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IUGS Initative on Forensic Geology

Others

CREMAINS

Bergslien, E.T., Bush M. A. and Bush, P.J. (2008) Identification of cremains using x-ray diffraction spectroscopy and a comparison to trace element analysis, Forensic Science International, 175(2), 218 – 226. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.07.004.

Ubelaker, D. H., Ward, D. C., Braz, V. S., and Stewart, J. (2002) The use of SEM/EDX analysis to distinguish dental and osseus tissue from other materials. Journal of Forensic Sciences 47(5): 940–943.

FOSSILS

Armstrong, H. A. and Brasier, M. D. (2005) Microfossils. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.

Bryant, V. M. and Jones, G. D. (2006) Forensic palynology: Current status of a rarely used technique in the United States of America. Forensic Science International 163: 183–97.

Clarkson, E. N. K. (1998) Invertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, 4th edn. Blackwell Science, Malden, MA.

France, D. L. (2008) Human and Nonhuman Bone Identification: A color atlas. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Geological Society of America (2009) Walker, J. D., and Geissman, J. W., compilers, Geologic Time Scale: Geological Society of America, doi: 10.1130/2009.CTS004R2C. Available online at http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/.

Hartley, B. (1996) An Atlas of British Diatoms. Biopress Ltd, Bristol.

Horrocks, M. (2004) Sub-sampling and preparing forensic samples for pollen analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences 49(5): 1–4.

Krstic, S., Duma, A., Janevska, B., Levkov, Z. et al. (2002) Diatoms in forensic expertise of drowning: A Macedonian experience. Forensic Science International 127: 198–203.

Langer, A., Mackler, A., Rubin, I. et al. (1971) Inorganic particles in cigars and cigar smoke. Science 174: 585–7.

Marks, M. K. (1995) William M. Bass and the development of forensic anthropology in Tennessee. Journal of Forensic Sciences 40(5): 741–50.

Metzger, C. A., Terry Jr., D. O., and Grandstaff, D. E. (2004) Effect of paleosol formation on rare earth elemental signatures in fossil bone. Geology 32(6): 497–500.

Mildenhall, D. C. (2006) Hypericum pollen determines the presence of burglars at the scene of a crime: An example of forensic palynology. Forensic Science International 163: 231–35.

Owsley, D. W. and R. W. Mann (1990) Medicolegal case involving a bear paw. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 80(11): 623–5.

Pollanen, M. S. (1998) Forensic Diatomology and Drowning. Elsevier Science: Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Round, F. E., Crawford, R. M., and Mann, D. G. (1990) The Diatoms: Biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press.

Seilacher, A. (2007) Trace Fossil Analysis. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.

Spaulding, S. A., Lubinski, D. J., and Potapova, M. (2010) Diatoms of the United States, http://westerndiatoms.colorado.edu, accessed 24.11.11.

Vinyard, W. C. (1979) Diatoms of North America. Mad River Press, Inc., Eureka, CA.

GLASS

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1990) Method 973.65, characterization and matching of glass fragments: Dispersion microscopy (double variation method). In: Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Vol. 1, 15th edn. AOAC, Gaithersburg, MD.

ASTM Standard C162-05 (2010) Standard Terminology of Glass and Glass Products, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, DOI: 10.1520/C0162-05R10, http://www.astm.org/Standards/C162.htm.

ASTM Standard C1036-11 (2011) Standard Specification for Flat Glass, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, DOI: 10.1520/C1036-11, http://www.astm.org/Standards/C1036.htm.

Bottrell, M. C. (2009) Forensic glass comparison: Background information used in data interpretation. Forensic Science Communications 11(2), available online at http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc.

Koons R. D., Buscaglia, J., Bottrell, M., and Miller E. T. (2002) Forensic glass comparisons. In: R. Saferstein (ed.), Forensic Science Handbook: Volume 1, 2nd edn. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, pp. 162–213.

Locke, J. and Unikowski, J. (1991) Breaking of flat glass: Part 1: Size and distribution of particles from plain glass windows. Forensic Science International 51: 251–62.

Underhill, M. (1980) Multiple RI in float glass. Journal of the Forensic Science Society 20: 169–76.

Zadora, G. (2009) Evaluation of evidence value of glass fragments by likelihood ratio and Bayesian Network approaches. Analytica Chimica Acta 642: 279–90.

MAPS

Compton, R. R. (1985) Geology in the Field. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York.

