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Welcome to
Global Intellectual Property and Technology Centre (G-IPTech)


This research area focuses on exploring the legal challenges and opportunities posed by the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights on a global scale. This is a rapidly evolving field with significant implications for a wide range of industries and sectors. The research cluster could focus on a range of topics, including the legal framework for intellectual property protection and enforcement, the challenges and opportunities posed by global trade and investment, and the impact of technological developments on intellectual property rights. This research emphasis will explore questions such as:

(1) key international treaties and agreements that govern the protection and enforcement of IPRs;

(2) how IP laws differ across different countries and regions, and what are the implications for global trade and investment;

(3) the challenges and opportunities posed by disruptive technologies for global protection of IP rights.  

More specifically, we conduct research on topics such as the role and politics of IP in the global economy, the impact of trade agreements on the protection of IP rights, the challenges and opportunities posed by the rise of the internet, digital technologies, and artificial intelligence for IP protection at global cross-jurisdictional level, and public interest challenges within the present IP framework, including the Global South-North divide, access to knowledge, access to medicine, IP, green economy and sustainability, , and users’ rights offline and online.


Dr Billy Melo Araujo

Dr Jocelyn Bosse

Prof Giancarlo Frosio

Dr Alessandra Guida

Dr Eugene Lim

Dr Liam Sunner

Dr Pratyush Upreti


Alessandra Guida, Biosafety Measures, Technology Risks and the World Trade Organization - Thriving and Surviving in the Age of Biotech (Routledge 2023).

P N Upreti, 'The battle for geographical indication protection of basmati rice: a view from Nepal' (2023) 54 IIC International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law 710.

P N Upreti, 'Data, copyright, and investor-state arbitration: insights from Einarsson v Canada' (2023) 45 European Intellectual Property Review 136.

B Melo Araujo, Market power Europe? Exporting EU disciplines on domestic services regulations through trade agreements’ in E Fahey, J Monnet and I Mancini (eds) (Edward Elgar 2022) 53–73.

P N Upreti, Intellectual Property Objectives in International Investment Agreements (Edward Elgar 2022).

P N Upreti, S Inama, and G Negroni, 'The Case for Geographical Indication Protection of the Mozambique White Prawn, Report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD/ALDC/2022/2' (2022) United Nations.

P N Upreti, 'A TWAIL Critique of Intellectual Property and Related Disputes in Investor-State Dispute Settlement' (2022) 25 Journal of World Intellectual Property 220.

P N Upreti and B Mercurio, 'Tripping up the Intellectual Property Waiver: the rise and fall of the 'waiver' and shift to a more flexible interpretation of Article 31' (2022) Berkeley Journal of International Law.

L Sunner, ‘Intellectual Property as a Cornerstone of the World Economy: Enhancing or Restricting Trade Within the European Union’s External Trade Policy?’ (2022) 17(3) Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice.

L Sunner, ‘The Marrakesh VIP Treaty, Accessibility, and (E)U’ (2022) 13(1) European Journal of Law and Technology 1.

G Frosio, 'Enforcement of European Rights on a Global Scale' in E Rosati (ed), Routledge Handbook of European Copyright Law 413-440 (Routledge 2021).

G Frosio, O Bulayenko, A Ɓawrynowicz and N Mangal, 'Cross Border Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights in EU', study requested by the JURI Committee (European Parliament, Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, December 2021).

A Guida, 'Are WTO Decision-Makers Regulating Technological Risks or Are Technological Risks Steering WTO Biotechnology Legal Decisions?' (2021) 41 Risk Analysis 2127-2139.

A Guida, ‘The Reasoning Structure in Legal Disputes on International Trade of Biotechnology: From a Judicial Balance by Chance to a Judicial Balance by Design’ (2021) 12 European Journal of Risk Regulation 602-617.

L Sunner, ‘How the European Union is expanding the protection levels afforded to Geographical Indications as part of its global trade policy’ (2021) 16(4) Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 341-348.

L Sunner, ‘Judgment of the General Court (Seventh Chamber) of 12 December 2019, Conte v EUIPO (CANNABIS STORE AMSTERDAM)’ (2021) 12(1) European Journal of Risk Regulation 254-260.

P N Upreti, 'Intellectual Property Rights in Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Connecting the Dots Through the Philip Morris, Eli Lilly and Bridgestone Awards' (2021) 31 The American Review of International Arbitration 337.

M V Callo-Müller and P N Upreti, 'RCEP IP Chapter: Another TRIPS-Plus Agreement?' (2021) 70 GRUR International: Journal of European and International IP Law 667–671.

P N Upreti, 'Intellectual property, investment and the World Trade Organization (WTO): a historical account' (2020) in C Geiger (ed), Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and Investment Law (Edward Elgar 2020) 182-205.

P N Upreti, 'Trade mark restrictions under the TRIPS agreement: the WTO panel findings on Australia's tobacco plain packaging legislation' (2020) 54 Journal of World Trade 239-264.

P N Upreti, 'Intellectual Property Rights in Investment Treaty Arbitration: A Critical Examination of the Philip Morris & Eli Lilly Awards' (2020) TTLF Stanford Law School Working Paper No 67.

P N Upreti and M V Callo-Müller, 'Phase One US-China Trade Deal: What Does It Mean for Intellectual Property?' (2020) 69 GRUR International: Journal of European and International IP Law 389–393.

B Melo Araujo, ‘Regulating through trade: The re-calibration of EU deep and comprehensive FTAs’ (2019) 31(2) Pace Int’l L Rev 377-421

P N Upreti, 'Geographical Indications in Nepal: In Search of Identity' (2019) in S Frankel (ed), Is Intellectual Property Pluralism Functional? (Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2019) 235-265.

P N Upreti, 'Trumping local marks: A note on well-known trade marks in Nepal' (2019) 14 Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice 144-155.

P N Upreti, 'Eli Lilly v. Government of Canada: the tale of promise v. expectation' (2018) 21 International Arbitration Law Review 84-89.

P N Upreti, 'From TPP to CPTPP: why intellectual property matters' (2018) 13 Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice 100–101.

P N Upreti, 'IP Licence as an Investment: Insights from Bridgestone v. Panama' (2018) 1 Stockholm Intellectual Property Law Review 16-27.

P N Upreti, 'Philip Morris v. Uruguay: A Breathing Space for Domestic IP Regulation' (2018) 40 European Intellectual Property Review 277-284.

B Melo Araujo, ‘Setting the Rules of the Game: Mega-Regionals and the Role of the WTO’ (2017) 21(2) UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs 101-153

P N Upreti, 'Nepal’s First National Intellectual Property Policy-2017: Never too Late' (2017) 12 Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice 550–55.

B A Melo Araujo, The EU Deep Trade Agenda: Law and Policy (Oxford University Press 2016)

P N Upreti, 'Litigating Intellectual Property Issues in Investor-State Dispute Settlement: A Jurisdictional Conflict' (2016) 11\8 Global Trade & Customs Journal 343-351.

P N Upreti, 'All smoke but no fire: a curious case of plain packaging & intellectual property' (2015) AMITY International Journal of Juridical Sciences 113-131.

B Melo Araujo, 'Intellectual Property and the EU’s Deep Trade Agenda' (2013) 16 J of Int’l Econ L 439.

Eugene C Lim, ‘A Long ‘TRIP’ Home: Intellectual Property Rights, International Law and the Constructivist Challenge’ (2008) 4(2) Journal of International Law & International Relations 57.