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To search the SWAT list please use ‘Find on this page...’ (Ctrl + F) within the ‘Edit’ menu at the top of this page. You are welcome to adopt or adapt one of these if they would like to conduct a piece of embedded methodology research. 




TitleLink (Author(s) & Date)
1) Site visits by the principal investigator to improve recruitment in a multicentre randomized trial. SWAT01 Valerie Smith and Mike Clarke (2012 July 22 1151)
2) Timing and mode of delivery of a self-completion questionnaire. SWAT02 Lisa Maguire and Mike Clarke (2014 January 21 1306)
3) Gender of the person signing an invitation letter for a prospective study. SWAT03 Lisa Maguire and Mike Clarke (2014 January 21 1510)
4) Description of the study / project in an invitation letter for a prospective study. SWAT04 Lisa Maguire and Mike Clarke (2014 January 21 1448)
5) Influence of explicit discussion of confidentiality in an invitation letter for a prospective study. SWAT05 Lisa Maguire and Mike Clarke (2014 January 21 1505)
6) Using a limited number of practitioners to recruit participants to a multicentre randomized trial. SWAT06 Patricia Healy (2014 August 21 1553)
7) Impact of questionnaire design on response rates and satisfaction of the participants. SWAT07 Susanne Grylka-Baeschlin (2014 May 28 1632)
8) Telephone screening versus face-to-face screening for the identification of participants in a multicentre trial. SWAT08 Susanne Grylka-Baeschlin (2014 May 28 1645)

Pre-randomisation matching of sites in a cluster randomised trial.

SWAT09 Mike Clarke and Lisa Maguire (2015 January 22 1704)
10) Skype videoconferences to improve site engagement in multi-centre randomised trials. SWAT10 Peter J. Kelly (2014 September 20 1731)
11) Monitoring consent forms by Skype videoconferences. SWAT11 Peter J. Kelly (2014 September 20 1746)
12) Projected accrual as part of effective site selection for a multi-centre randomised trial. SWAT12 Joanna Peel (2014 December 08 1043)
13) Financial incentives to complete follow-up questionnaires in a randomised trial. SWAT13 Jonathan Cook (2013 February 01 1237)
15) Video presentation of trial information to potential patient participants in a randomized trial. SWAT15 Declan Devane, Andrew Murphy, Valerie Smith and Mike Clarke (2013 Jan 01)
16)  Providing information on end-of-study compensation to improve participation in research. SWAT16 Lesley Anderson and Glen Titmarsh (2012 January 01 1511)

Sending a letter or telephoning potential participants as a method of follow-up to improve recruitment to research.

SWAT17 Lesley Anderson and Glen Titmarsh (2012 January 01 1547)

Gifts to improve participation in research.

SWAT18 Lesley Anderson and Glen Titmarsh (2012 January 01 1624)
19) Prompting participants to return baseline questionnaires to improve the provision of follow-up information in trials. SWAT19 Gillian W Shorter (2014 October 06 1640)

Optimum time and day to send invitation letter for trials.

SWAT20 Helen McAneney (2015 April 17 1537)
21) Provision of incentives to improve participant response to data collection in a randomised trial of a public health intervention. SWAT21 Frank Kee, Sarah Brennan, Mike Clarke, Chris Patterson (2015 JUL 01 1048)
22)  Promoting Recruitment using Information Management Efficiently (PRIME). SWAT22 R Al-Shahi Salman, A Maxwell, R Parker, M Dennis, C Weir, A Rudd(14 03 5)

Systematic Techniques for Assisting Recruitment to Trials (MRC START)

SWAT23 Jo Rick, Peter Bower, Adwoa Hughes-Morley, Peter Knapp (2012 JAN 11 1301)

Using a theoretically informed cover letter to improve response rates to annual postal questionnaires.

SWAT24 Anne Duncan, Craig Ramsay, Debbie Bonetti, Jan Clarkson (2013 OCT 1 0901)

Two-by-two factorial randomised trial to evaluate strategies to improve follow-up in a randomised prevention trial.

