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Dip-coating as a strategy to modify drug release from silicone elastomer drug delivery devices

School of Pharmacy | PHD
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Within the field of drug delivery, two types of drug delivery device are commonly considered: matrix-type devices (also known as monolithic systems) contain the drug homogeneously dispersed throughout the entire volume of the device; reservoir-type devices contain the drug within a central core which is covered by drug-free rate-controlling membrane. The kinetics of drug release are very different for these systems – matrix-type devices show steadily declining daily drug release rates, while reservoir-type devices show constant daily release rate following an initial lag or burst. Silicone elastomers are widely used in the manufacture of matrix-type and reservoir-type drug delivery devices for sustained or controlled release. Reservoir-type devices (such as Estring®, Femring®, Annovera®, Jadelle®) are usually manufactured by injection molding methods, involving fabrication of the drug-loaded cores and subsequent overmolding with a drug-free silicone elastomer membrane. However, the membrane thickness is often relatively large, due to limitations in producing thin membranes using existing injection molding strategies. If it were possible to form very thin membranes, drug release rates could be significantly enhanced. A silicone elastomer matrix-type vaginal ring releasing the antiretroviral drug dapivirine over 28 days – developed in part here at Queen's University Belfast – has recently been approved for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. As expected, the device provides steadily declining drug release with time. For release over longer durations, it may be beneficial to develop a reservoir-type controlled release device, with relatively large daily release rates (and therefore a relatively thin rate-controlling membrane).

In this project, for the first time, we will assess the potential to dip-coat silicone elastomer drug-loaded matrices (such as the matrix-type dapivirine ring) using solvent-based silicone dispersions to apply a very thin rate-controlling membrane to the device. We anticipate that the drug release rate can be easily modulated by applying membranes of different thickness or multiple layers. We will also evaluate the dip-coating strategy for application of drug-containing membranes to the devices.

The project will provide extensive training and skills development for the student in the following topics:
· drug formulation methods
· preparation and and characterisation of matrix-type and reservoir type drug delivery devices
· drug quantification using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and other analytical methods
· in vitro drug release testing
· use of thermal analysis methods
· rheological and mechanical testing methods
· planning and organising skills: designing and planning of experiments
· numeracy and statistical skills
· teamwork skills: working confidently as part of a large research team

The project is well positioned to impact next generation drug delivery devices offering controlled release of drugs over months/years. The successful applicant will have opportunities to present their research at national and international conferences. The work will be of interest to silicone elastomer supply companies and pharmaceutical companies.

Project Summary

Professor Karl Malcolm

More Information

Research Profile

Mode of Study

Full-time: 3 Years

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Pharmacy overview

The School of Pharmacy (SoP) focuses its research activities on key areas of the pharmaceutical sciences, clinical and primary care aspects of pharmacy. Our research spans a wide range of scientific and professional disciplines. Multidisciplinary sits at the core of many of our internationally-connected research programmes, ultimately delivering impactful research designed to benefit patients.

The School of Pharmacy is committed to research excellence. This is achieved through ambitious target setting, a key feature of our School Strategy, feeding into the broader University Strategy 2030. We will continually strive for research excellence, strategic recruitment and encourage/enable impactful internal and external collaborations. The SoP has as a broad portfolio of high quality research income and staff within the School publish widely in leading journals and present their work at national and international conferences.

Our research focuses on making real-world improvements for patients through our expertise in pharmaceutical science and practice. Research programmes are grouped into five key themes, which are mainly funded by UK/European Government sources, leading medical charities and importantly the pharmaceutical industry.


This area focus on the development of novel technologies and targeted therapies for advanced healthcare solutions including anticancer therapeutics, nanoparticles and nano-delivery of macromolecules; proteases in disease and natural peptides.


This activity centres on the design, development and industrial translation of novel systems for patient-focused administration of difficult-to-deliver drugs including; HIV prevention and multipurpose prevention technologies; solid dosage forms and microneedles.