El-Rabbany, A. (2006) Introduction to GPS: The global positioning system, 2nd edn. Artech House Publishers, Norwood, MA.

Maltman, A. (1998) Geological Maps: An introduction, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York.

Slocum, T. A., McMaster, R. B., Kessler, F. C., and Howard, H. H. (2008) Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Spencer, E. W. (2006) Geologic Maps: A practical guide to the preparation and interpretation of geologic maps. Waveland Pr Inc., Long Grove, IL.

PIGMENTS

ASTM (2005) Standard Guide for Test Methods for Forensic Writing Ink Comparison, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, DOI: 10.1520/E1422-05, http://www.astm.org/Standards/E1422.htm.

Eastaugh, N., Walsh, V., Chaplin, T., and Siddall, R. (2004) Pigment Compendium: Optical microscopy of historical pigments. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, London.

McCrone, W. C (1982) The microscopical identification of pigments. Journal of the International Institute for Conservation – Canadian Group 7(1 and 2): 11–34.

Odegaard, N., Carrol, S. and Zimmt, W. S. (2000) Material Characterization Tests for Objects of Art and Archaeology. Archetype Publications, London.

MINING, MINERALS, METALS

Bell, F.G. & Donnelly, L.J. 2006. Mining and its Impact on the Environment. Taylor & Francis.

Creamer, M. 2018. http://www.miningweekly.com/article/illegal-mining-worth-r7bn-a-year-pwc-2018-06- 14/rep_id:3650.

CRISCO, 2013. Committee for mineral reserves international reporting standards (CRIRSCO), 2006. International reporting template for the public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and reserves. Resources and Mineral Reserves. ICMM.

Das, A.K. 2018. Indian government tighten screws on illegal miners. 29 June 2018 Johannesburg Mining Weekly. http://www.miningweekly.com/topic/illegal-mining

Dixon, R. & Schouwstra, R. 2017. The role of forensic geology in the illicit precious metals trade. In: Donnelly, L. J. (ed) Episodes Journal of International Geoscience. Special Issue on Forensic Geology, International Union of Geological Sciences, June 2017, 40(2), 132-140.

Donnelly, L. J. 2020. The Management and Mitigation of Risks Associated with Substitution, Adulteration, Fraud and Fakery in Minerals, Mining and Metals. 36th International Congress on Forensic Geology, Delhi, India, 2-8 March, 2020, Session on Forensic Geology (pending).

Donnelly, L. J. 2019. Geoforensic methods for countering fraud and theft in the minerals, metals and mining industry. 4th Iberoamerican Seminar on Forensic Geology, in association with the ‘Reunion Anual de la Unión Geofisica Mexicana, (RAUGM)’, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, Sheraton Buganvilias Hotel, 28 October to 1 November 2019.

Donnelly, L.J., Pirrie, D. & Ruffell, A. 2018. The role of forensic geology in the investigation and mitigation of fraud, fakery and theft, in the mining, minerals & metals industry. Environmental & Criminal Forensics. The Geological Society of London, Forensic Geoscience Group, Session 3: Trace Evidence, Wednesday 5 December 2018, Geological Society of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London, abstract only.

Donnelly, L. J. 2008. Communication in geology: A personal perspective and lessons from volcanic, mining, exploration, geotechnical, police and geoforensic investigations. In: Livermann, D.G.E., Pereira, C.P & marker, B. (eds) Communicating Environmental Geoscience. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, 305, 107- 121.

Ernst & Young 2011. Metals and mining, Fraud and Corruption: Ernst & Young. EYGM Limited.

Ernst & Young 2012a. Conflict Minerals: Ernst & Young. EYGM Limited.

Ernst & Young 2012b. Are you ready for conflict minerals reporting:Ernst & Young. EYGM Limited.

Hentschel, T., Hruschka, F. & Priester, M. 2003. Artisanal and Small-Scale mining. Challenges and Opportunities. Projekt-Consult GmbH, IIED, London. www.iied.org/mmsd

Johannesburg Mining Weekly 2018. http://www.miningweekly.com/topic/illegal-mining

Maconachie, R. & Binnis, T. 2007. Beyond the resource curse? Diamond mining, development and post-conflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone. Resources Policy, 32, 104-115.

Naylor, R. 2007. The alchemy of fraud: investment scams in the precious-metals mining business. Crime Law and Social Change, 47, 89-120.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2013. Due diligence guidance for responsible supply chains of minerals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas. https://mneguidelines.oecd.org/mining.htm

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2015. Due Diligence Guidance: towards conflict-free mineral supply chains.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2016. Due diligence in Colombia’s gold supply chain: Overview.