SWAT25 A Montgomery, H Williams, L Bradshaw, J Chalmers (2014 MAR 1 1134)

Improving trial recruitment with a leaflet advertising patient and public involvement.

SWAT26 Adwoa Hughes-Morley (2014 MAR 1 1606)
27)  Remote versus on-site initiation visits. SWAT27 L Jefferson, S Brealey, L Cook et al (2003 MAR 1 1407)

Pre-notification of trial participants by newsletter to improve response rates.

SWAT28 N Mitchell,C Hewitt,E Lenaghan,E Platt,L Shepstone,D Torgerson(20070201)

Effect of envelope colour on response rates

SWAT29 N Mitchell, C Hewitt, D Torgerson & SCOOP Trial Group (2008 JAN 1 1333)

Use of a leaflet containing information about healthcare research for recruitment to a randomised trial

SWAT30 C Arundel, D Torgerson, L Jefferson, and S Cockayne (2012 JUN 1 1459)

Electronic prompts to increase response rates to postal questionnaires

SWAT31 L Clark, S Ronaldson, L Dyson et al (2007 JAN 1 1442)

Effects of a re-designed Participant Information Sheet

SWAT32 S Cockayne, J Adamson, P Bower et al (2012 JAN 1 1149)

Effects of a newsletter and Post-it® note on postal questionnaire response rates

SWAT33 S Cockayne, J Adamson, B Corbacho et al (2012 AUG 15 1210)

Offering study results as an incentive to increase response rates to postal questionnaires

SWAT34 Sarah Cockayne and David J Torgerson (2007 JAN 1 1518)

Personalised text message versus standard text message prompts for increasing response to postal questionnaires

SWAT35 Adwoa Hughes-Morley and David Torgerson (2015 DEC 1 1201)
36)  Training in obtaining informed consent for clinical trials. SWAT36 Alina Constantin (2016 MAR 13 1417) 
37) Improving trial recruitment using pens as an incentive SWAT37 A Hughes-Morley and D Torgerson (2016 FEB 20 1421)
38) Cost implications of conducting a risk assessment prior to developing a monitoring plan for a multicentre clinical trial SWAT38 Caroline Hurley (2016 JAN 10 1404)

Use of local champions to contact and recruit potential participants

SWAT43 Mike Clarke, Vivien Coates (2016 JUL 8 1153)

Timing of text message prompts to increase trial participant response to postal questionnaires.

SWAT44 A Hughes-Morley, S Brealey, A Keding et al (2015 DEC 1 1420)

Participants' perspectives and preferences on clinical trial result dissemination

SWAT46 Professor Patricia Kearney (2016 FEB 10 1225)

Incentives and reminders to complete an online survey

SWAT47 Mike Clarke, Sara Schroter, Amy Price (2016 NOV 5 1228)

Effects of a £10 note on trial retention

SWAT48 Catherine Arundel, Emily Peckham, Simon Gilbody (2016 JUL 22 1403)

Effects of the use of different tone in reminder emails to non-respondents for an online survey

SWAT49 Amy Price,Sara Schroter, Mike Clarke (2016 DEC 1 1323)

Comparison of the small modified Rankin Scale questionnaire with face-to-face modified Rankin Scale

SWAT50 E Lundström,E Isaksson,Per Näsman,Per Wester,A Laska,ADahlin(17 MAR 1602)


Promoting group identity to improve questionnaire return rate

SWAT51 Ashley Agus (2019 MAR 28 1133)

Statistical methods for compensating for missing longitudinal data in a cluster randomised trial

SWAT52 Ricardo Segurado (2016 MAR 15 0937)

Including a photograph on the invitation letter for a prospective study

SWAT53 Rohan Anand and Natasha Green (2017 APR 15 1040)

Giving trial participants a thank you note or card after each study visit

SWAT54 Rohan Anand (2017 MAY 3 1415)