The area investigates the development of materials which interface with the body, providing enhanced functionality. Applications include improved drug delivery, infection resistance or monitoring of levels of drug or host markers. The three main areas are: photoactive biomaterials, polymeric medical devices and sensor development.


This research theme consists of both basic and clinical research to improve the prevention, detection and treatment of infection, in particular for respiratory infectious diseases, antimicrobial stewardship and novel antimicrobials and anti-infective biomaterials


Reaearch within heath care delivery and medicines optimisation encompasses the development and implementation of interventions that improve the health outcomes for patients in primary and secondary care. This includes systems of healthcare delivery; quality of care in vulnerable populations and clinical paediatrics

Pharmacy Highlights
World Class Facilities
  • The Graduate School is a dedicated, University wide facility designed to connect postgraduate students from across all disciplines. It is located on the main site, within the recently renovated Lynn Library. The Graduate School provides an array of valuable training opportunities, tailor built to meet the needs of our postgraduate community. Importantly, courses are designed to provide support for core generic skills and for subject specific topics. Additionally, areas with the Graduate School can be reserved by postgraduate providing an idyllic retreat for those times which require intense focus.

    More information about the Graduate School, can be found below:
Internationally Renowned Experts
  • These unique research programmes are delivered by numerous leading international academic experts in specialist fields including drug delivery, medical devices and nanotechnology. Details of specific staff, with links to their areas of research expertise can be located below:
Student Experience
  • 89% of current PhD students with the School of Pharmacy agree that the supervisory support and feedback equips them with the knowledge and experience to complete their research degree (PRES 2021).
Key Facts

Course content

Research Information

Associated Research
School of Pharmacy works closely with both local and global pharmaceutical companies. This ensures a successful pipeline for the development of novel emerging healthcare technologies, designed specifically to deliver patient benefit.

Research Themes

Research in this theme is focused on the development of novel technologies and targeted therapies for advanced healthcare solutions. Activities are concentrated on the development of unique genetic therapies and delivery systems that can be applied for the detection and treatment of various disease condition, design and commercial translation of novel nanomedicines with a focus on cancer treatment, the detection, characterisation and inhibition of proteases implicated in chronic diseases, the isolation and characterisation of bioactive peptides for potential therapeutic use and computational biology for drug design and molecular modelling.

Research Themes

Research in this theme is focused on the design, development and industrial translation of novel systems for patient-focused administration of difficult-to-deliver drugs. Activities are concentrated on the development of formulations to address major global issues around sexual and reproductive health, use of hot melt granulation and polymer extrusion/injection moulding technologies to produce solid dosage forms, multi-layered and targeted drug delivery systems, the use microneedles for transdermal drug delivery, patient monitoring and vaccine delivery, implantable delivery systems and ocular therapeutics.

Research Themes

Research in this theme is focused on the development of materials which interface with the body and provide enhanced functionality, such as drug delivery, infection resistance or monitoring of levels of drug or host markers. Activities are concentrated on the development of new methods for fabricating materials for medical device manufacture including biomaterials with enhanced anti-infective and biocompatibility properties. Sensor research focuses on sensors immobilised in biocompatible scaffolds, blood-free diagnosis/patient monitoring using microneedles and developing point-of-care tests for microbial infection.

Research Themes

Research in this theme is focused on improved prevention, detection and treatment of infection. Activities are concentrated on preventing the development of antimicrobial resistance through improved antimicrobial stewardship, improved detection of infection using molecular and sensor based technology, prevention of infection using novel anti-infective biomaterials and enhanced infection prevention and control strategies and improved treatment of infection through discovery of novel antibiotics and antibiotic adjuvants and markers for better evidence-based decisions on antibiotic selection.

Research Themes

Research in this theme is focused on the development and implementation of interventions that improve the health outcomes of patients in primary and secondary care. Activities are concentrated on improving systems of patient care in all health care sectors with a focus on the appropriateness of prescribing in chronic disease and in care home residents with dementia, and medication adherence in children.

