Replacement, Refinement & Reduction (3Rs)
In accordance with the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, research must be based on a clear set of principles - Replacement, Reduction and Refinement. Known as the 3Rs, these are the principles on which animal research is conducted within Queen's.
Replacement - to use alternative methods wherever possible. For example, using human participants, their tissues and cells and developing and using mathematical or computer models or animal cell lines.
Reduction - to use the minimum number of animals in an experiment or in an overall research study.
Refinement - to strive for the highest possible standard of animal care, use and welfare.
The University has been awarded a number of NC3Rs grants to enable our researchers to develop alternatives to animal research. The projects have included:
- School of Biological Sciences: 'Development of non-radioactive labels for a receptor binding assay for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin testing'
- School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences: 'An in vitro model for pain and neurogenic inflammation in the oro-facial region and upper airways'