Prioritising key motivators and challenges influencing informal caregivers to participate in randomised trials


Patient decision aid to reduce decisional conflict in patients considering entry into a prospective cohort study

SWAT56 PRIMETIME Trialists (2017 APR 1 1503)

Provision of information about a core outcome set and trial questionnaire completion

SWAT57 Karen Matvienko-Sikar (2017 JAN 19 1138)

Enhancing Recruitment Using Teleconference and Commitment Contract (ERUTECC)

SWAT58 E Lundström, E Isaksson, P Näsman, P Wester, A Laska (2017 APR 30 1105)

Offering financial incentives to potential trial participants to improve recruitment

SWAT59 Shaun Treweek et al (2017 JUN 5 1223)
60) Mentioning scarcity of trial places in text (SMS) reminders SWAT60 Shaun Treweek et al (2017 MAY 5 1333)

Telephone reminders to people who do not respond to a postal invitation to join a trial 

SWAT61 Shaun Treweek et al (2017 JUN 9 1420)

The influence of different healthcare professionals delivering an intervention in a medication optimisation trial 

SWAT62 Dr. Shane Cullinan (2016 JAN 1 1028)

Does local radio and social media advertisement increase recruitment?

SWAT63 Augusto Azuara-Blanco and Mike Clarke (2016 OCT 1 1529)

Identifying opinions on the features needed for making a study successful

SWAT64 E Lundström, E Isaksson, P Wester, A Laska, P Näsman (2017 MAY 23 1419)

Strategies to optimise retention to an online randomised controlled trial for relatives of people with severe mental illness

SWAT65 Professor Fiona Lobban (2015 APR 1 1731)

Site visits to initiate recruitment in a clinical trial: Does it matter who conducts the visit?

SWAT66 Nollett C, Kelson M, Hood K (2016 JUN 27 1603)

Effects of an enhanced trainee Principal Investigator package and digital nudging on monthly recruitment rates

SWAT67 Nickil Agni, Catriona McDaid, David Torgerson, Mike Reed (2017OCT1 1443)

Evaluation of offering an incentive before or after completion of a 2-year follow-up postal questionnaire on the response rate in parents of preterm babies.

SWAT69 E Juszczak, L Linsell, J Dorling, C Rounding, O Hewer (2015 NOV 30 1631)





TitleLink (Author(s) & Date)

Multi criterion decision analysis (MCDA) to improve decision quality in an online Delphi study 

SWAT70 Amy Price, Mette Kjer Kaltoft and Jack Dowie (2018 JAN 1 1112) 

Effects of population compared to purposive sampling for consensus in an online Delphi study

SWAT71 Amy Price and Su May Liew (2018 MAR 5 1155) 

Effects of question section order on prioritization of items by stakeholder groups in an online Delphi study

SWAT72 Amy Price (2018 MAR 5 1240) 

Effects of feedback method on ranking in an online Delphi study

SWAT73 Amy Price (2018 FEB 5 1258) 

Effects of the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) on decision quality in an online Delphi (Delphi MDQ)

SWAT74 Amy Price, Mette Kjer Kaltoft, Jack Dowie, Mike Clarke 
75) Effects of different types of feedback presentation in an online Delphi study SWAT75 Amy Price and Mike Clarke (2017 JAN 1 1535) 

Sending pre-notification cards to trial participants before outcome measurement to improve retention.

SWAT76 Shaun Treweek, Annie Anderson, Stephanie Gallant (2018 MAR 7 1355) 

TYPhooN (Thank You and Pre Notification) SWAT Protocol: sending pre-notification emails to trial participants before outcome measurement

SWAT77 Susan Wagland (2018 APR 27 1258) 

Effect of birthday cards with or without nudge on retention and data completion rates in trials involving children

SWAT79 Dr Backhouse, Prof Torgerson, Dr Parker, S Cockayne (2018 AUG 1 1441) 
80) Post-it Note SWAT SWAT80 Cushla D Cooper (2018 JAN 1 1324) 

A Telephone Reminder to Enhance Adherence to Interventions in Randomised Trials

SWAT81 Abdelsalam BenSaaud, Wael Tawfick, Fionnuala Jordan (2018 MAY 1 1631) 

Sending Christmas cards to trial participants to improve retention.