Research Themes
The School of Pharmacy at Queen’s is widely acknowledged as a leading centre for Pharmacy teaching and research in the UK. We are currently ranked 2nd School of Pharmacy in the UK for Pharmacy and Pharmacology Research
(The Complete University Guide 2022)

PhD opportunities are available in:
•Nanomedicine and biotherapeutics
•Pharmaceutical materials science and formulation
•Drug delivery and biomaterials
•Infection and antimicrobial resistance
•Healthcare delivery and medicines optimisation

Research Themes
Our research focuses on making real-world improvements for patients through our expertise in pharmaceutical science and practice. REF 2021 showed that 97% of the School’s submitted research fell within the highest quality 4* and 3* categories, with 43% classed as world- leading 4* research.
The School of Pharmacy has a long-standing track record in undertaking research which has had impact on healthcare and wellbeing for the population. Our work has led to the development of a local anaesthetic cream formulation, the creation of several spin-out companies (e.g. ProAxsis, pHion Therapeutics, Re-Vana Therapeutics), devices to help prevent the spread of HIV and a new type of pharmacy-led service which improves the prescribing of medication for older people. We constantly strive to do research which will positively impact society and improve the delivery of health care. One example of our high impact research includes the BREATH project led by Professor Lorraine Martin (

Research Projects
Materials & Advanced Technologies for Healthcare (MATCH) is an interdisciplinary research initiative comprising leading researchers from the Schools of Pharmacy, Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Biological Sciences, Medicine, Dentistry & Biomedical Sciences and Nursing & Midwifery.

Our research is based on one key question: “How can we use advanced technologies to significantly improve healthcare outcomes?” We connect researchers along the development pathway and follow a unique “Molecule to Patient” approach. Currently, single-stranded strategies are applied to development and use of new healthcare products. Without a holistic approach, medicines are wasted, patients suffer avoidable adverse effects, or go untreated. Greater interaction between those involved in identifying novel therapeutic targets, drug discovery, materials science, pharmaceutical formulation, manufacture, diagnosis, prescribing and medicines utilisation is a significant unmet need. If addressed, this stands to have major impact in the care of all patients, but especially the very young and old, representing the populations in which medicines may present the greatest risk, but have maximum benefit. We take an innovative dual approach, firstly by developing the underpinning technologies, secondly by exploiting the possibilities that these technologies present to maximum clinical and commercial advantage by selecting the best target areas and understanding patient factors.

Research Success
The research profile produced by the 2021 UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) showed that 97% of the research outputs with our combined Allied Health Professions, Dentistry, Nursing and Pharmacy submission fell within the highest quality 4* and 3* categories, with 51% classed as world-leading 4* research, confirming our reputation as an internationally-leading research centre. Excellence across the School of Pharmacy is evidenced by our consistent ranking as one of the top pharmacy schools within the UK. We are very proud that in 2022 our School was ranked by the QS World Rankings in the top 15% (55th) globally for Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

Career Prospects

Many of our PhD graduates have moved into academic and research roles in Higher Education while others go on to play leading roles within the pharmaceutical industry. Queen's postgraduates reap exceptional benefits from facilities within the School, but also from wider University initiatives, such as Degree Plus and Researcher Plus, both of which bolster candidate employability.

Employment after the Course
Queen’s University offer extensive career development opportunities to PhD students. Further details can be accessed via the link below.

People teaching you

Professor Brendan Gilmore
PGR Director
Applications considered throughout the year from applicants who have secured external funding or are willing to self-fund the project.