Perelygin, A., Kuchkin, A., Kharkov, N. & Moskvina, T. 2008. Criminalistic identification of PGM-containing products of mining and metallurgical companies. Forensic Science International, 174, 12-15.

Roberts, R.J., Dixon, R.D. & Merkle, R.K.W. 2016. Distinguishing between legally and illegally produced gold in South Africa. Journal of Forensic Science, 61, S230-S235.

Wells, J. 1998. Bre-X. The inside story of the world’s biggest mining scam. Orion Business Boks

SPECIAL PUBLICATION

In 2019, the final draft of, ‘Forensic Soil Science and Geology’ was submitted to the Geological Society of London. Publication is expected to be in 2021, as a ‘Special Publication’ series. Some of the papers are available online at the following link: https://sp.lyellcollection.org/online-first/492

The application of forensic geology to investigate the substitution of zinc ingots between China and Brazil Fábio Augusto da Silva Salvador, Matheus Pereira Nogueira e Silva, Ricardo de Oliveira Mascarenhas and Anelize Manuela Bahniuk Rumbelsperger) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 4 November 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2018-83

Analysis of soil following a police-led open area search and the recovery of a cold-case homicide grave L. J. Donnelly, J. Cassella, D. Pirrie, L. Dawson, G. Blom, A. Davidson, P. Arnold, M. Harrison and C. Hope Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 29 October 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2017-337

Automated mineralogical profiling of soils as an indicator of local bedrock lithology: a tool for predictive forensic geolocation Duncan Pirrie, Daniel E. Crean, Allan J. Pidduck, Timothy M. Nicholls, Roy P. Awbery and Robin K. Shail Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 25 October 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2019-42

The forensic comparison of trace amounts of soil on a pyjama top with hypersulphidic subaqueous soil from a river as evidence in a homicide cold case Robert W. Fitzpatrick and Mark D. Raven Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 28 August 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2019-59

Trace evidence examination using laboratory and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques Mark D. Raven, Robert W. Fitzpatrick and Peter G. Self Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 28 August 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2019-36

Evaluation of forensic soil traces from a crime scene: robbery of a safety deposit box in Brazil S. A. Testoni, V. F. Melo, L. A. Dawson, F. A. S. Salvador and L. V. Prandel Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 28 August 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2019-35

Comparison of geophysical and botanical results in simulated clandestine graves in rural and tropical environments in Colombia, South America Carlos Martin Molina and Jamie K. Pringle Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 22 August 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2017-290

The forensic application of ground-penetrating radar, Tekoha Jevy indigenous village, Paraná, Brazil Rafael E. Canata, Fábio A. S. Salvador, Welitom R. Borges, Francisco J. F. Ferreira, Eduardo X. Seimetz, Ivan Pinto and Eduardo O. Barros Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 22 August 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2017-329

A case study in forensic soil examination from China Hongling Guo, Ping Wang, Can Hu, Jun Zhu, XueYing Yang, Yangke Quan, HongCheng Mei and JinFeng Li Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 30 July 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2017-307

The importance of forensic soil science and geology being connected to mainstream forensic science Hilton Kobus and James Robertson Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 30 July 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2017-314

Dealing with different forensic targets: geoscientists at crime scenes P. M. Barone and R. M. Di Maggio Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 23 July 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2017-274

Plant wax compounds and soil microbial DNA profiles to ascertain urban land use type L. A. Dawson, L. M. Macdonald and K. Ritz Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 17 July 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2018-65

Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry of earth materials: considerations for forensic analysis Elisa Bergslien Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 11 July 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2017-346

The desktop study – an essential element of geoforensic search: homicide and environmental cases (west Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK) Alastair Ruffell and Lorraine Barry Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 11 July 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2017-333

Geoforensics in Italy: education and research standards R. M. Di Maggio and P. M. Barone Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 9 July 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2017-273

Soil DNA: advances in DNA technology offers a powerful new tool for forensic science Jennifer M. Young, Denice Higgins and Jeremy J. Austin Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 4 July 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2017-351

Geographical Information Science (GIS), spatial sampling and sediment variability examined using a case of manslaughter Jennifer McKinley and Alastair Ruffell Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 17 June 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2018-16

Identifying the source of illicit gold from South America Roger D. Dixon and Roland K. W. Merkle Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 492, 14 June 2019 https://doi.org/10.1144/SP492-2018-15