SWAT82 Shaun Treweek, Katie Gillies, Karen Innes, Graeme MacLennan (2017 AUG 24) 
83) Postal vs telephone follow-up SWAT83 Mike Reed, John Randall (2018 JUN 1 1244) 
84) Same-day Consent vs Delayed Consent in a Randomised Trial SWAT84 Marah Elfghi, Fionnuala Jordan, Wael Tawfick (2018 SEP 1 1410) 
86) Advance notification of trial participants before outcome data collection to improve retention SWAT86 C Sutton, S Cotterill, D Forshaw, S Rhodes, A Hammond (2018 AUG 31 1034)
87) Do participants complete the original or the reminder postal follow up questionnaire? SWAT87 Sally Hopewell, Lucy Cureton, Gemma Greenall (2017 MAR 10 1051)
88) Telephone versus SMS reminders to participants about
attending a screening assessment for randomised trials
SWAT88 Karen Bracken (2016 JUL 22 1115)
89) Including a theoretically informed leaflet in a participant take-home pack of questionnaires to increase response rate SWAT89 K Starr, D McRae, K Gillies, C Cooper, A Wolfe (2016 JAN 31 1514)
90) Does the time at which a participant incentive is given affect the retention rate? SWAT90 Johanna Cook (2016 JUN 1 1144)
91) Using theory-based enhancements to improve engagement with trial participant newsletters SWAT91 Karen Bracken (2018 OCT 16 1203)
92) Pen incentive to enhance retention in a randomised trial SWAT92 G Tew, H Tilbrook, S Paul, L Howe, A Parker, K Bell (2019 APR 1 1705)
93) Offer of a free yoga class to participants in the control group on completion of the trial follow-up, to enhance retention and reduce contamination SWAT93 Dr Garry Tew and Helen Tilbrook (2018 APR 1 1722)
94) Incentive (financial and pen) to enhance recruitment to a
randomised trial
SWAT94 G Tew, H Tilbrook, S Paul, L Howe, A Parker, K Bell (2018 APR 1 1731)
95) Concurrent validity of the PROMIS-29 in older adults with multimorbidity SWAT95 Garry Tew, Andrew Garratt and David Torgerson (2018 APR 1 1026)
96) Unconditional or conditional incentives for initial and follow-up postal questionnaires in a clinical trial SWAT96 L Bedford B Young D Kendrick K Vedhara S Gallant et al. (2013 JUN 1 1643)
97) TRECA (TRials Engagement in Children and Adolescents) SWAT97 Peter Knapp (2015 APR 1 1045)
98) Delivering site set-up training to groups of sites versus individually SWAT98 E Mitchell, A Montgomery, R Ogollah, C Partlett et al. (2018 MAY 1 1023)
99) Impact of recruitment plan on participant recruitment. SWAT99 Lucy Marsh, Bethan Pell, Mel Davies. (2018 JUL 17 1216)
100) Patient and family co-developed participant information to improve recruitment rates, retention, and patient understanding of a randomised trial SWAT100 L O'Neill, P Knapp, S Doyle, E Guinan, J Hussey et al (2018 MAY 1 1016)
101) Design of the patient information leaflet: dOes ParTicipant InforMatIon ShEet Design affect the recruitment rate into an interventional trial (OPTIMISED)? SWAT101 Rachelle Sherman, Graham Johnson, Andrew Tabner (2018 DEC 7 1511)
102) Addition of a pictorial aid to the patient information leaflet to improve recruitment in a randomised trial. SWAT102 A Montgomery,C Brittain,S Khan,M Lewis,W Tan,A Goyal,C Upton(2019 JUL 1)
104) Various on-paper strategies to improve participation in a postal survey SWAT104 Dawid Pieper, Barbara Prediger and Nadja Könsgen (2019 JUL 1 1631)
105) Effects of a patient-designed-and-informed participant information sheet versus a standard, researcher-designed information sheet on recruitment to a randomised trial SWAT105 Sinéad Hynes, Christopher Dwyer, Robert Joyce (2019 JUL 30 1603)