Learning Outcomes
A research degree offers students an opportunity to develop their capacity for independent research and critical thought. A PhD allows students to explore in-depth an area of interest, developing skills to solve theoretical and practical problems within the field. Undertaking a research degree will enhance a student’s written and oral communication skills, providing the essential skills required for academic and industry leadership positions.
Course structure
There is no specific course content as such. You are expected to undertake 30 days of formal training which includes demonstrator training, laboratory techniques, annual progress review preparation etc. All students are closely supported by the School and supervisors to obtain quantitative and qualitative data using a range of research methods. You will be expected to carry out your own research under the guidance of your supervisor and postdoctoral team.

Over the course of study you can attend postgraduate skills training organised by the Graduate School.

You will normally register, in the first instance, as an ‘undifferentiated PhD student’ which means that you have satisfied staff that you are capable of undertaking a research degree. The decision as to whether you should undertake an MPhil or a PhD is delayed until you have completed ‘differentiation’.

Differentiation takes place about 9-12 months after registration for full time students and about 18-30 months for part time students: You are normally asked to submit work to a panel of up two academics and this is followed up with a formal meeting with the ‘Differentiation Panel’. The Panel then make a decision regarding your progress and the viability of your research project. Annual progress reviews, with the same panel will occur both during 2nd and 3rd year.

To complete a doctoral qualification you will be required to submit a thesis and to attend a viva voce [oral examination] with an external and internal examiner to defend your research.

A PhD programme runs for 3 years full-time or 6 years part-time. Students can apply for a writing up year should it be required.

The PhD is open to both full and part time candidates and is often a useful preparation for a career within academia or industry.

Full time students are often attracted to research degree programmes because they offer an opportunity to pursue in some depth an area of academic interest.

If you meet the Entry Requirements, the next step is to check whether we can supervise research in your chosen area. We only take students to whom we can offer expert research supervision from one of our academic staff. Therefore, your research interests should align with those of our academic staff. Full details can be found via the website.

Application Process

If you identify a potential PhD supervisor, select the “Make a PhD enquiry” tab, and complete the required fields. Your potential supervisor or the admissions team will aim to respond within a working week.

Following initial discussions, and assuming you meet the eligibility criteria, potential students will need to make a formal application for PhD study via the link below. This application will require a brief outline of the proposed research project. This can be agreed with your potential supervisor during initial discussions.

If you have difficulty identifying or contacting an appropriate supervisor, please contact Dr Heather Barry ( or Adam Ringland ( who will be happy to help.

Application from full-time self-funding students will be accepted at any point throughout the academic year.

Students will be expected to present drafts of their work at regular intervals to their supervisor who will provide written and oral feedback; a formal assessment process takes place annually, termed the Annual Progress Review (APR).

APR requires students to present their work in both the written and oral format to a panel of academics from within the School. Successful completion of this process will allow students to register for the next academic year.

Students will be expected to present drafts of their work at regular intervals to their supervisor who will provide written and oral feedback; a formal assessment process takes place annually, termed the Annual Progress Review (APR).

APR requires students to present their work in both the written and oral format to a panel of academics from within the School. Successful completion of this process will allow students to register for the next academic year.

The final assessment of the doctoral degree is both written and oral. Students will submit their thesis to an internal and external examining team who will review the written thesis before inviting the student to orally defend their work at a Viva Voce.


Supervisors will offer feedback on draft work at regular intervals throughout the period of registration on the degree.


Full time PhD students will have access to a shared office space and access to a desk with personal computer and internet access.

Entrance requirements

The minimum academic requirement for admission to a research degree programme is normally an Upper Second Class Honours degree from a UK or ROI HE provider, or an equivalent qualification acceptable to the University.

International Students

For information on international qualification equivalents, please check the specific information for your country.

English Language Requirements

Evidence of an IELTS* score of 6.0, with not less than 6.0 in writing, and not less than 5.5 in listening, speaking and reading, or an equivalent qualification acceptable to the University is required. *Taken within the last 2 years.

International students wishing to apply to Queen's University Belfast (and for whom English is not their first language), must be able to demonstrate their proficiency in English in order to benefit fully from their course of study or research. Non-EEA nationals must also satisfy UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) immigration requirements for English language for visa purposes.

