTH1002

Lecturers: Dr Thomas Field, Dr Jason Greenwood

Course Content:

Advanced linear algebra: Definition and basic properties of a generic vectorial space, isomorphisms and homomorphisms. Generalised definition of scalar product and norm, base of a vectorial space, orthonormality.

Fourier series and Fourier transform. The Dirac delta function, Parseval’s theorem and the convolution theorem.

Partial differential equations: PDE classification, analytical solutions - method of characteristics, separation of variables.

Numerical Solutions to Differential Equations:

ODE – Euler, Midpoint, Runge-Kutta

PDE – Finite difference methods, forward, backward, Crank-Nicolson, relaxation techniques

Assessment: Examination 60%, Assignments 20%, Group Work 20%

**PHY2010 Employability for Physics **** (0 CAT Points)**

Pre-Requisites:

Lecturers: Prof Robert Bowman

This is a 0 CAT point module that is compulsory for students planning to take a placement year. The module consists of 6 lectures and 2 workshops, and is assessed 100% by attendance.

Course Content:

Introduction to placement for Physics students, CV building, international options, interview skills, assessment centres, placement approval, health & safety and wellbeing. Workshops on CV building and interview skills. This module is delivered in-house with the support of the QUB Careers Service and external experts.

Compulsory Element: Students must attend at least five of the six lectures, and both workshops.

Learning Outcomes: To identify gaps in personal employability skills. To plan a programme of work to result in a successful work placement application.

Skills: Plan self-learning and improve performance, as the foundation for lifelong learning/CPD. Decide on action plans and implement them effectively. Clearly identify criteria for success and evaluate their own performance against them.

Assessment: Attend at least five of the six lectures and attend and participate in the two workshops.