106) Effects of a video clip on recruitment into a randomised trial SWAT106 R Ryan,H Mattock,C O'Farrelly,D Babalis,P Ramchandani (2016 DEC 20 1050)
107) Effects of a multi-trial programmable animation platform on the efficiency and success of pre-screening and subsequent recruitment to a randomised trial SWAT107 Dr Frances Shiely (2019 MAR 8 1053)
109) The effectiveness of a text message reminder which participants can respond to, compared with a ‘no reply’ text message on questionnaire response rates SWAT109 A Parker, S Brealey, H Sharma et al (2017 SEP 1 1216)
110) Printing the primary outcomE on Pink PapER versus standard paper to increase participant engagement to postal questionnaires (PEPPER) SWAT110 Alexander Ooms, The PEP-TALK Trial Team (2019 JUN 20 1452)
111) Staff training to improve participant recruitment into surgical randomised trials  SWAT111 Dr A Parker, Dr N Mills, Dr L Rooshenas et al (2019 JAN 01 1506) 
112) Effects on recruitment of a personalised compared with a standard study invitation letter SWAT112 Dr Joanne Woodford and Prof Louise von Essen (2018 OCT 1 1231)
115) Comparisons of invitation methods used to recruit participants to a trial of a smoking reduction intervention SWAT115 NIHR HTA monitoring panel (2017 JUL 10 2046)
116) Impact on recruitment of adding an Infographic to a Patient Information Leaflet SWAT116 J McCaffery; C Arundel; I Chetter; C Fairhurst et al. (2019 APR 22 1529) 
118) Timing of text message and email communication to improve questionnaire return rates SWAT118 Trish Hepburn, Clare Brittain, Rebecca Haydock et al (2019 SEP 09 1627)
119) Effects on retention of giving trial participants a thank you card following each study visit. SWAT119 C Arundel, I Chetter, C Fairhurst, K Joshi et al. (2019 NOV 1 1607) 
120) The impact of audio-recording study discussions on recruitment rates: the audio study SWAT120 Jane Blazeby, Chris Rogers, Russell Thirard (2017 JAN 1 1559) 
121) What are the effects on retention and follow-up of courtesy telephone calls versus postcards to trial participants following enrolment? SWAT121 Mr Gurmit Dhanjal (2019 MAR 4 1731)
122) Perspectives of elderly trial participants with hypertension on modes of delivery of individual summary reports SWAT122 Angélica Trevisan De Nardi, Daniel Umpierre (2019 JUL 16 1616)
123) Seldom heard: Listening to patients and the public during intervention development. SWAT123 Emmy Racine, Sheena McHugh, Patricia M Kearney (2018 MAR 2 1432)
124) Exploring the impact of ineligibility on individuals expressing interest in a trial aimed at improving daily functioning regarding perceptions of self, research and likelihood of future participation: A PPI-infused qualitative SWAT SWAT124 Christopher Dwyer & Sinéad Hynes (2020 JAN 16 2109)
125) Comparison of trial-collected and routinely-collected death data SWAT125 M Sydes,S Love,M Murray,S Lensen,A Macnair,J Carpenter(2020 APR 21 2258)
126) Feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of Telephone Administration of an adapted patient-reported Wound HeaLth QuestiONnaire for assessing surgical site infection following abdominal surgery in low- and middle-income countries (TALON) SWAT126 J Glasbey, A Bhangu; NIHR Global Health Research Unit (2019 OCT 1 0949)
127) Qualitative exploration of occupational therapists’ perspectives on barriers and enablers to helping conduct research SWAT127 Dr Sinéad Hynes (2019 DEC 1 1239)