For more information on English Language requirements for EEA and non-EEA nationals see:

If you need to improve your English language skills before you enter this degree programme, INTO Queen's University Belfast offers a range of English language courses. These intensive and flexible courses are designed to improve your English ability for admission to this degree.

Tuition Fees

Northern Ireland (NI) 1 TBC
Republic of Ireland (ROI) 2 TBC
England, Scotland or Wales (GB) 1 TBC
EU Other 3 £25,600
International £25,600

1 EU citizens in the EU Settlement Scheme, with settled or pre-settled status, are expected to be charged the NI or GB tuition fee based on where they are ordinarily resident, however this is provisional and subject to the publication of the Northern Ireland Assembly Student Fees Regulations. Students who are ROI nationals resident in GB are expected to be charged the GB fee, however this is provisional and subject to the publication of the Northern Ireland Assembly student fees Regulations.

2 It is expected that EU students who are ROI nationals resident in ROI will be eligible for NI tuition fees. The tuition fee set out above is provisional and subject to the publication of the Northern Ireland Assembly student fees Regulations.

3 EU Other students (excludes Republic of Ireland nationals living in GB, NI or ROI) are charged tuition fees in line with international fees.

All tuition fees quoted are for the academic year 2021-22, and relate to a single year of study unless stated otherwise. Tuition fees will be subject to an annual inflationary increase, unless explicitly stated otherwise.

More information on postgraduate tuition fees.

Pharmacy costs

Additional course costs

All Students

Depending on the programme of study, there may also be other extra costs which are not covered by tuition fees, which students will need to consider when planning their studies . Students can borrow books and access online learning resources from any Queen's library. If students wish to purchase recommended texts, rather than borrow them from the University Library, prices per text can range from £30 to £100. Students should also budget between £30 to £100 per year for photocopying, memory sticks and printing charges. Students may wish to consider purchasing an electronic device; costs will vary depending on the specification of the model chosen. There are also additional charges for graduation ceremonies, and library fines. In undertaking a research project students may incur costs associated with transport and/or materials, and there will also be additional costs for printing and binding the thesis. There may also be individually tailored research project expenses and students should consult directly with the School for further information.

Bench fees

Some research programmes incur an additional annual charge on top of the tuition fees, often referred to as a bench fee. Bench fees are charged when a programme (or a specific project) incurs extra costs such as those involved with specialist laboratory or field work. If you are required to pay bench fees they will be detailed on your offer letter. If you have any questions about Bench Fees these should be raised with your School at the application stage. Please note that, if you are being funded you will need to ensure your sponsor is aware of and has agreed to fund these additional costs before accepting your place.

How do I fund my study?

1.PhD Opportunities

Find PhD opportunities and funded studentships by subject area.

2.Funded Doctoral Training Programmes

We offer numerous opportunities for funded doctoral study in a world-class research environment. Our centres and partnerships, aim to seek out and nurture outstanding postgraduate research students, and provide targeted training and skills development.

3.PhD loans

The Government offers doctoral loans of up to £26,445 for PhDs and equivalent postgraduate research programmes for English- or Welsh-resident UK and EU students.

4.International Scholarships

Information on Postgraduate Research scholarships for international students.

Funding and Scholarships

The Funding & Scholarship Finder helps prospective and current students find funding to help cover costs towards a whole range of study related expenses.

How to Apply

Apply using our online Postgraduate Applications Portal and follow the step-by-step instructions on how to apply.

Find a supervisor

If you're interested in a particular project, we suggest you contact the relevant academic before you apply, to introduce yourself and ask questions.

To find a potential supervisor aligned with your area of interest, or if you are unsure of who to contact, look through the staff profiles linked here.

You might be asked to provide a short outline of your proposal to help us identify potential supervisors.

Download Postgraduate Prospectus